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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960763

RESUMO

Gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a crucial precursor for secondary aerosol formation, particularly for new particle formation (NPF) that plays an essential role in the global number budget of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei. Due to technology challenges, global-wide and long-term measurements of gaseous H2SO4 are currently very challenging. Empirical proxies for H2SO4 have been derived mainly based on short-term intensive campaigns. In this work, we performed comprehensive measurements of H2SO4 and related parameters in the polluted Yangtze River Delta in East China during four seasons and developed a physical proxy based on the budget analysis of gaseous H2SO4. Besides the photo-oxidation of SO2, we found that primary emissions can contribute considerably, particularly at night. Dry deposition has the potential to be a non-negligible sink, in addition to condensation onto particle surfaces. Compared with the empirical proxies, the newly developed physical proxy demonstrates extraordinary stability in all the seasons and has the potential to be widely used to improve the understanding of global NPF fundamentally.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients indicated to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement may have splenectomy history due to thrombocytopenia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of prior splenectomy on TIPS procedure and post-TIPS outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis based on a cohort of 284 patients with cirrhosis submitted to TIPS. 74 patients had splenectomy history (splenectomy group) and 210 did not (non-splenectomy group). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between splenectomy and outcomes after TIPS. The primary outcome was shunt dysfunction. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, clinical recurrence of bleeding or ascites, and overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 16.2 months, the splenectomy group had significantly lower rates of postoperative shunt patency (85.5% vs 95.6% at 1 year, 75.2% vs 86.5% at 2 years; adjusted HR 2.53; 95%CI 1.21-5.12; p=0.01) and higher risk of OHE (adjusted HR 1.82; 95%CI 1.03-3.54; p=0.04). But the risk of mortality (adjusted HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.41-1.87; p=0.73) and recurrent bleeding or ascites (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.53-2.35; p=0.77) showed no statistical difference. Multivariate analysis confirmed splenectomy history and endoscopic therapy as independent predictors of shunt dysfunction. Besides, pre-TIPS splenectomy increased the difficulty of TIPS procedure by complicating portal vein puncture. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with cirrhosis submitted to TIPS, prior splenectomy complicated TIPS procedure and increased the risk of shunt dysfunction and OHE after TIPS, but was not significantly associated with the occurrence of mortality and recurrent bleeding or ascites.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6309-6319, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848132

RESUMO

Rapid dechlorination and full mineralization of para-chlorophenol (4-CP), a toxic contaminant, are unfulfilled goals in water treatment. Means to achieve both goals stem from the novel concept of coupling catalysis by palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) with biodegradation in a biofilm. Here, we demonstrate that a synergistic version of the hydrogen (H2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) enabled simultaneous removals of 4-CP and cocontaminating nitrate. In situ generation of PdNPs within the MBfR biofilm led to rapid 4-CP reductive dechlorination, with >90% selectivity to more bioavailable cyclohexanone. Then, the biofilm mineralized the cyclohexanone by utilizing it as a supplementary electron donor to accelerate nitrate reduction. Long-term operation of the Pd-MBfR enriched the microbial community in cyclohexanone degraders within Clostridium, Chryseobacterium, and Brachymonas. In addition, the PdNP played an important role in accelerating nitrite reduction; while NO3- reduction to NO2- was entirely accomplished by bacteria, NO2- reduction to N2 was catalyzed by PdNPs and bacterial reductases. This study documents a promising option for efficient and complete remediation of halogenated organics and nitrate by the combined action of PdNP and bacterial catalysis.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Catálise , Desnitrificação , Paládio
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6363-6372, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881824

RESUMO

Groundwater co-contaminated with 1,4-dioxane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and trichloroethene (TCE) is among the most urgent environmental concerns of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and industries related to chlorinated solvents. Inspired by the pressing need to remove all three contaminants at many sites, we tested a synergistic platform: catalytic reduction of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE to ethane in a H2-based membrane palladium-film reactor (H2-MPfR), followed by aerobic biodegradation of ethane and 1,4-dioxane in an O2-based membrane biofilm reactor (O2-MBfR). During 130 days of continuous operation, 1,1,1-TCA and TCE were 95-98% reductively dechlorinated to ethane in the H2-MPfR, and ethane served as the endogenous primary electron donor for promoting 98.5% aerobic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in the O2-MBfR. In addition, the small concentrations of the chlorinated intermediate from the H2-MPfR, dichloroethane (DCA) and monochloroethane (MCA), were fully biodegraded through aerobic biodegradation in the O2-MBfR. The biofilms in the O2-MBfR were enriched in phylotypes closely related to the genera Pseudonocardia known to biodegrade 1,4-dioxane.


