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1.
Cartilage ; : 19476035211049559, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the response of migrating chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) that arose from the surface of mechanically injured articular cartilage to proinflammatory damage-associated-molecular-patterns (DAMPs). DESIGN: Bovine CPCs and non-CPC chondrocytes isolated from either impacted or scratched articular cartilage were studied. Those 2 types of cells were treated with mitochondrial DAMPs (MTDs; 10 nM fMLF and 10 µg/mL CpG DNA), or 10 nM HMGB1, or 10 ng/mL IL-1b for 24 hours. At the end of experiments, conditioned media and cell lysates were collected for analysis of expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), chemokines, and cytokines that are associated with cartilage degeneration with Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The difference of expression levels was compared by Welch's t-test. RESULTS: Our data indicated that HMGB1 and MTDs remarkably upregulated pro-MMP-13 expression in CPCs. Compared with non-CPCs, CPCs expressed significantly more baseline mRNAs of MMP-13, CXCL12, and IL-6. MTDs greatly increased the expression of MMP-13 and IL-6 in CPCs by over 100-fold (P < 0.001). MTDs also significantly increased IL-8 expression in CPCs to a similar extent (P < 0.001). However, when IL-1b was present, CPCs expressed less MMP-3 and active MMP-13 proteins as well as less CCL2 and IL-6 than did non-CPCs. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that CPCs were more sensitive than non-CPCs in response to DAMPs, especially MTDs. The proinflammatory nature of CPCs implied their critical role in the early phase of posttraumatic osteoarthritis development.

2.
Reproduction ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605773

RESUMO

The number of children born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are accumulating rapidly and the healthy problems of the children are extensively concerned. This study aims to evaluate whether the ART procedures alter behaviours in male offspring. Mouse models were utilized to establish three groups of offspring conceived by natural conception (NC), in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (IVF-FET), respectively. A battery of behaviour experiments for evaluating anxiety and depression levels, including the open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM) test, light/dark transition test (L/DTT), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT). Aged (18 months old), but not young (3 months old) male offspring, in the IVF-ET and IVF-FET groups, compared with these in the NC group, exhibited increased anxiety and depression-like behaviours. The protein expression levels of three neurotrophins in PFC or hippocampus in aged male offspring from the IVF-ET and IVF-FET groups reduced at different extent, in comparison to NC group. RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed in the hippocampus of 18 months old offspring to further explore the gene expression profile changes in the three groups. KEGG analyses revealed the coexisted pathways, such as PI3K-Akt signalling pathway, which potentially reflected the similarity and divergence in anxiety and depression between the offspring conceived by IVF-ET and IVF-FET. Our research suggested the adverse effects of advanced age on the psychological health of children born after ART should be highlighted in future.

3.
Brain Struct Funct ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626230

RESUMO

To date, ischemia-induced damage to dendritic spines has attracted considerable attention, while the possible effects of ischemia on presynaptic components has received relatively less attention. To further examine ischemia-induced changes in pre- and postsynaptic specializations in the hippocampal CA1 subfield, we modeled global cerebral ischemia with two-stage 4-vessel-occlusion in rats, and found that three postsynaptic markers, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), and filamentous F-actin (F-actin), were all substantially decreased in the CA1 subfield after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although no significant change was detected in synapsin I, a presynaptic marker, in the CA1 subfield at the protein level, confocal microscopy revealed that the number and size of synapsin I puncta were significantly changed in the CA1 stratum radiatum after I/R. The size of synapsin I puncta became slightly, but significantly reduced on Day 1.5 after I/R. From Days 2 to 7 after I/R, the number of synapsin I puncta became moderately decreased, while the size of synapsin I puncta was significantly increased. Interestingly, some enlarged puncta of synapsin I were observed in close proximity to the dendritic shafts of CA1 pyramidal cells. Due to the more substantial decrease in the number of F-actin puncta, the ratio of synapsin I/F-actin puncta was significantly increased after I/R. The decrease in synapsin I puncta size in the early stage of I/R may be the result of excessive neurotransmitter release due to I/R-induced hyperexcitability in CA3 pyramidal cells, while the increase in synapsin I puncta in the later stage of I/R may reflect a disability of synaptic vesicle release due to the loss of postsynaptic contacts.

