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1.
Prev Med ; : 106066, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199910

RESUMO

Currently, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends one-time tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for all adults 19 years and older. This study is designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Tdap vaccination for Tdap-eligible adults aged 19 through 85 in the United States. A cost-effectiveness model was developed to compute costs and health outcomes associated with pertussis among 100,000 Tdap-eligible persons of each age cohort. From the societal perspective, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved was evaluated under the vaccination scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to evaluate the impacts of changes in key variables. All costs were adjusted to 2018 US$ with an annual discount rate of 3% applied to costs and outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for vaccinating US adults aged 19 to 85 with Tdap ranged from $248,000/QALY to $900,000/QALY. The lowest cost per QALY was found to be $248,000 for the age 65 cohort, followed by $332,000 for the cohort of age 19, and followed by $477,000 for the age 50 cohort. Sensitivity analysis showed the most dramatic changes in ICER occurred when changing the underreporting factor, vaccine effectiveness and vaccination costs. While Tdap vaccination may not be as cost effective as predicted earlier, it remains the best available preventive measure against pertussis. Further investigation of the true burden of pertussis disease among adults and the effectiveness of Tdap vaccination in this population is needed to better estimate the impact of Tdap vaccination.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112424

RESUMO

Imatinib was the first BCR-ABL inhibitor used in clinical practice to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and significantly improve the life expectancy of CML patients in the chronic phase. However, a portion of CML patients are resistant to imatinib. This study aimed to determine whether menadione (Vitamin K3) can improve imatinib efficacy in CML and to thoroughly explore the combination regimen mechanism between imatinib and menadione. Menadione improved imatinib efficacy in K562 cells by downregulating ABCB1 expression and increased the intracellular concentration of imatinib, which confirmed that this combination regimen is more effective than imatinib monotherapy. The results demonstrate that menadione and imatinib combination therapy may be a promising approach to refractory CML.

3.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169891

RESUMO

The underlying molecular mechanism driving clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression is not fully understood. The significant downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 3 (PTPN3) expression in the tumor tissues suggested its protective role in ccRCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of PTPN3 protein in 172 ccRCC tissue revealed that PTPN3 expression was an independent, favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.0343) and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0166) of patients. The ccRCC cell lines SN12C, 1932, ACHN and Caki-1 were used to evaluate, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological roles of PTPN3. We observed that overexpression of PTPN3 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ccRCC cells. In contrast, the knocking down of PTPN3 elicited opposite effects. PTPN3 overexpression suppressed xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo mice models. PTN3 inhibited tumor cell motility by suppressing the phosphorylation of AKT, and subsequently inactivating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway of ccRCC cells. Further, the inhibition of phospho-AKTThr308 and phospho-AKTSer473 reversed PTPN3 induced-silencing in tumor cell migration. Our work revealed that the overexpression of PTPN3 could suppress kidney cancer progression by negatively regulating the AKT signaling pathway, and served as a favorable prognostic factor in ccRCC patients. Our findings provided insight that PTPN3 could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC. Implications: PTPN3 is an independent favorable prognostic factor for ccRCC patients and could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC.

4.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 40(1): 3-15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan (Trp) catabolism have been demonstrated to play an important role in tumor immunosuppression. This study examined the expression and catalytic activity of IDO1 in penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) and explored their clinical significance. METHODS: IDO1 expression level, serum concentrations of Trp and kynurenine (Kyn) were examined in 114 PSCC patients by immunohistonchemistry and solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Hazard ratio of death was analyzed via univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Immune cell types were defined by principal component analysis. The correlativity was assessed by Pearson's correlation analysis. RESULTS: The expression level of IDO1 in PSCC cells was positively correlated with serum Kyn concentration and Kyn/Trp radio (KTR; both P < 0.001) but negatively correlated with serum Trp concentration (P = 0.001). Additionally, IDO1 up-regulation in cancer cells and the increase of serum KTR were significantly associated with advanced N stage (both P < 0.001) and high pathologic grade (P = 0.008 and 0.032, respectively). High expression level of IDO1 in cancer cells and serum KTR were associated with short disease-specific survival (both P < 0.001). However, besides N stage (hazard radio [HR], 6.926; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.458-19.068; P < 0.001) and pathologic grade (HR, 2.194; 95% CI, 1.021-4.529; P = 0.038), only serum KTR (HR, 2.780; 95% CI, 1.066-7.215; P = 0.036) was an independent predictor for PSCC prognosis. IDO1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of interferon-γ (IFNγ, P < 0.001) and immunosuppressive markers (programmed cell death protein 1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed death-ligand 1 and 2; all P < 0.05), and the infiltration of immune cells (including cytotoxic T lymphocytes, regulatory T lymphocytes, tumor-associated macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells; all P < 0.001) in PSCC tissues. Furthermore, the expression of IDO1 was induced by IFNγ in a dose-dependent manner in PSCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: IFNγ-induced IDO1 plays a crucial role in immunoediting and immunosuppression in PSCC. Additionally, serum KTR, an indicator of IDO1 catabolic activity, can be utilized as an independent prognostic factor for PSCC.

