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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371952

RESUMO

The distinct Tibetan regional diet is strongly influenced by the regional biogeography, indigenous traditions, popular religious beliefs and food taboos. In the context of the nutritional transition in Tibet, studies seldom report on the food consumption and dietary patterns of Tibetan residents. This is a cross-section study of 552 local adults (≥18 years old, 277 men and 275 women) living in 14 agricultural countries along the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Dietary intakes were assessed by a culturally specific FFQ and compared with the Chinese Dietary Pagoda (2016). Dietary Patterns were extracted by using PCA method. The binary logistic regression model was applied to assess the association between independent variables (genders, regions and age groups) and adherence to dietary patterns. With the exception of meat (100 ± 260 g/day) and soybean nuts (42 ± 12 g/day), which exceeded the recommended dietary intakes of CDP, the dietary intake of other foods were not up to the recommended value. In particular, the intake of aquatic products (2 ± 0.1 g/day), vegetables (90 ± 19 g/day), dairy products (114 ± 29 g/day), cereals (117 ± 27 g/day) and fruits (97 ± 25 g/day) were seriously inadequate, which were 95%, 70%, 62%, 53.2% and 51.5% lower than the recommended intakes, respectively. Four dietary patterns were identified. "Local traditional diet" was characterized by a high intake of tsampa (roasted highland barley flour), culturally specific beverages (sweet tea and yak buttered tea), potato and yak beef and was associated with female, rural and older adults (≥51 years old). The male, urban and 18~30 years old group had a higher adherence score with the "Han diet", which was comprised of rice, pork, dumplings, eggs, milk and cabbage. The "Beverage diet", which mainly include tsampa, chang (homemade barley wine) and sweet tea, was associated with the following group: female, urban and aged 18~30 years. The "Out-sourced diet" pattern, consisting of mainly rice, steam bread and some processed meat, was associated with being male, urban and 18-30 years of age. These findings indicate that the dietary practice of the Tibetan people still has strong local characteristics, but it is also undergoing a dietary transition with the penetration of the Chinese Han diet and the increased consumption of outsourced (processed) foods. The unbalanced dietary intake of Tibetan residents should be taken seriously by all parties.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Recomendações Nutricionais , Rios , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Tibet , População Urbana , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 681145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220901

RESUMO

Carbon metabolism in higher plants is a basic physiological metabolism, and carbon allocation and conversion require the activity of various enzymes in metabolic processes that alter the content and overall composition of sugars in the sink organ. However, it is not known how various enzymes affect carbon metabolism when tomato plants are subjected to water stress or treated with potassium. Although the process of carbon metabolism is very complex, we used the carbon conversion rate to compare and analyze the enzyme activities related to sugar metabolism and find out which carbon conversion rate are the most important. Results showed that water stress and potassium increased carbon import flux in the fruit, which was beneficial to carbon accumulation. Water deficit increased the activity of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and starch phosphorylase (SP) and decreased the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in the source. Water stress increased the activity of acid invertase (AI), SuSy and SP but decreased the activity of AGPase in the sink. Potassium modified the balance of enzymes active in sugar and starch metabolism by increasing the activity of AI, SuSy, SPS and SP and significantly decreasing the activity of AGPase, resulting in increase of hexose. Canonical correlational analysis revealed that the carbon conversion rate was mainly affected by the relative rate of conversion of sucrose to fructose and glucose [p1(t)] and glucose to starch [p5m(t)]. SuSy and AGPase had the greatest effect on enzyme activity in the fruit; respectively regulated p 1(t) and p 5m(t).

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