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1.
Phytochemistry ; 193: 112975, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649046

RESUMO

In this study, the popular food and medicinal herb Ophiopogon japonicus was investigated alongside a 70% ethanol extract of its rhizomes, revealing twenty-three steroidal glycosides with four undescribed steroidal saponins, named ophiopogonols A-D. Among them, ophiopogonols A-B are two unusual spirostanols with a rearranged A/B ring system (5/7/6/5/5/6 ring system) that have not previously been identified in plants. The chemical structures of all isolated steroidal glycosides were elucidated by comprehensive analysis through chemical methods, HRESIMS, and NMR spectroscopy. Further, putative biosynthetic pathways for ophiopogonols A-B were proposed. In addition, based on traditional applications of O. japonicus, cytotoxic effects of the isolates were evaluated using human large cell lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H460 cells). Sprengerinin C displayed a remarkable cytotoxic effect with IC50 values of 2.1 ± 0.8 µM by inducing apoptosis and G2/M phase cycle arrest in the NCI-H460 cell line.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679952

RESUMO

Worldwide, silage is considered the main component in dairy animal diets; however, this portion is mainly dominated by corn silage, which raises availability challenges in some agricultural production systems. The present study evaluated a partial replacement of corn silage with forage rape silage (FRS) and its effect on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk production, and blood metabolites in buffalo. Thirty-six lactating buffaloes were randomly assigned to four different groups, according to supplementation of FRS (only corn silage, FRS0) or with 15% (FRS15), 25% (FRS25), and 35% (FRS35) of forage rape silage instead of corn silage. The results showed that, compared to corn silage, forage rape silage has a lower carbohydrate but a higher protein concentration. The buffalo intake of dry matter and organic matter were improved linearly with the FRS increasing in the diet. The apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber also increased by the FRS supplementation compared with FRS0. Conversely, FRS supplementation decreased the propionic, butyric, and valeric acid contents and increased the acetic:propionic ratio and microbial protein content. Furthermore, FRS inclusion led to a significantly higher milk urea and non-fat milk solid content, higher blood glucose, total globulins, blood urea nitrogen, and lower blood high-density lipoprotein. These results suggested that FRS has high a nutritional value and digestibility, is a good feed resource, and showed favorable effects when supplemented with dairy buffalo ration.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684969

RESUMO

In this work, we have investigated the influence of the transfer process on the monocrystalline graphene in terms of quality, morphology and electrical properties by analyzing the data obtained from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrical characterizations. The influence of Cu oxidation on graphene prior to the transfer is also discussed. Our results show that the controlled bubbling electrochemical delamination transfer is an easy and fast transfer technique suitable for transferring large single crystals graphene without degrading the graphene quality. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy investigation reveals that the Cu surface oxidation modifies the strain of the graphene film. We have observed that graphene laying on unoxidized Cu is subject to a biaxial strain in compression, while graphene on Cu oxide is subject to a biaxial strain in tension. However, after graphene was transferred to a host substrate, these strain effects were strongly reduced, leaving a homogeneous graphene on the substrate. The transferred single crystal graphene on silicon oxide substrate was used to fabricate transmission line method (TLM) devices. Electrical measurements show low contact resistance ~150 Ω·µm, which confirms the homogeneity and high quality of transferred graphene.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668702

RESUMO

Raman multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR) is applied to examine how the hydration shell around poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (PDEAM) changes upon heating, in comparison with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), both of which undergo a clouding transition near room temperature. We report that PDEAM possesses a less-ordered and smaller hydration shell than PNIPAM. Furthermore, the PDEAM hydration-shell structure is insensitive to the occurrence of clouding, indicating the coil-globule transition and aggregation of multiple chains can be achieved without the hydration-shell structural transformation.

