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1.
Food Chem ; 308: 125650, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655477

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the formation and accumulation of 16 reactive aldehydes in clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) during oil frying in both the tissue and the oil using an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodology. After processing, the accumulation of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, pentanal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, trans, trans-2,4-heptadienal, heptanal, nonanal, trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was most noticeable in both fried clam and frying oil. Most of the aldehyde species showed a time- and temperature-dependent manner of formation and accumulation during frying due to continuous oxidative degradation under conditions employed. However, several species of aldehyde such as acrolein and trans-2-pentenal slightly decreased at higher temperatures and/or longer frying times, which may be due to the imbalance toward disappearance of aldehydes resulting from their evaporation under the extreme conditions. Presence of natural polyphenols in bamboo leaves significantly prevented the formation of aldehydes in both fried clam and frying oil due to their antioxidant activity (P < 0.05).

2.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 226: 104848, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705861

RESUMO

More than 200 molecular species of glycerophospholipids (GP) including glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE), glycerophosphoserine (GPS), lysoglycerophosphocholine (LGPC), lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine (LGPE) and lysoglycerophosphoserine (LGPS), as well as 18 kinds of sphingomyelin (SM) were characterized by using a direct infusion-tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry method for lipids from the muscles of cephalopods Sepiella maindroni, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo chinensis for the first time. The majority of the GP molecular species contained long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Therefore, cephalopods can be a good possible source of dietary GP carrying n-3 LC-PUFA. The total lipids were composed of phospholipid (PL, 72.29-83.32 wt% of total lipids), cholesterol (12.70-23.60 wt% of total lipids), triacylglycerol (1.86-2.93 wt% of total lipids), diacylglycerol (0.15-1.09 wt% of total lipids), monoacylglycerol (0.06-0.18 wt% of total lipids) and free fatty acid (0.72-1.86 wt% of total lipids). For PL, phosphatidylcholine (44.47-62.30 mol%), phosphatidylethanolamine (22.57-39.08 mol%), phosphatidylserine (6.15-10.18 mol%), phosphatidylglycerol (0.68-3.11 mol%), phosphatidylinositol (2.41-7.15 mol%) and lysophosphatidylcholine (1.84-5.24 mol%) were detected. Furthermore, the total lipids from the muscles of cephalopods Sepiella maindroni, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo chinensis contained 41.80-50.02 mol% of saturated fatty acids, 11.53-21.54 mol% of monounsaturated fatty acids and 36.67-40.82 mol% of PUFA, whilst DHA (15.25-26.71 mol%) and EPA (6.29-16.57 mol%) were found to account for the majority of the PUFA. With these data presented, cephalopod muscle can be considered as a healthy food for humans.

3.
Food Chem ; 301: 125302, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387034

RESUMO

The autolysis of sea cucumber is caused by depolymerisation of collagen fibres and unfolding of fibrils. In order to highlight the role of collagenase in sea cucumber autolysis, collagen fibres from sea cucumber were hydrolysed with collagenase type I. Electron microscopy (EM) results indicated the collagenase caused partial depolymerisation of collagen fibres into fibrils due to the fracture of proteoglycan interfibrillar bridges, as well as uncoiling of collagen fibrils. Chemical analysis and SDS-PAGE both indicated collagenase induced a time-dependent release of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and soluble proteins, which further demonstrated the degradation of proteoglycan interfibrillar bridges. Collagenase also degraded collagens by releasing soluble hydroxyproline (Hpy), with the dissolution rate of Hyp reaching 11.11% after 72 h. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that collagenase caused the reduction of intermolecular interactions and structural order of collagen. Hence, collagenase participated in the autolysis of sea cucumber by deteriorating both macromolecular and monomeric collagens.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Colagenases/química , Stichopus/química , Animais , Autólise , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colagenases/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Proteoglicanas/química , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Stichopus/anatomia & histologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8677-8688, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293164