4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 238, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although general anesthetics depress spontaneous respiration, the comprehensive effect of general anesthetics on respiratory function remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of general anesthetics on spontaneous respiration in non-intubated mice with different types and doses of general anesthetic. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 J mice were administered intravenous anesthetics, including propofol and etomidate, and inhalational anesthetics, including sevoflurane and isoflurane in vivo at doses of 0.5-, 1.0-, and 2.0-times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)/median effective dose (ED50) to induce loss of the righting reflex (LORR). Whole-body plethysmography (WBP) was applied to measure parameters of respiration under unrestricted conditions without endotracheal intubation. The alteration in respiratory sensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2) under general anesthesia was also determined. The following respiratory parameters were continuously recorded during anesthesia or CO2 exposure: respiratory frequency (FR), tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (MV), expiratory time (TE), inspiratory time (TI), and inspiratory-expiratory time ratio (I/E), and peak inspiratory flow. RESULTS: Sub-anesthetic concentrations (0.5 MAC) of sevoflurane or isoflurane increased FR, TV, and MV. With isoflurane and sevoflurane exposure, the CO2-evoked increases in FR, TV, and MV were decreased. Compared with inhalational anesthetics, propofol and etomidate induced respiratory suppression, affecting FR, TV, and MV. In 100% oxygen (O2), FR in the group that received propofol 1.0-times the ED50 was 69.63 ± 33.44 breaths/min compared with 155.68 ± 64.42 breaths/min in the etomidate-treated group. In the same groups, FR was 88.72 ± 34.51 breaths/min and 225.10 ± 59.82 breaths/min, respectively, in 3% CO2 and 144.17 ± 63.25 breaths/min and 197.70 ± 41.93 breaths/min, respectively, in 5% CO2. A higher CO2 sensitivity was found in etomidate-treated mice compared with propofol-treated mice. In addition, propofol induced a greater decrease in FR, MV, and I/E ratio compared with etomidate, sevoflurane, and isoflurane at equivalent doses (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: General anesthetics differentially modulate spontaneous breathing in vivo. Volatile anesthetics increase FR, TV, and MV at sub-anesthetic concentrations, while they decrease FR at higher concentrations. Propofol consistently depressed respiratory parameters to a greater degree than etomidate.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20706, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667219

RESUMO

Higher magnetic fields are always favoured in the magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT) due to its superior control of the plasma profile and acceleration process. This paper introduces the world's first integrated study on the 150 kW level AF-MPDT equipped with a superconductive coil. A completely new way of using superconducting magnet technology to confine plasma with high energy and extremely high temperatures is proposed. Using the PIC method of microscopic particle simulation, the plasma magnetic nozzle effect and performance of the MPDT under different magnetic-field conditions were studied. The integrated experiment used demonstrated that, in conjunction with the superconducting coil, greater homogeneity and a stronger magnetic field not only caused more even cathode ablation and improved its lifespan but also improved the performance of the MPDT (maximum thrust was 4 N at 150 kW, 0.56 T). Maximum thrust efficiency reached 76.6% and the specific impulse reached 5714 s.

6.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1562, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging studies reveals that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (HMGCS1) plays vital oncogenic roles in a broad spectrum of human cancers, but there is no pan-cancer evidence on the relationship between HMGCS1 and various tumor types. AIM: To explore the potential role of HMGCS1 across various tumor types based on big clinical data. METHODS: We conducted a pan-cancer analysis across more than 30 tumor types, based on the most comprehensive database available, including TCGA, GSCA, clinical proteomic tumor analysis consortium, Kaplan-Meier Plotter dataset, GEPIA2, TIMER2, STRING, and GDSC dataset. RESULTS: HMGCS1 was highly expressed and negatively correlated with the prognosis in most cancer types. The infiltration levels of cancer associated fibroblast and CD8+ T-cell were closely associated with HMGCS1 expression. Amplification was the most common genetic alteration of HMGCS1 in different cancers, while the frequency of mutation was low. Besides, ACAT2 and MVD were closely correlated and bind to HMGCS1. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that HMGCS1 was actively involved in steroid biosynthesis. Moreover, high HMGCS1 expression could reduce the sensitivity to most drugs in the GDSC dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the potential oncogenic role of HMGCS1 in cancers.