5.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112976, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678624

RESUMO

Four undescribed spiro cyclohexandienonyl naphthalenes (acanthophyllas A-D) and a revised compound were isolated from the roots of Caragana acanthophylla Kom. (Fabaceae). They were identified using extensive spectroscopic data and via chemical methods. Three of them were resolved into their enantiomers, and their absolute configurations were confirmed by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activities of the compounds were investigated by evaluating their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 cells. Some compounds showed significant inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 8.8-13.4 µM (minocycline, IC50 7.8 µM), indicating that they might serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the association between BMI change and stroke in middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes and identify sex differences. METHODS AND RESULTS: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study is an ongoing national population-based cohort study. Participants aged 45 or above with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and followed for stroke incidence. BMI change was defined as BMI at 2013-BMI at 2011. Of 1774 participants (mean [SD] age in 2011, 60.23 [8.88] years), 795 (44.8 %) were men. A total of 112 incident stroke cases were confirmed up to 2018. The incidence rate of stroke was similar between men and women (6.79 % vs 5.92 %, P = 0.516). BMI increase was independently associated with an increased stroke risk (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95 % CI, 1.05-1.31) in men, while this positive association was not significant in women (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 0.98-1.29). In addition, the positive dose-response relationship between BMI increase and stroke was observed only in men. CONCLUSION: Among middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes, there is a sex-specific association of BMI change with stroke. An increase in BMI could result in a higher risk of incident stroke in men.

7.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 233, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489401

RESUMO

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most malignant cancer of the biliary tract cancer and presents poor prognosis. CircRNAs have been identified as critical regulators of multiple stages in tumor progression. In the study, we first demonstrated that circular RNA circß-catenin expression was upregulated in GBC tissues when compared to adjacent normal tissues and associated with advanced clinical stage and poor prognosis in GBC patients. Silencing of circß-catenin obviously suppressed GBC cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in vitro, but circß-catenin overexpression had the opposite effects. In vivo, silencing of circß-catenin inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, we also found that circß-catenin promoted GBC cell lactate production, pyruvate production, ATP quantity, and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), which suggested that circß-catenin regulated Warburg effect in GBC. Mechanistic analysis further highlighted that circß-catenin promoted Stathmin 1 (STMN1) expression through sponging miR-223 in GBC progression. In addition, knockdown of STMN1 inhibited cell growth and Warburg effect in GBC. In summary, our findings indicated that circß-catenin/miR-223/STMN1 axis could regulate cell growth and Warburg effect in GBC. Targeting circß-catenin might be a potential therapeutic strategy for GBC.

8.
Radiology ; : 210188, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519577

RESUMO

Background Assessment of subclinical myocardial dysfunction by using feature tracking has shown promise in prognosis evaluation of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Global early diastolic longitudinal strain rate (eGLSR) can identify earlier diastolic dysfunction; however, limited data are available on its prognostic value in HFpEF. Purpose To evaluate the association between left ventricular (LV) eGLSR and primary composite outcomes (all-cause death or heart failure hospitalization) in patients with HFpEF. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive patients with HFpEF (included from January 2010 to March 2013) underwent cardiovascular MRI. The correlation between eGLSR and variables was assessed by using linear regression. The association between eGLSR (obtained with use of feature tracking) and outcomes was analyzed by using Cox proportional regression. Results A total of 186 patients with HFpEF (mean age ± standard deviation, 59 years ± 12; 77 women) were included. The eGLSR was weakly correlated with LV end-diastole volume index (Pearson correlation coefficient [r] = -0.35; P < .001), heart rate (r = 0.35; P < .001), and LV ejection fraction (r = 0.30; P < .001) and moderately correlated with LV end-systole volume index (r = -0.41; P < .001). At a median follow-up of 9.2 years (interquartile range, 8.7-10.0 years), 72 patients experienced primary composite outcomes. Impaired eGLSR, defined as an eGLSR of less than 0.57 per second, was associated with a greater rate of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause death (hazard ratio, 2.0 [95% CI: 1.1, 3.7]; P = .02) after adjusting for multiple clinical and imaging-based variables. Conclusion Left ventricular global early diastolic longitudinal strain rate obtained from cardiovascular MRI feature tracking was independently associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 576: 33-39, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478917