Assuntos
Tricloroetileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dioxanos , Tricloroetanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 1561-1568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883879

RESUMO

Background: A method for the determination of selinexor by UPLC-MS/MS was established to study the effect of posaconazole on the pharmacokinetics of selinexor in rats. Methods: The experiment rats were divided into group A (0.5% CMC-Na) and group B (posaconazole, 20 mg/kg), 6 rats in each group. 30 minutes after administration of 0.5% CMC-Na or posaconazole, all the rats were given selinexor (8 mg/kg), and plasma samples were collected. The plasma samples underwent acetonitrile protein precipitation, and were separated by UPLC on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with gradient elution. Acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid were used as the mobile phases. The analyte detection was used a Xevo TQ-S triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for analyte monitoring. We use acetonitrile for protein precipitation. Results: Selinexor had good linearity (1.0-1000 ng/mL, r2 =0.996 2), and the accuracy and precision, recovery rate and matrix effects(ME) were also met the FDA approval guidelines. Compared with group A, the Cmax, AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) of selinexor in group B increased by 60.33%, 48.28% and 48.27%, and Tmax increased by 53.92%, CLz/F reduced by 32.08%. Conclusion: This bioanalysis method had been applied to the study of drug interactions in rats. It was found that posaconazole significantly increased the concentration of selinexor in rats. Therefore, when selinexor and posaconazole are combined, we should pay attention to the possible drug-drug interactions to reduce adverse reactions.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863995

RESUMO

Parvalbumin interneurons (PVIs) are affected in many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia (SCZ), however the mechanism remains unclear. FXR1, a high confident risk gene for SCZ, is indispensable but its role in the brain is largely unknown. We show that deleting FXR1 from PVIs of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) leads to reduced PVI excitability, impaired mPFC gamma oscillation, and SCZ-like behaviors. PVI-specific translational profiling reveals that FXR1 regulates the expression of Cacna1h/Cav3.2 a T-type calcium channel implicated in autism and epilepsy. Inhibition of Cav3.2 in PVIs of mPFC phenocopies whereas elevation of Cav3.2 in PVIs of mPFC rescues behavioral deficits resulted from FXR1 deficiency. Stimulation of PVIs using a gamma oscillation-enhancing light flicker rescues behavioral abnormalities caused by FXR1 deficiency in PVIs. This work unveils the function of a newly identified SCZ risk gene in SCZ-relevant neurons and identifies a therapeutic target and a potential noninvasive treatment for psychiatric disorders.

7.
Chin J Dent Res ; 24(1): 33-39, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the crosstalk of osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis of alveolar bone in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis in mice. METHODS: A representative periodontitis model was established by treating mice with LPS, and osteoblasts and osteoclasts were cultured. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were cocultured to determine the effects of LPS on the crosstalk of osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to determine the expression of osteoclastogenesis makers underlying the potential mechanisms. RESULTS: The morphological and pathological changes in alveolar bone were observed in LPSinduced mice and LPS dose-dependently suppressed osteogenesis. The mRNA expression of cathepsin K, as a marker of osteoclasts, was accordingly downregulated in the coculture. The mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin was increased, while that of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) was decreased with an increased concentration of LPS. Moreover, the mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was upregulated by LPS, whereas TLR4 knockout partially recovered osteoclast differentiation in the upper layer of the coculture. CONCLUSION: LPS dose-dependently suppressed osteogenesis but had a bidirectional effect on osteoclastogenesis. The combined effects of LPS on osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and their crosstalk via TLR4 account for alveolar bone loss in periodontitis.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Periodontite , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos , Osteoclastos , Osteogênese/genética , Periodontite/induzido quimicamente , Periodontite/genética
8.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808352