7.
Langmuir ; 37(37): 10987-10993, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478309

RESUMO

High-performance, nonprecious metal catalysts with special morphologies and easy-to-recycle properties are essential for the treatment of environmental pollutants. Herein, CoFe nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) catalysts were designed and successfully fabricated, and the catalyst was then used to reduce 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol. Outstanding catalytic properties with a reduction rate constant of 4.613 min-1 were achieved due to the synergistic properties of the CoFe metal alloy and the high-conductivity RGO components in the catalysts. In addition, the catalyst was conveniently recovered via magnets due to its inherent magnetic properties. The facile preparation, outstanding catalytic performance, structural stability, and low material costs make the CoFe/RGO nanocatalyst a promising candidate for potential applications in catalysis.

8.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and the prognosis of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is debated. Hypokalemia is highly prevalent in patients with AF. We aimed to investigate the effect of hypokalemia and AF on the prognosis of AIS patients following IVT. METHOD: AIS patients undergoing IVT were enrolled and divided into four groups: normokalemia and non-AF, normokalemia and AF, hypokalemia and non-AF, hypokalemia and AF. Logistic regression was applied to analyze the impact of hypokalemia, AF, and their combination on the prognosis of patients. RESULTS: The analysis included 567 patients, 184 with 3-month poor prognosis (modified Rankin Scale score of 3-6). Following adjustment of risk factors, hypokalemia and AF increased the risks for 3-month poor prognosis (adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) = 4.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-12.44, P =.001), early neurological deterioration (END) (aOR=7.98; 95% CI, 3.55-17.95, P <.001), 1-year poor prognosis (aOR=5.05; 95% CI, 1.99-12.81, P =.001), 1-year all-cause death (aOR =6.95; 95% CI, 2.35-20.56, P <.001). Patients with normokalemia and AF merely increased the risk of 1-year all-cause death (aOR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.10-6.61, P=.013). Patients with hypokalemia and non-AF were not associated with any poor prognosis. There were combined and interactive effects of hypokalemia with AF on the 3-month poor prognosis (P for interaction =.039) and END (P for interaction=.005). CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia and AF synergistically increased the risk of near-term poor prognosis, END, long-term poor prognosis, and all-cause death of AIS patients following IVT.

9.
Front Neurol ; 12: 691357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497575

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Antiplatelet therapy (APT) is widely used and believed to be associated with increased poor prognosis by promoting bleeding in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether prior APT is associated with mortality, functional outcome, and hematoma expansion in ICH patients. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant published studies up to December 11, 2020. Univariate and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random effects model. Cochran's chi-squared test (Cochran's Q), the I 2 statistic, and meta-regression analysis were used to evaluate the heterogeneity. Meta-regression models were developed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to detect publication bias. A trim-and-fill method was performed to identify possible asymmetry and assess the robustness of the conclusions. Results: Thirty-one studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and exhibited a moderate risk of bias. Prior APT users with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) had a slightly increased mortality in both univariate analyses [odds ratio (OR) 1.39, 95% CI 1.24-1.56] and multivariable adjusted analyses (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.21-1.64). The meta-regression indicated that for each additional day of assessment time, the adjusted OR for the mortality of APT patients decreased by 0.0089 (95% CI: -0.0164 to -0.0015; P = 0.0192) compared to that of non-APT patients. However, prior APT had no effects on poor function outcome (pooled univariate OR: 0.99, 95% CI 0.59-1.66; pooled multivariable adjusted OR: 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-1.07) or hematoma growth (pooled univariate OR: 1.23, 95% CI 0.40-3.74, pooled multivariable adjusted OR: 0.94, 95% CI 0.24-3.60). Conclusions: Prior APT was not associated with hematoma expansion or functional outcomes, but there was modestly increased mortality in prior APT patients. Higher mortality of prior APT patients was related to the strong influence of prior APT use on early mortality. Systematic Review Registration:PROSPERO Identifier [CRD42020215243].