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, which play a key role in antitumor immunity by activating cytotoxic T cells. Here, we report that elevated ferroptosis, a lipid peroxidation-mediated cell death, impairs the maturation of DCs and their function in tumor suppression. Ferroptosis is selectively induced in DCs by the GXP4 inhibitor RSL3, but not the SLC7A11 inhibitor erastin. Ferroptotic DCs lose their ability to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL6) and express MHC class I in response to the maturation signal of lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, ferroptotic DCs fail to induce CD8+ T cells to produce IFNG/IFNγ. Mechanistically, PPARG/PPARγ, a nuclear receptor involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, is responsible for RSL3-induced ferroptosis in DCs. Consequently, the genetic depletion of PPARG restores the maturation and function of DCs. Using immunogenic cell death-based DC vaccine models, we further demonstrate that PPARG-mediated ferroptosis of DCs limits antitumor immunity in mice. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel role of ferroptotic DCs in driving an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

10.
Soft Matter ; 17(38): 8624-8641, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505853

RESUMO

Recent advances in topological mechanics have revealed unusual phenomena such as topologically protected floppy modes and states of self-stress that are exponentially localized at boundaries and interfaces of mechanical networks. In this paper, we explore the topological mechanics of epithelial tissues, where the appearance of these boundary and interface modes could lead to localized soft or stressed spots and play a role in morphogenesis. We consider both a simple vertex model (VM) governed by an effective elastic energy and its generalization to an active tension network (ATN) which incorporates active adaptation of the cytoskeleton. By analyzing spatially periodic lattices at the Maxwell point of mechanical instability, we find topologically polarized phases with exponential localization of floppy modes and states of self-stress in the ATN when cells are allowed to become concave, but not in the VM.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Modelos Biológicos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia
11.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 715710, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589534

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to observe the effects of anthocyanin from purple corn on blood biochemical indexes, ruminal fluid fermentation parameters, and the microbial population in goats. A total of 18 Qianbei Ma wether kids (body weight, 21.38 ± 1.61 kg; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to three groups using a completely randomized design. The group diets were: (1) control, basal diet, (2) treatment 1 (LA), basal diet with 0.5-g/d purple corn pigment (PCP), and (3) treatment 2 (HA), basal diet with 1-g/d PCP. The results showed that supplementation of PCP anthocyanin increased (P < 0.05) crude protein and gross energy digestibilities compared to the control. Compared to the control group, the inclusion of anthocyanin-rich PCP led to significantly increased (P < 0.05) plasma reduced glutathione and peroxidase concentrations. Goats receiving PCP had increased (P < 0.05) ruminal fluid acetic acid and a higher ratio of acetate to propionate, while the propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isobutyric acid, and isovaleric acid levels had decreased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in ruminal fluid alpha bacterial diversity among the three groups. At the phylum level, the feeding of PCP had significant effect (P < 0.05) on the abundances of Actinobacteriota, Proteobacteria, Elusimicrobiota, WPS-2, and Cyanobacteria. At the genus level, HA group had lower (P < 0.05) Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group abundance compared to the other groups. In addition, significant differences (P < 0.05) were also observed for the ruminal fluid Eubacterium_nodatum_group, Amnipila, Ruminiclostridium, U29-B03, unclassified_c_Clostridia, Pyramidobacter, Anaeroplasma, UCG-004, Atopobium, norank_f_norank_o_Bradymonadales, Elusimicrobium, norank_f_norank_o_norank_c_norank_p_WPS-2, norank_f_Bacteroidales_UCG-001, and norank_f_norank_o_Gastranaerophilales among all groups. Taken together, the inclusion of anthocyanin-rich PCP increased the antioxidant potential, improved rumen volatile fatty acids, and induced a shift in the structure and relative abundance of ruminal microbiota in growing goats.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(39): 46866-46874, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559512