RESUMO

Aha1 is the only co-chaperone known to strongly stimulate the ATPase activity of Hsp90. Meanwhile, besides the well-studied co-chaperone function, human Aha1 has also been demonstrated to exhibit chaperoning activity against stress-denatured proteins. To provide structural insights for a better understanding of Aha1's co-chaperone and chaperone-like activities, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to reveal the unique structure and internal dynamics features of full-length human Aha1. We then found that, in solution, both the two domains of Aha1 presented distinctive thermal stabilities and dynamics behaviors defined by their primary sequences and three-dimensional structures. The low thermal stability (melting temperature of Aha128-162: 54.45 °C) and the internal dynamics featured with slow motions on the µs-ms time scale were detected for Aha1's N-terminal domain (Aha1N). The aforementioned experimental results suggest that Aha1N is in an energy-unfavorable state, which would therefore thermostatically favor the interaction of Aha1N with its partner proteins such as Hsp90's middle domain. Differently from Aha1N, Aha1C (Aha1's C-terminal domain) exhibited enhanced thermal stability (melting temperature of Aha1204-335: 72.41 °C) and the internal dynamics featured with intermediate motions on the ps-ns time scale. Aha1C's thermal and structural stabilities make it competent for the stabilization of the exposed hydrophobic groove of dimerized Hsp90's N-terminal domain. Of note, according to the NMR data and the thermal shift results, although the very N-terminal region (M1-W27) and the C-terminal relaxin-like factor (RLF) motif showed no tight contacts with the remaining parts of human Aha1, they were identified to play important roles in the recognition of intrinsically disordered pathological α-synuclein.

9.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810054

RESUMO

Endometrial receptivity represents one of the leading factors affecting the successful implantation of embryos during early pregnancy. However, the mechanism of microRNAs (miRNAs) to establish goat endometrial receptivity remains unclear. This study was intended to identify potential miRNAs and regulatory mechanisms associated with establishing endometrial receptivity through integrating bioinformatics analysis and experimental verification. MiRNA expression profiles were obtained by high-throughput sequencing, resulting in the detection of 33 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs), followed by their validation through quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, 10 potential transcription factors (TFs) and 1316 target genes of these DEMs were obtained, and the TF-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA interaction networks were constructed. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses indicated that these miRNAs were significantly linked to establishing endometrial receptivity. Moreover, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, dual-luciferase report assay, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis corroborated that chi-miR-483 could directly bind to deltex E3 ubiquitin ligase 3L (DTX3L) to reduce its expression level. In conclusion, our findings contribute to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating the endometrial receptivity of goats, and they provide a reference for improving embryo implantation efficiency.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900089

RESUMO

Scalable applications of precious-metal catalysts for water treatment face obstacles in H2-transfer efficiency and catalyst stability during continuous operation. Here, we introduce a H2-based membrane catalyst-film reactor (H2-MCfR), which enables in situ reduction and immobilization of a film of heterogeneous Pd0 catalysts that are stably anchored on the exterior of a nonporous H2-transfer membrane under ambient conditions. In situ immobilization had >95% yield of Pd0 in controllable forms, from isolated single atoms to moderately agglomerated nanoparticles (averaging 3-4 nm). A series of batch tests documented rapid Pd-catalyzed reduction of a wide spectrum of oxyanions (nonmetal and metal) and organics (e.g., industrial raw materials, solvents, refrigerants, and explosives) at room temperature, owing to accurately controlled H2 supply on demand. Reduction kinetics and selectivity were readily controlled through the Pd0 loading on the membranes, H2 pressure, and pH. A 45-day continuous treatment of trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated water documented removal fluxes up to 120 mg-TCE/m2/d with over 90% selectivity to ethane and minimal (<1.5%) catalyst leaching or deactivation. The results support that the H2-MCfR is a potentially sustainable and reliable catalytic platform for reducing oxidized water contaminants: simple synthesis of an active and versatile catalyst that has long-term stability during continuous operation.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919830

RESUMO

Infantile anaemia has been a severe public health problem in China for decades. However, it is unclear whether there are regional differences in the prevalence of anaemia. In this study, we used data from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNHS) to assess the prevalence of anaemia and the risk factors associated with its prevalence in different regions. We included 9596 infants aged 0-23 months from the CNHS 2013 database. An infant was diagnosed with anaemia if he/she had a haemoglobin concentration of <110 g/L. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the potential risk factors associated with the development of anaemia. We found that anaemia was present in 2126 (22.15%) of the infants assessed. Approximately 95% of these cases were classified as mild anaemia. Based on the guidelines laid out by the World Health Organization, 5.5% and 43.6% of the surveillance sites were categorized as having severe and moderate epidemic levels of anaemia, respectively. The prevalence of infantile anaemia in Eastern, Central and Western China was 16.67%, 22.25% and 27.44%, respectively. Premature birth, low birth weight, breastfeeding and residence in Western China were significantly associated with higher odds of developing anaemia. Female sex and having mothers with high levels of education and maternal birth age >25 years were associated with lower odds of developing anaemia. In conclusion, we observed significant regional disparities in the prevalence of infantile anaemia in China. Western China had the highest prevalence of infantile anaemia, and rural regions showed a higher prevalence of anaemia than urban regions.

