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Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 16, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005247


BACKGROUND: The role and mechanism of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) salvage pathway in cancer cell proliferation is poorly understood. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), which converts nicotinamide into NAD+, is the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD+ salvage pathway. Here, we assessed the role of NAMPT in the proliferation of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and analyses of datasets from Oncomine and Gene Expression Omnibus were conducted to assess the expression of NAMPT at the mRNA and protein levels in colorectal cancer. The Kaplan Meier plotter online tool was used to evaluate the prognostic role of NAMPT. Knockdown of NAMPT was performed to assess the role of NAMPT in colorectal cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of NAMPT was used to evaluate impact of NAMPT on colorectal cancer cell proliferation in vitro. NAD+ quantitation, immunofluorescence, dual luciferase assay and western blot were used to explore the mechanism of colorectal cancer proliferation. Transwell migration and invasion assays were conducted to assess the role of NAMPT in cell migration and invasion abilities of colorectal cancer cells. RESULTS: Our study indicated that the inhibition of NAMPT decreased proliferation capacity of colorectal cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of NAMPT could promote cell proliferation in vitro. NAMPT inhibition induced ß-catenin degradation by increasing Axin expression levels; this resulted in the inhibition of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. The addition of nicotinamide mononucleotide, the enzymatic product of NAMPT, effectively reversed ß-catenin protein degradation and inhibited growth. Similarly, the knockdown of Axin also decreased the cell death induced by the inhibition of NAMPT. In addition, we showed that colorectal cancer tissues harbored significantly higher levels of NAMPT than the levels harbored by paired normal tissues, especially in colorectal cancer stages I and II. And the overexpression of NAMPT was associated with unfavorable survival results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that NAMPT plays an important role in colorectal cancer proliferation via Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, which could have vital implications for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of colorectal cancer.

J Cancer ; 10(26): 6618-6634, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777591


Introduction: Abnormal status of gene expression plays an important role in tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis of breast cancer. Mechanisms of gene silence or activation were varied. Methylation of genes may contribute to alteration of gene expression. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed hub genes which may be regulated by DNA methylation and evaluate their prognostic value in breast cancer by bioinformatic analysis. Methods: GEO2R was used to obtain expression microarray data from GSE54002, GSE65194 and methylation microarray data from GSE20713, GSE32393. Differentially expressed-aberrantly methylated genes were identified by FunRich. Biological function and pathway enrichment analysis were conducted by DAVID. PPI network was constructed by STRING and hub genes was sorted by Cytoscape. Expression and DNA methylation of hub genes was validated by UALCAN and MethHC. Clinical outcome analysis of hub genes was performed by Kaplan Meier-plotter database for breast cancer. IHC was performed to analyze protein levels of EXO1 and Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Results: 677 upregulated-hypomethylated and 361 downregulated-hypermethylated genes were obtained from GSE54002, GSE65194, GSE20713 and GSE32393 by GEO2R and FunRich. The most significant biological process, cellular component, molecular function enriched and pathway for upregulated-hypomethylated genes were viral process, cytoplasm, protein binding and cell cycle respectively. For downregulated-hypermethylated genes, the result was peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation, plasma membrane, transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity and Rap1 signaling pathway (All p< 0.05). 12 hub genes (TOP2A, MAD2L1, FEN1, EPRS, EXO1, MCM4, PTTG1, RRM2, PSMD14, CDKN3, H2AFZ, CCNE2) were sorted from 677 upregulated-hypomethylated genes. 4 hub genes (EGFR, FGF2, BCL2, PIK3R1) were sorted from 361 downregulated-hypermethylated genes. Differential expression of 16 hub genes was validated in UALCAN database (p<0.05). 7 in 12 upregulated-hypomethylated and 2 in 4 downregulated-hypermethylated hub genes were confirmed to be significantly hypomethylated or hypermethylated in breast cancer using MethHC database (p<0.05). Finally, 12 upregulated hub genes (TOP2A, MAD2L1, FEN1, EPRS, EXO1, MCM4, PTTG1, RRM2, PSMD14, CDKN3, H2AFZ, CCNE2) and 3 downregulated genes (FGF2, BCL2, PIK3R1) contributed to significant unfavorable clinical outcome in breast cancer (p<0.05). High expression level of EXO1 protein was significantly associated with poor OS in breast cancer patients (p=0.03). Conclusion: Overexpression of TOP2A, MAD2L1, FEN1, EPRS, EXO1, MCM4, PTTG1, RRM2, PSMD14, CDKN3, H2AFZ, CCNE2 and downregulation of FGF2, BCL2, PIK3R1 might serve as diagnosis and poor prognosis biomarkers in breast cancer by more research validation. EXO1 was identified as an individual unfavorable prognostic factor. Methylation might be one of the major causes leading to abnormal expression of those genes. Functional analysis and pathway enrichment analysis of those genes would provide novel ideas for breast cancer research.