RESUMO

Transparent material has been widely used in product design and has seen a large increase in its use. In this paper, a kind of aesthetically decorative 5 GHz Wi-Fi dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) of aluminum oxynitride (AlON) transparent ceramic has been designed. High-quality-factor AlON transparent dielectric ceramics were fabricated by presintering at 1780 °C and further cold isostatic pressing (CIP) under a 200 MPa argon atmosphere. For a 9.0 mm thick specimen, the in-line light transmittance reached 83%. Optimum dielectric constant (εr = 9.32), quality factor (Qf = 47 960) and temperature coefficient (TCF = -51.7 ppm/°C) was achieved in the AlON transparent ceramic by cold isostatic pressing. As a result, the proposed aesthetically decorative DRA can achieve an impedance bandwidth of 32% (4.48-6.19 GHz), a high radiation efficiency of 85%, and a low cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) of -30 dB. To achieve a broad bandwidth, the proposed antenna was excited in its dominant TE111x mode and higher-order TE113x mode. The proposed antenna is thus an excellent candidate for an indoor decoration Wi-Fi antenna.

13.
J Nat Med ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480707

RESUMO

Apigenin (APG) is a flavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, and herbs, with comprehensive pharmacological effects. In this paper, we report that APG can elicit a protective effect, which is comparable to those induced by gymnoside II/n-BuOH extracts of Bletilla striata, on SiO2-induced lung injury in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that APG (25 µM) could restore the SiO2-decreased A549 cell viability and lower the apoptotic rate and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 cells treated with nm SiO2. Western blot results showed that APG (25 µM) could increase the level of Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream proteins. In vivo experiments showed that APG (20 mg/kg) could potently alleviate the SiO2-elicited lung injury by enhancing the Nrf2 expression and thereby suppressing Bax/Bcl-2 pathway. The present study suggests that APG can significantly alleviate the SiO2-induced lung injury both in vitro and in vivo through, at least partially, activating Nrf2 expression.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to examine the prognostic value of T1 mapping and the extracellular volume (ECV) fraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). BACKGROUND: Patients with DCM with functional left ventricular remodeling have poorer prognoses. Noninvasive assessment of myocardial fibrosis using T1 mapping and the ECV fraction may improve risk stratification of patients with DCM; however, this has not yet been systematically evaluated. METHODS: A total of 659 consecutive patients with DCM (498 men; 45 ± 15 years) who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance with T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner were enrolled in this study. Primary endpoints were cardiac-related death and heart transplantation. Secondary endpoints were hospitalization for heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation. Survival estimates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier curves with the log-rank test. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 66.3 ± 20.9 months, 122 and 205 patients with DCM reached the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively. The presence of LGE had an association with both of the primary and secondary endpoints observed in the patients with DCM (both P < 0.001). The maximum native T1 (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and maximum ECV fraction (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.08-1.21) had associations with the primary endpoints in the patients with positive LGE (both P < 0.001), whereas the mean native T1 (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10-1.36) and mean ECV fraction (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.12-1.53) had the best associations in the patients with negative LGE (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: T1 mapping and the ECV fraction had prognostic value in patients with DCM and were particularly important in patients with DCM without LGE. Using a combination of T1 mapping, ECV fraction, and LGE provided optimal risk stratification for patients with DCM.