12.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 5535890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927789

RESUMO

Background: Mechanical ventilation could lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but its underlying pathogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the genes which were highly correlated with VILI as well as their expressions and interactions by analyzing the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the VILI samples and controls. Methods: GSE11434 was downloaded from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, and DEGs were identified with GEO2R. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were conducted using DAVID. Next, we used the STRING tool to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs. Then, the hub genes and related modules were identified with the Cytoscape plugins: cytoHubba and MCODE. qRT-PCR was further used to validate the results in the GSE11434 dataset. We also applied gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to discern the gene sets that had a significant difference between the VILI group and the control. Hub genes were also subjected to analyses by CyTargetLinker and NetworkAnalyst to predict associated miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs). Besides, we used CIBERSORT to detect the contributions of different types of immune cells in lung tissues of mice in the VILI group. By using DrugBank, small molecular compounds that could potentially interact with hub genes were identified. Results: A total of 141 DEGs between the VILI group and the control were identified in GSE11434. Then, seven hub genes were identified and were validated by using qRT-PCR. Those seven hub genes were largely enriched in TLR and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. GSEA showed that VILI-associated genes were also enriched in NOD, antigen presentation, and chemokine pathways. We predicted the miRNAs and TFs associated with hub genes and constructed miRNA-TF-gene regulatory network. An analysis with CIBERSORT showed that the proportion of M0 macrophages and activated mast cells was higher in the VILI group than in the control. Small molecules, like nadroparin and siltuximab, could act as potential drugs for VILI. Conclusion: In sum, a number of hub genes associated with VILI were identified and could provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of VILI and potential targets for its treatment.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672288

RESUMO

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) can provide dual-frequency observation data, which can be used to effectively calculate total electron content (TEC). Numerical studies have utilized GNSS-derived TEC to evaluate the accuracy of ionospheric empirical models, such as the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI) and the NeQuick model. However, most studies have evaluated vertical TEC rather than slant TEC (STEC), which resulted in the introduction of projection error. Furthermore, since there are few GNSS observation stations available in the Antarctic region and most are concentrated in the Antarctic continent edge, it is difficult to evaluate modeling accuracy within the entire Antarctic range. Considering these problems, in this study, GNSS STEC was calculated using dual-frequency observation data from stations that almost covered the Antarctic continent. By comparison with GNSS STEC, the accuracy of IRI-2016 and NeQuick2 at different latitudes and different solar radiation was evaluated during 2016-2017. The numerical results showed the following. (1) Both IRI-2016 and NeQuick2 underestimated the STEC. Since IRI-2016 utilizes new models to represent the F2-peak height (hmF2) directly, the IRI-2016 STEC is closer to GNSS STEC than NeQuick2. This conclusion was also confirmed by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) occultation data. (2) The differences in STEC of the two models are both normally distributed, and the NeQuick2 STEC is systematically biased as solar radiation increases. (3) The root mean square error (RMSE) of the IRI-2016 STEC is smaller than that of the NeQuick2 model, and the RMSE of the two modeling STEC increases with solar radiation intensity. Since IRI-2016 relies on new hmF2 models, it is more stable than NeQuick2.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144993, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736320

RESUMO

The recently discovered complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox), which are ubiquitous in various natural and artificial ecosystems, have led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of aerobic nitrification. The coastal salt marsh covered by various plant species is an important ecosystem to link nitrogen cycles of terrestrial and marine environments; however, the distribution and structure of comammox in such ecosystems have not been clearly investigated. Here, we applied quantitative PCR and partial nested-PCR to investigate the abundance and community composition of comammox in salt marsh sediment samples covered by three plant types along the southern coastline of China. Our results showed a predominance of comammox clade A in majority of the samples, suggesting their ubiquity and the important role they play in nitrification in salt marsh ecosystems. However, variations by the sites were found when comparing the abundance of subclades of comammox clade A. Redundancy analysis demonstrated a coexistence pattern by comammox clade A.1 with ammonia-oxidizing archaea and comammox clade A.2 with canonical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, indicating their differences in potential niche preference. However, the abundance of comammox clade B was lower than that of comammox clade A and other ammonia oxidizers in most samples. Moreover, pH and salinity were found to be the most significant factors affecting comammox community structures, suggesting their roles in driving niche partitioning of comammox, whereas plant types did not show a significant effect on the comammox community structure. Our study provided insights into the abundance, community diversity, and niche partitions of comammox, broadening the current understanding of the relationship of comammox with other ammonia oxidizers in salt marsh ecosystems.