10.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503426

RESUMO

Although general anesthetics have been used in the clinic for more than 170 years, the ways in which they induce amnesia, unconsciousness, analgesia, and immobility remain elusive. Modulations of various neural nuclei and circuits are involved in the actions of general anesthetics. The expression of the immediate early gene c-fos and its nuclear product, c-fos protein can be induced by neuronal depolarization; therefore, c-fos staining is commonly used to identify the activated neurons during sleep and/or wakefulness, as well as in various physiological conditions in the central nervous system. Identifying c-fos expression is also a direct and convenient method to explore the effects of general anesthetics on the activity of neural nuclei and circuits. Using c-fos staining, general anesthetics have been found to interact with sleep- and wakefulness-promoting systems throughout the brain, which may explain their ability to induce unconsciousness and emergence from general anesthesia. This review summarizes the actions of general anesthetics on neural nuclei and circuits based on c-fos expression.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 711998, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566917

RESUMO

Phycospheric bacteria may be the key biological factors affecting the growth of algae. However, the studies about interaction between Isochrysis galbana and its phycospheric bacteria are limited. Here, we show that a marine heterotrophic bacterium, Alteromonas macleodii, enhanced the growth of I. galbana, and inhibited non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of this microalgae. Further, we explored this phenomenon via examining how the entire transcriptomes of I. galbana changed when it was co-cultured with A. macleodii. Notable increase was observed in transcripts related to photosynthesis, carbon fixation, oxidative phosphorylation, ribosomal proteins, biosynthetic enzymes, and transport processes of I. galbana in the presence of A. macleodii, suggesting the introduction of the bacterium might have introduced increased production and transport of carbon compounds and other types of biomolecules. Besides, the transcriptome changed largely corresponded to reduced stress conditions for I. galbana, as inferred from the depletion of transcripts encoding DNA repair enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and other stress-response proteins. Taken together, the presence of A. macleodii mainly enhanced photosynthesis and biosynthesis of I. galbana and protected it from stress, especially oxidative stress. Transfer of fixed organic carbon, but perhaps other types of biomolecules, between the autotroph and the heterotroph might happen in I. galbana-A. macleodii co-culture. The present work provides novel insights into the transcriptional consequences of I. galbana of mutualism with its heterotrophic bacterial partner, and mutually beneficial associations existing in I. galbana-A. macleodii might be explored to improve productivity and sustainability of aquaculture algal rearing systems.

12.
Cancer Cell ; 39(10): 1388-1403.e10, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506739

RESUMO

Localized radiotherapy (RT) induces an immunogenic antitumor response that is in part counterbalanced by activation of immune evasive and tissue remodeling processes, e.g., via upregulation of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß). We report that a bifunctional fusion protein that simultaneously inhibits TGF-ß and PD-L1, bintrafusp alfa (BA), effectively synergizes with radiotherapy, leading to superior survival in multiple therapy-resistant murine tumor models with poor immune infiltration. The BA + RT (BART) combination increases tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, reprograms the tumor microenvironment, and attenuates RT-induced fibrosis, leading to reconstitution of tumor immunity and regression of spontaneous lung metastases. Consistently, the beneficial effects of BART are in part reversed by depletion of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Intriguingly, targeting of the TGF-ß trap to PD-L1+ endothelium and the M2/lipofibroblast-like cell compartment by BA attenuated late-stage RT-induced lung fibrosis. Together, the results suggest that the BART combination has the potential to eradicate therapy-resistant tumors while sparing normal tissue, further supporting its clinical translation.

14.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 14: 723395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512260

RESUMO

Inflammatory pain encompasses many clinical symptoms, and there is no satisfactory therapeutic target. Neuronal hyperexcitability and/or sensitization of the primary nociceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn are critical to the development and maintenance of inflammatory pain. The sodium leak channel (NALCN), a non-selective cation channel, mediates the background Na+ leak conductance and controls neuronal excitability. It is unknown whether abnormal activity of NALCN mediates the pathological process of inflammatory pain. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected into the left footpad of rats to induce inflammatory pain. The thresholds of mechanical and thermal sensation and spontaneous pain behaviors were assessed. The expression of NALCN in DRG and spinal dorsal cord was measured. NALCN currents and the contribution of NALCN to neuronal excitability in the DRG and spinal dorsal cord were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamping recording. NALCN was abundantly expressed in neurons of the DRG and spinal dorsal cord. In acutely isolated DRG neurons and spinal cord slices from rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, NALCN currents and neuronal excitability were increased. Subsequently, intrathecal and sciatic nerve injection of NALCN-small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased NALCN mRNA and reverted NALCN currents to normal levels, and then reduced CFA-induced neuronal excitability and alleviated pain symptoms. Furthermore, pain-related symptoms were significantly prevented by the NALCN-shRNA-mediated NALCN knockdown in DRG and spinal cord. Therefore, increased expression and activity of NALCN contributed to neuronal sensitization in CFA-induced inflammatory pain. NALCN may be a novel molecular target for the control of inflammatory pain.