15.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112906, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390889

RESUMO

Twenty-five steroidal glycosides including eight undescribed compounds which were named as polygonatumosides H-O, were isolated from the 70 % EtOH extract of rhizomes of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce (Asparagaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines: human non-small cell lung cancer (A549), human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco2), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Five compounds showed cytotoxicity against these cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.7-30.8 µM.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Polygonatum , Células CACO-2 , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
16.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105237, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388486

RESUMO

In the ongoing research on potent antitumor agents from the rhizomes of Asparagus cochinchinensis, seven undescribed steroidal saponins asparagusoside A-G (1-7), along with twenty known ones (8-27), were isolated and elucidated via analyzing their 1D, 2D NMR, mass spectroscopic data and chemical methods. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against human large cell lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H460) in vitro. Among them, compounds 7, 9 and 27 showed more significant antitumor activities than the positive control cisplatin (11.56 µM) with IC50 values of 1.39, 3.04, and 2.25 µM, respectively. Further research about asparagusoside G (7) showed G0/G1 arrest in NCI-H460 cell line cycle and induced cell death by apoptosis in a dose­dependent way.

17.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 224, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the feasibility of indocyanine green (ICG) use in localizing subcentimeter pulmonary nodules during uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of 32 patients who underwent surgery due to pulmonary nodules using ICG localization from September 2019 to March 2020 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Laser positioning and large-aperture spiral CT simulation were performed preoperatively. ICG was injected into the lung (2.5 mg/ml). The clinical characteristics and postoperative indicators were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 33 subcentimeter pulmonary nodules were successfully localized in 32 patients. Twenty-three patients underwent lobectomy, with an average surgical time of 45.3 min and an average tube retention time of 2 days. Non-small cell lung cancer was confirmed intraoperatively in 9 patients, among whom the longest surgical time was 120 min, and the shortest hospital stay was 7 days. No patient was converted to thoracotomy or developed serious complications. CONCLUSIONS: ICG imaging is a safe and effective technique for localization of pulmonary nodules. Due to the widespread application of near-infrared devices, fluorescent localization and imaging technology will be more widely used in thoracic surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Feminino , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 50: 128311, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438011

RESUMO

Poor wound healing is a common complication in diabetic patients. It often leads to intractable infections and lower limb amputations and is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. NcRNAs, which can regulate gene expression, have emerged as important regulators of various physiological processes. Herein, we summarize the diverse roles of ncRNAs in the key stages of diabetic wound healing, including inflammation, angiogenesis, re-epithelialization, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Meanwhile, the potential use of ncRNAs as novel therapeutic targets for wound healing in diabetic patients is also discussed. In addition, we summarize the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in the regulation of gene expression and signaling pathways during skin repair, which may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention for this potentially devastating disease. However, so far, research on the modulated drug based on ncRNAs that lead to significantly altered gene expression in diabetic patients is scarce. We have compiled some drugs that may be able to modulate ncRNAs, which significantly regulate the gene expression in diabetic patients.

19.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(10): 111, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342720

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Opioids are still the most effective and widely used treatments for acute and chronic pain in cancer patients. This review focuses on the impact of opioids and mu-opioid receptors (MOR) on tumor progression and providing new ideas for targeting the MOR in cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies estimated that opioids facilitate tumor progression and are related to the worse prognosis in cancer patients. As the primary receptor of opioids, MOR is involved in the regulation of malignant transformation of tumors and participating in proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. MOR may be a new molecular marker of malignant tumors and thus become a new target for cancer therapy, which may be beneficial to the outcomes of cancer patients.

20.
J Nat Prod ; 84(8): 2366-2373, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445872

RESUMO

Structurally diverse tigliane diterpenoids have drawn significant research interest for drug discovery over many decades. Using LC-MS-guided fractionation and separation, the first phytochemical investigation on Wikstroemia lamatsoensis led to the isolation of eight tiglianes (1-8), including two new compounds, wikstrocin D (1) and wikstrocin E (2). The new structures were elucidated based on extensive physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. The characteristic ESIMS/MS fragmentations of tiglianes 1-8 were also summarized. Among the isolated tiglianes, three compounds (8, 5, and 7) showed the most potent anti-HIV activity, with IC50 values of 0.18, 3.8, and 12.8 nM, respectively.

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