Assuntos
Amônia , Ecossistema , Archaea , Bactérias/genética , China , Nitrificação , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929111, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of oxycodone during endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for esophageal varices with painless sclerosing agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 119 patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group A, midazolam and 0.075 mg/kg oxycodone (n=40); Group B, midazolam and 0.1 mg/kg oxycodone (n=40); and Group C, midazolam and 0.125 mg/kg oxycodone (n=39). The main observation index was the incidence of body movement during the perioperative period. The secondary indices were additional propofol usage; postoperative analgesic usage; other adverse effects, such as hypoxia, myoclonus, and cough; and satisfaction scores for surgeons and patients. RESULTS The incidence rates for body movement during the perioperative period in groups A, B, and C were 33%, 13%, and 0, respectively (P<0.001). The satisfaction scores for surgeons and patients were highest in Group C (0.125 mg/kg oxycodone). The incidence rates for hypoxia before EIS were 15%, 8%, and 33% (P=0.026) and during EIS were 23%, 3%, and 0% (P<0.001), respectively. There were no significant between-group differences with respect to other adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS The ideal dose of oxycodone for perioperative analgesia during EIS for esophageal varices is 0.125 mg/kg.

16.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(2): 136-44, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of acupuncture in different tissue structures on deqi and the electromyography of acupoint area. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects, respectively accepted 4 kinds of needling stimulation, i.e. stimulating skin at Zusanli (ST36), stimulating ST36 with and without skin anesthesia using compound lidocaine cream, and stimulating at Dubi (ST35) without skin anesthesia. Deqi sensation of the acupuncturist and subjects were measured according to MGH Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) during needling, and the myoelectricity around the acupoints was recorded simultaneously. The occurrence rate and intensity of the different deqi sensations, the relationship between the acupuncturist's and subjects' deqi sensations, and the integrated electromyogram (iEMG) were analyzed. RESULTS: Sharp pain and tingling were the main sensations during skin needling at ST36. Fullness, dull pain, soreness and acupuncturist's tightness were the main sensations during needling with or without skin anesthesia at ST36. Fullness was the main sensation during needling at ST35, while the intensity was lower than that during needling at ST36. A positive correlation in the intensity was found between subjects' fullness and acupuncturist's tightness during needling with or without skin anesthesia at ST36. The subjects' fullness appeared earlier about 5 seconds than acupuncturist's tightness. The iEMGs during subjects' fullness and acupuncturist's tightness were 2-3 times of that before needling. CONCLUSION: Deqi sensations such as subjects' fullness, dull pain, soreness and acupuncturist's tightness are mainly related to the activity of the muscles under the acupoints. Subjects' fullness and acupuncturist's tightness always appear together. Acupuncturist's tightness may be mediated by the muscle stretch reflex induced by needling stimulation.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Dor , Sensação
17.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic factors and make risk stratification of post-TIPS HE. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study consisting of cirrhotic patients who had undergone TIPS creation at our center from November 2015 to August 2020. The baseline characteristics including spleen volume (SVol) and other markers were collected. The univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of post-TIPS overt HE (OHE). RESULTS: Higher Child-Pugh (CP) score (HR 1.334, 95% CI 1.090-1.632, P = 0.005) and smaller SVol (HR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997-1.000, P = 0.004) were identified as the independent risk factors for post-TIPS OHE. And a time-dependent ROC analysis was used to determine the cutoff values of CP score and SVol, which were respectively 6.5 and 773 cm3. Subsequently, the CP-SVol grading system was developed to divide patients into three risk grades according to the above two cutoff values. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative rates of patients free of OHE in Grade 1, 2 and 3 were respectively 96.4% ± 3.5%, 82.1 ± 4.7%, and 59.3% ± 6.4%, which were in descending order (Log rank P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: SVol might be a novel marker to predict the prognosis of post-TIPS OHE, and the proposed CP-SVol grading system composed of CP score and SVol achieved a superior predictive performance.