15.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 229-241, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500422

RESUMO

Distant metastases and chemotherapy repellency are the key causes of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related mortality. Regorafenib, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor approved for treating advanced CRC with distant metastases and/or chemo-resistance, however only improves median overall survival by 1.4 months. Such limited therapeutic effect is likely due to the low bioavailability of orally administered hydrophobic regorafenib. A regorafenib nanodrug is fabricated by one-step self-assembly with a clinically often-used fluorescent agent (indocyanine green) for overcoming regorafenib's limitations, towards improving regorafenib's therapeutic efficacy in advanced CRC. This nanodrug (nanoRF) was characterized, and its antitumor effects were assessed in three preclinical CRC models. NanoRF converts regorafenib's delivery approach from oral to intravenous with a significantly high encapsulation efficacy of regorafenib (96%) and a long-time colloidal stability. Nanodrug (nanoRF) markedly prolongs regorafenib's blood circulation by halving clearance rate, and enhances regorafenib's tumor accumulation. Across three preclinical CRC models (xenografted tumor, chemodrug-resistant xenografted tumor, and liver metastasis), nanoRF drastically enhances regorafenib's tumor inhibiting efficacy by 0.5-4 folds and effectively extends survival by 0.5-5 folds. This regorafenib nanodrug is a simple, safe, and efficient therapeutic nanodrug for treating advanced CRC with a ready-to-be-clinically-translated potential.

16.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496281

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause accounting for chemotherapy failure and recurrence of malignant tumors. A prominent mechanism underlying MDR is overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug efflux pump). Promoting drug delivery efficacy by targeting tumor and concurrently suppressing drug efflux through down-regulating P-gp emerges as an effective strategy to enhance intracellular drug accumulation for combating MDR tumor. General Control Non-repressed 5 (GCN5), a histone acetyltransferase acting as an epigenetic regulator of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), positively regulates P-gp levels in drug-resistant cancer cells. Herein, a hyaluronic acid-coated, pH/redox dual-responsive nanosystem (HPMSNs) is fabricated for co-delivering doxorubicin (DOX) and GCN5 siRNA (siGCN5). This nanosystem can effectively encapsulate DOX and siRNA preventing premature leakage and releasing these therapeutics intracellularly via its pH/redox dual responsiveness. Through CD44-mediated targeting, DOX/siGCN5@HPMSNs increases drug internalization in CD44-overexpressing cancer cells, and markedly promotes DOX retention by down-regulating P-gp expression in drug-resistant cancers through silencing GCN5. Of note, in an MDR breast tumor model, DOX and siGCN5 co-delivered HPMSNs inhibits MDR tumor growth by 77%, abolishes P-gp-mediated drug resistance, and eliminates DOX's systemic toxicity. Thus, the tumor-targeting, stimuli-responsive nanosystem is an effective carrier for co-delivering anticancer drug and siRNA for combating cancer drug resistance. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We designed a tumor-targeting, pH/redox dual-responsive nanosystem (HPMSNs) for chemo-drug and siRNA co-delivery. This nanosystem efficiently co-delivered DOX and siGCN5 into drug-resistant cancer cells and significantly inhibited the tumor growth through: (1) HA shell enhanced the cellular internalization of loaded DOX and siGCN5 via CD44-mediated targeting; (2) the pH/redox dual-responsive nanosystem released the cargos in response to the intracellular environment; (3) the released siGCN5 downregulated P-gp epigenetically. In an MDR breast tumor model (MCF7/ADR), DOX and siGCN5 loaded HPMSNs markedly inhibited tumor growth, almost completely abolished P-gp expression, and minimized systemic toxicity of DOX.