RESUMO

Reversed-phase ultrahigh-performance-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) is the typical method for the lipidomic analysis of most of biological samples, which was rarely used for the comprehensive lipidomic analysis of marine shellfish. Thus, a range of columns, modifiers, and resuspension solvents were evaluated using UPLC-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-MS to facilitate the ionization efficiency in both the positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI(+)/(-)) modes for abalone lipids. Optimal lipidomic coverage was acquired with 10 mM ammonium formate in both ESI(+)/(-) modes. The selected resuspension solvents also influenced ionization efficiency through the matrix effect, and resuspension in methanol enhanced the signal intensities by reducing ion suppression. Because of the higher glycerophospholipid content in shellfish, bridged ethylene hybrid C8 columns showed clear advantages over charged surface hybrid C18 columns. A series of glycerophospholipids, lyso-glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids, and fatty acids in different shellfish can be annotated and semiquantified in one injection by the optimized method.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicerofosfolipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5752-5759, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is easy to autolysis in response to a variety of environmental and mechanical factors. In the current study, collagen fibres were extracted from fresh sea cucumber body wall and then incubated with endogenous matrix metalloprotease (MMP) of sea cucumber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), chemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis were utilized to demonstrate the changes in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and collagen proteins. Moreover, a verification experiment was also carried out to confirm the contribution of MMP to the autolysis of sea cucumber. RESULTS: Endogenous MMP caused complete depolymerization of collagen fibres into smaller collagen fibril bundles and collagen fibrils due to the fracture of proteoglycan interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, endogenous MMP also caused partial degradation of collagen fibrils by releasing soluble hydroxyproline and pyridinium cross-links. Furthermore, the treatment with MMP inhibitor (1,10-phenanthroline) prevented the autolysis of tissue blocks from S. japonicus dermis. CONCLUSION: Endogenous MMP was the key enzyme in the autolysis of sea cucumber, while its action still focused on high-level structures of collagens especially collagen fibres. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Autólise , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Stichopus/enzimologia , Stichopus/fisiologia , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Stichopus/ultraestrutura
6.
Food Chem ; 295: 423-431, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174778

RESUMO

Effects of natural phenolics on the shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle predicted by accelerated shelf life testing (ALST) combined with Arrhenius model were investigated. This allows the food industries to reliably and rapidly determine the shelf life of dried shellfish species treated with antioxidants. The shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle treated with antioxidants of bamboo leaves (AOB) and tea polyphenols (TP) was more than 1.70-fold that of dried control scallop adductor muscle. Thus, the highly nutritional value of dried scallop adductor muscle, based on its lipid constituents, is maintained during storage. OXITEST method further confirmed the improvement of lipid stability of antioxidant treated dried scallop adductor muscle by protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, against autoxidation. Moreover, the natural phenolics employed effectively limited lipid oxidation by breaking the autoxidative chain reaction and/or inhibiting free radical formation in dried scallop adductor muscle during storage.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Pectinidae/química , Polifenóis/química , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Liofilização , Músculo Esquelético/química , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Carbamilação de Proteínas , Sasa/química
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7174-7182, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240931

RESUMO

Intake of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by humans could disturb the metabolism of hormones, induce cancer, and damage the liver and other organs. Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) are important EDCs and environmental contaminants. With the increasing use of plastics and nonionic surfactants worldwide, PAEs and APs have entered environmental water and accumulated in edible fish, which are finally consumed by humans. In this study, a coated direct inlet probe (CDIP) based on an atmospheric solid analysis probe, which can rapidly and simultaneously extract both PAEs and APs in fish, was developed. Twelve PAEs and APs were quantified by using a stable-isotope-labeled internal standard. Standard curves of the PAEs and APs having correlation coefficients of R2 ≥ 0.9837 were obtained. The limit of detection of the PAEs and APs was distributed from 0.01 to 40 ng g-1. The relative recovery of the method was 78-120% between low, medium, and high spiked levels. Combined with principal component analysis, PAE- and AP-contaminated Carassius auratus from different habitats could be identified. Multiple sample analysis mode allowed the extraction of up to 12 samples at once, and the total analysis time (including sample pretreatment, extraction, and analysis time) was less than 10 min per sample, which indicates that CDIP is useful for rapid quantitative analysis.