18.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638282

RESUMO

Cellulose is one of the most abundant organic polymers in nature. It contains multiple ß-1,4-glucan chains synthesized by cellulose synthases (CesAs) on the plasma membrane of higher plants. CesA subunits assemble into a pseudo-sixfold symmetric cellulose synthase complex (CSC), known as a 'rosette complex'. The structure of CesA remains enigmatic. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of the homotrimeric CesA7 from Gossypium hirsutum at 3.5-angstrom resolution. The GhCesA7 homotrimer shows a C3 symmetrical assembly. Each protomer contains seven transmembrane helices (TMs) which form a channel potentially facilitating the release of newly synthesized glucans. The cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase domain (GT domain) of GhCesA7 protrudes from the membrane, and its catalytic pocket is directed towards the TM pore. The homotrimer GhCesA7 is stabilized by the transmembrane helix 7 (TM7) and the plant-conserved region (PCR) domains. It represents the building block of CSCs and facilitates microfibril formation. This structure provides insight into how eukaryotic cellulose synthase assembles and provides a mechanistic basis for the improvement of cotton fibre quality in the future.

19.
Phytomedicine ; 83: 153469, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a multifactorial disease contributing to mortality and neurological dysfunction. Isoliquiritin (ISL) has been reported to possess a series of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-depression, anti-neurotoxicity and pro-angiogenesis activities but whether it can be used for ischemic stroke treatment remains unknown. PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to explore its therapeutic effect on ischemic stroke and demonstrated the potential mechanism of ISL in zebrafish model. METHODS: Using the photothrombotic-induced adult zebrafish model of ischemic stroke, we visualized the telencephalon (Tel) and optic tectum (OT) infarction injury at 24 h post-light exposure for 30 min by TTC and H&E staining. The effect of ISL on neurological deficits was analyzed during open tank swimming by video tracking. The antioxidant activity against ischemia injury was quantified by SOD, GSH-Px and MDA assay. Transcriptome analysis of zebrafish Tel revealed how ISL regulating gene expression to exert protective effect, which were also been validated by real-time quantitative PCR assays. RESULTS: We found for the first time that the Tel tissue was the first damaged site of the whole brain and it showed more sensitivity to the brain ischemic damage compared to the OT. ISL reduced the rate of Tel injury, ameliorated neurological deficits as well as counteracted oxidative damages by increasing SOD, GSH-Px and decreasing MDA activity. GO enrichment demonstrated that ISL protected membrane and membrane function as well as initiate immune regulation in the stress response after ischemia. KEGG pathway analysis pointed out that immune-related pathways, apoptosis as well as necroptosis pathways were more involved in the protective mechanism of ISL. Furthermore, the log2 fold change in expression pattern of 25 genes detected by qRT-PCR was consistent with that by RNA-seq. CONCLUSIONS: Tel was highly sensitive to the brain ischemia injury in zebrafish model of ischemic stroke. ISL significantly exerted protective effect on Tel injury, neurological deficits and oxidative damages. ISL could regulate a variety of genes related to immune, apoptosis and necrosis pathways against complex cascade reaction after ischemia. These findings enriched the study of ISL, making it a novel multi-target agent for ischemic stroke treatment.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Telencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Chalcona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enzimas/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Telencéfalo/metabolismo , Telencéfalo/patologia , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(6): 8720-8736, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619236

RESUMO

Postintensive care syndrome (PICS) is defined as a new or worsening impairment in cognition, mental health, and physical function after critical illness and persisting beyond hospitalization, which is associated with reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Recently, we have developed a clinically relevant animal model of PICS based on two-hit hypothesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that hippocampal GABAergic interneuron dysfunction is implicated in various mood disorders induced by stress. Thus, this study investigated the role of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons and relevant neural activities in an animal model of PICS. In addition, we tested whether fluoxetine treatment early following combined stress can prevent these anatomical and behavioral pathologies. In the present study, we confirmed our previous study that this PICS model displayed reproducible anxiety- and depression like behavior and cognitive impairments, which resembles clinical features of human PICS. This behavioral state is accompanied by hippocampal neuroinflammation, reduced parvalbumin (PV) expression, and decreased theta and gamma power. Importantly, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed most of these abnormities. In summary, our study provides additional evidence that PV interneuron-mediated hippocampal network activity disruption might play a key role in the pathology of PICS, while fluoxetine offers protection via modulation of the hippocampal PV interneuron and relevant network activities.

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