17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 723948, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566625

RESUMO

The cholinergic system is critical in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology, which accounts for various clinical symptoms in PD patients. The substantia innominata (SI) provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies revealed cholinergic-related dysfunction in PD pathology at early stage. Since PD is a progressive disorder, alterations of cholinergic system function along with the PD progression have yet to be elucidated. Seventy-nine PD patients, including thirty-five early-stage PD patients (PD-E) and forty-four middle-to-late stage PD patients (PD-M), and sixty-four healthy controls (HC) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and clinical assessments. We employed seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis to explore the cholinergic-related functional alterations. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between altered functional connectivity and the severity of motor symptoms in PD patients. Results showed that both PD-E and PD-M groups exhibited decreased functional connectivity between left SI and left frontal inferior opercularis areas and increased functional connectivity between left SI and left cingulum middle area as well as right primary motor and sensory areas when comparing with HC. At advanced stages of PD, functional connectivity in the right primary motor and sensory areas was further increased. These altered functional connectivity were also significantly correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores. In conclusion, this study illustrated that altered cholinergic function plays an important role in the motor disruptions in PD patients both in early stage as well as during the progression of the disease.

18.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480336

RESUMO

The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of neurogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the Notch signaling pathway was involved in the neurogenesis impairment and long-term neurocognitive dysfunction caused by neonatal exposure to ketamine. On postnatal day 7 (PND-7), male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneally injected with 40 mg/kg ketamine four consecutive times (40 mg/kg × 4) at 1-h intervals. Notch ligand Jagged1 (0.5 mg/kg) and lentivirus overexpressing the Notch1 intracellular domain (LV-NICD1) were microinjected into the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) 1 h or 4 days before ketamine administration, respectively. The expression of Notch1 signaling pathway-related proteins was detected by Western blotting 24 h after ketamine administration. The proliferation and differentiation of the neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampal DG were evaluated by double immunofluorescence staining 24 h after treatment. Moreover, changes in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory of 2-month-old rats were investigated with the Morris water maze test. Ketamine anesthesia in neonatal rats decreased the expression levels of Jagged1, Notch1, NICD1, and hairy enhancer of split 1 (Hes1); inhibited the proliferation and astrocytic differentiation of NSCs; and promoted the differentiation of neurons. Neonatal exposure to ketamine caused deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory tasks in 2-month-old rats. Microinjection of Jagged1 or LV-NICD1 reversed the inhibitory effect of ketamine on the expression of Notch1-related proteins in the hippocampal DG, attenuated the ketamine-mediated decrease in NSC proliferation and differentiation, and improved the cognitive function of 2-month-old rats after neonatal exposure to ketamine. These results suggest that neonatal exposure to ketamine in rats inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal NSCs and impairs neurocognitive function in adulthood. The Notch1 signaling pathway may be involved in the impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory during adulthood caused by neonatal exposure to ketamine. These findings contribute to further understanding the neurotoxicity induced by neonatal exposure to ketamine and the underlying mechanisms.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5072, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417473

RESUMO

In vivo bioprinting has recently emerged as a direct fabrication technique to create artificial tissues and medical devices on target sites within the body, enabling advanced clinical strategies. However, existing in vivo bioprinting methods are often limited to applications near the skin or require open surgery for printing on internal organs. Here, we report a ferromagnetic soft catheter robot (FSCR) system capable of in situ computer-controlled bioprinting in a minimally invasive manner based on magnetic actuation. The FSCR is designed by dispersing ferromagnetic particles in a fiber-reinforced polymer matrix. This design results in stable ink extrusion and allows for printing various materials with different rheological properties and functionalities. A superimposed magnetic field drives the FSCR to achieve digitally controlled printing with high accuracy. We demonstrate printing multiple patterns on planar surfaces, and considering the non-planar surface of natural organs, we then develop an in situ printing strategy for curved surfaces and demonstrate minimally invasive in vivo bioprinting of hydrogels in a rat model. Our catheter robot will permit intelligent and minimally invasive bio-fabrication.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Cateteres , Imãs/química , Robótica , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Elasticidade , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Suínos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viscosidade
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