Assuntos
Ésteres/análise , Carpa Dourada , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida
8.
Lipids ; 54(5): 347-356, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087412

RESUMO

Total lipids were extracted from razor clams Sinonovacula constricta and Solen gouldi, and the molecular species of glycerophospholipid (Gpl) including choline glycerophospholipid (ChoGpl), ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (EtnGpl), serine glycerophospholipid (SerGpl), inositol glycerophospholipid (InsGpl), lysoChoGpl, lysoEtnGpl, and lysoSerGpl were characterized using a direct-infusion tandem mass spectrometric method for the first time. Meanwhile, the lipid class composition and phospholipid (PL) class composition as well as the fatty acid (FA) composition of total lipids, triacylglycerol (TAG), and PL were also investigated. About 238 and 235 molecular species were characterized, respectively, in Sinonovacula constricta and Solen gouldi. The majority of the dominant Gpl molecular species contained n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Also, razor clam lipids contained a high-proportioned PL (52.19-65.41% of total lipids) and PUFA (47.94-54.81 mol%). Furthermore, PL contained a higher proportion of PUFA (63.05-67.13 mol%), especially DHA (20.04-22.47 mol%) and EPA (16.27-21.46 mol%) than TAG (the corresponding values being 33.73-34.45, 11.95-12.27, and 8.13-0.8.99 mol%, respectively). Meanwhile, phosphatidylcholine (44.38-46.21 mol%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (38.84-39.95 mol%) were dominant among PL. In consideration of the high proportion of PUFA-enriched Gpl, razor clam plays a great role in promoting human health.

9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1596: 20-29, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885403

RESUMO

The coated direct inlet probe (CDIP) is a new laboratory-made low-cost technology developed from a direct inlet probe (DIP), which has the advantage of quick enrichment/cleanup of an analyte from liquid samples. A capillary probe is coated with hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (OH-PDMS), divinylbenzene (DVB), and ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) by a sol-gel method. This probe can be directly coupled with a commercialized atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source and high-resolution mass spectrometry, which are widely applicable, reliable, and durable. The ability to perform quantitative analyses with the use of a stable-isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) was tested by using different concentrations of acenaphthylene (ACY), acenaphthene (ACP), fluorene (FLR), fluoranthene (FLT), phenanthrene (PHE), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Calibration curves with a coefficient of determination of R2 ≥ 0.9982 for different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were obtained. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.008-0.04 ng mL-1 for PAHs was determined. The entire workflow is solvent-free and can be completed in less than 5 min, which demonstrates the advantages of this technique for quantitative analysis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pressão Atmosférica , Calibragem , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação
10.
Food Chem ; 281: 251-260, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658755

RESUMO

Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation occurred in Argopecten irradians adductor muscle during hot air drying. Using an in vivo imaging system, we found that antioxidants of bamboo leaves (AOB) could diffuse into the adductor muscle upon marinating. Both tea polyphenols (TP) and AOB efficiently retarded lipid oxidation but had a slight effect on lipid hydrolysis during drying process. The in situ antioxidant mechanisms of AOB as well as TP were revealed, including quenching of free radicals detected by electron spin resonance, chelating metal ions determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and inhibiting lipoxygenase. Less than 8% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in AOB and TP marinated adductor muscle were decreased compared to more than 28% decrease in control adductor muscle during the drying process. Overall, these natural antioxidants, TP and AOB, efficiently maintained high nutritive value of adductor muscle, especially, their lipid quality.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Dessecação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Pectinidae , Polifenóis/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Chá/química , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Valor Nutritivo , Fosforilcolina/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sasa/química , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 272: 109-116, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309519

RESUMO

Change in quality of mussels (Mytilus edulis) meat when stored at 4 °C was evaluated by determining volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total oxidation (TOTOX), lipid class, fatty acid (FA), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylcholine (PE) content, and glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species. After 4 days of storage, the percentages of triacylglycerol and polar lipid as well as the contents of PC, PE and major GP molecular species significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while the percentages of free FA and monoacylglycerol significantly increased (P < 0.05), indicating the hydrolysis of lipids. The increase in activities of phospholipase and lipase during storage suggests that they may contribute to the hydrolysis of lipids. The cold storage also resulted in significantly increased POV, TBARS and TOTOX as well as lipoxygenase activity (P < 0.05) but slightly decreased percentage of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), indicating the occurrence of lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Mytilus edulis/química , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicerofosfolipídeos/química , Hidrólise , Lipase/química , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/química
12.
Food Chem ; 276: 675-679, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409647

RESUMO

Lipophenols, esterified phenols with fatty acids, have attracted increasing attention because of their better protective effects in lipid-based food matrices from oxidation. However, little is known about their digestion. In this study, the digestive stability of resveratrol (RSV) esters with caprylic acid (RCAPs) in a model gastrointestinal digestion system was evaluated. The results demonstrated that RCAPs were relatively stable without hydrolysis in mouth and gastric phases. However, in the intestinal phase, pancreatic lipase rather than phospholipase A2 could hydrolyze monoester and diesters to free RSV. After 120 min of incubation at 37 °C, 53.68% of monoester and 11.36% of diesters were hydrolyzed. However, no hydrolysis of the triester was noticed. Obviously, the level of hydrolysis of RCAPs was negatively correlated with the degree of substitution. Therefore, it was speculated that RSV in fatty acid ester forms could partially be absorbed by intestinal lumen in the form of free RSV.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/química , Digestão , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/farmacocinética , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ésteres/química , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Intestinos , Lipase/metabolismo , Boca/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Estômago
13.
J Food Sci ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380147

RESUMO

Clam Ruditapes philippinarum was processed by hot-air drying and the changes of its lipids were evaluated by analyzing lipid classes, phospholipid classes, fatty acids, as well as oxidation parameters including peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, total oxidation value (TOTOX), and oxidation test (OXITEST). The hot-air drying process reduced the contents of triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating the hydrolysis of lipids. Meanwhile, the hot-air drying process significantly decreased the proportion of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and consequently increased the PUFA ratio of n-3/n-6. Interestingly, the POV, TBARS and TOTOX decreased after the hot-air drying process. However, significant decline of the induction period for the dried clam tissue at elevated temperatures indicated their higher oxidation level, poor oxidative stability and reduction of shelf-life. Therefore, OXITEST method turned out to be an effective tool for estimating the level of lipid oxidation for hot-air dried clam.

14.
Food Funct ; 9(7): 3610-3616, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968877

RESUMO

Lipophenols such as tea polyphenol palmitate derivatives (palmitoyl esters of tea polyphenols) have been classified as non-toxic food additives due to their better protective effects on lipidic food matrices from oxidation, but their digestion and absorption have remained unexplored. In this study, the digestive stability of tyrosol acyl esters (TYr-Es) with fatty acids of different chain lengths and different degrees of unsaturation such as C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C22:6 was evaluated using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract model containing various digestive enzymes (pancreatin, pancreatic lipase and phospholipase A2). HPLC-UV measurements demonstrated that only pancreatin and pancreatic lipase, but not phospholipase A2, could hydrolyze TYr-Es to free TYr. The degree of TYr-E hydrolysis negatively correlated with the chain length but positively correlated with the degree of unsaturation of their lipid moiety. In addition, the fact that TYr in fatty acid ester forms could be absorbed by the intestinal lumen, at least partially in the form of free TYr, may explain a sustained release behavior of TYr-Es to TYr during the time-course following the digestion process.


Assuntos
Ésteres/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Digestão , Ésteres/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 265: 49-56, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884393

RESUMO

Abalone has been farmed commercially for the last few decades, and the breeding and economic value of abalone have gained extensive attention. In this study, the lipid profile of the foot muscles, viscera, and gonads of male and female Japanese abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino was explored using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS), to discuss the effect of lipid composition on its nutritional value. Thirty-four species from ten lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid, triacylglycerol, steroids, terpenoids and fatty acids were annotated by MS-DIAL to obtain all fragment ions for precursors. Glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in unsaturated fatty acids were the major components, which accounted for 52-57% of total lipids. Considering the high-level of GPLs, and their importance in maintaining the integrity and functionality of cell membranes, further utilization of inexpensive tissues, such as viscera and gonads is warranted.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/química , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Animais , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Gastrópodes/citologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Food Chem ; 256: 113-118, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606426

RESUMO

Trypsin, a representative serine proteinase, was used to hydrolyse the collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to highlight the role of serine proteinase in the autolysis of sea cucumber. Partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils upon trypsin treatment occurred. The trypsin treatment also caused a time-dependent release of water-soluble glycosaminoglycans and proteins. Therefore, the degradation of the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils might account for the disaggregation of collagen fibrils. For trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h), the collagen fibrils still kept their structural integrity and showed characteristic D-banding pattern, and the dissolution rate of hydroxyproline was just 0.21%. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the collagen within trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h) still retaining their triple-helical conformation. These results suggested that serine proteinase participated in the autolysis of S. japonicus body wall by damaging the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils and disintegrating the latter.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Stichopus/química , Tripsina/metabolismo , Animais , Hidrólise , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 243: 319-327, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146344

RESUMO

Different classes of lipids and phospholipids (PL) as well as fatty acid (FA) compositions, and glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species in edible parts (adductor muscles) and by-products (gonads and mantles) of scallops Patinopecten yessoensis and Chlamys farreri were characterized. The lipids contained high levels of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) (20.44-58.81% of total FAs) and PL (54.99-78.26% of total lipids). Among PL, phosphatidylcholine (41.39-51.86 mol%) was dominant. More than 230 GP species belonging to glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphoserine, glycerophosphoinositol, lysoglycerophosphocholine, lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine and lysoglycerophosphoinositol were characterized. Individual GP molecular species in different body parts of scallops were also partially quantified. Most of the dominant GP species contained PUFA, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Considering the high level of PUFA enriched GP, edible parts and by-products (gonads and mantles) of scallops Patinopecten yessoensis and Chlamys farreri provide great potential as health-promoting food for human consumption.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Pectinidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Gônadas/química , Lipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(1): 45-52, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232945

RESUMO

Sea cucumber body-wall melting occurs under certain circumstances. We have shown that apoptosis but not autolysis plays a critical role in the initial stage. However, it is still unclear how apoptosis is triggered in this process. In this study, we examined the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) proteins, the depolarization of mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release during sea cucumber melting induced by ultraviolet (UV) exposure. We also investigated the contribution of caspase in this process by injecting a pan-caspase inhibitor. Our data showed that UV exposure stimulates ROS production, dysfunction of mitochondria, and the release of Cyt c in sea cucumber coelomic fluid cells and body walls. We found a decrease of Bcl-2 and increase of Bax in the mitochondria after UV exposure. We also demonstrated that these changes are associated with elevated caspase-9 and -3 activity. Finally, our data showed that the inhibition of caspases-9 and -3 using an inhibitor suppresses UV-induced sea cucumber melting. These results suggest that apoptosis during sea cucumber melting is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and follows the activation of the caspase-signaling pathway. This study presents a novel insight into the mechanism of sea cucumber melting.


Assuntos
Caspases/metabolismo , Pepinos-do-Mar/fisiologia , Pepinos-do-Mar/efeitos da radiação , Clorometilcetonas de Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Inibidores de Caspase/farmacologia , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos da radiação , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pepinos-do-Mar/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 240: 1254-1261, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946250

RESUMO

The autolysis of sea cucumber body wall is caused by endogenous proteolysis of its structural elements. However, changes in collagen fibrils, collagen fibres and microfibrils, the major structural elements in sea cucumber body wall during autolysis are less clear. Autolysis of sea cucumber (S. japonicus) was induced by cutting the body wall, and the structural and biochemical changes in its dermis were investigated using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electrophoresis, and chemical analysis. During autolysis, both collagen fibres and microfibrils gradually degraded. In contrast, damage to microfibrils was more pronounced. Upon massive autolysis, collagen fibres disaggregated into collagen fibril bundles and individual fibrils due to the fracture of interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, excessive unfolding of collagen fibrils occurred. However, there was only slight damage to collagen monomers. Therefore, structural damage in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and microfibrils rather than monomeric collagen accounts for autolysis of S. japonicus dermis.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Autólise , Colágeno , Derme , Stichopus
20.
Food Chem ; 241: 97-103, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958564

RESUMO

Sea urchin gonad has been regarded as a "healthy" food. Although previous studies have suggested that sea urchin gonad might serve as a potential rich source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) enriched phospholipid (PL), the molecular species profile of its PL has rarely been reported. In this study, about 200 molecular species of glycerophospholipid (GP), including glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphoserine, glycerophosphoinositol, lysoglycerophosphocholine and lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine, in gonads from three species of sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenularis, Strongylocentrotus intermedius and Strongylocentrotus nudus) were characterized using tandem mass spectrometry. Most of the predominant GP molecular species contained PUFA, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Meanwhile, the sea urchin lipids contained a high proportion of PL (39.45-50.30% of total lipids) and PUFA (34.47-46.56% of total FA). Among PL, phosphatidylcholine (67.88-72.58mol%) was dominant. Considering the high level of PUFA enriched GP, sea urchin gonads provide great potential as health-promoting food for human consumption.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Ouriços-do-Mar , Animais , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Fosfolipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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