5.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150786

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We previously demonstrated that pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution improved glucometabolic disorders and ameliorated DN outcome in db/db mice. Here, we investigated the effects of pyruvate on high glucose (HG)-induced ER stress and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Our results suggest that HG can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis, and ER stress in HK-2 cells, and that pyruvate treatment can ameliorate these effects and restore the expression of key proteins involved in ER stress. Thus, pyruvate may have potential for the development of novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of clinical DN.

7.
Eur Spine J ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of vertebral CT Hounsfield units (HU) in elderly patients with acute vertebral fragility fractures. METHODS: A total of 299 patients aged ≥ 65 years with acute vertebral fragility fractures were retrospectively reviewed, and 77 patients of them were age- and sex-matched with 77 control patients without any fractures. The vertebral HU value of L1(L1-HU) was measured, and T12 and L2 were used as alternatives for L1 in the case of L1 fracture. RESULTS: There were 460 thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures in the 299 elderly patients, including 349 acute vertebral fragility fractures and 111 chronic fractures. The average L1-HU value was 66.0 ± 30.6 HU and showed significant difference among patients having different numbers of vertebral fractures (one fracture: 73.3 ± 27.0 HU, two fractures: 58.7 ± 32.5 HU, three or more fractures: 40.7 ± 28.8 HU; P < 0.001). As for the 1:1 age- and sex-matched patients, the L1-HU of the 77 patients with fractures was lower than that of the control patients (70.6 ± 23.4 HU vs. 101.5 ± 36.2 HU, P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of using L1-HU to differentiate patients with fractures from controls was 0.77(95% CI 0.70-0.85, P < 0.001). The cutoff value had high specificity of 90% or high sensitivity of 90% to identify patients with fractures of 60 HU and 100 HU, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The elderly patients with acute vertebral fragility fractures have much lower HU values than those without fractures. Moreover, the lower the vertebral HU value is, the more likely the patients have more than one vertebral fracture. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

8.
Blood Purif ; : 1-6, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been used widely in the treatment of critically ill children for its continuity. However, sometimes we have to interrupt the continuity for necessary surgeries or blood transfusions. Our objective was to demonstrate a feasible self-circulation anticoagulation protocol based on citrate (CSAP) to address discontinuity during CRRT. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 57 pediatric patients undergoing 88 CRRT sessions that were receiving CSAP during the treatment discontinuity period by using an anticoagulation regimen containing 5 mL 4% sodium citrate in 50 mL of saline to maintain the continuity. We documented the reasons for CSAP and the total duration of the treatment. We assessed the in-line pressure recordings, blood routine examination, blood electrolytes, and blood gas analysis before, throughout, and after the period of CSAP. RESULTS: The average duration of CSAP was 118.5 ± 45.3 min. There was no significant increase in arterial pressures, venous pressures, and transmembrane pressures and no significant decreases in blood cell counts observed at the end of the CSAP, compared to the data recorded at the beginning of the CSAP. Compared to before the CSAP, there was no significant change in the ratio of total to ionized calcium, Na+, HCO3-, and pH value after CSAP. CONCLUSIONS: CSAP might be a safe, effective, and easy approach for use during the treatment discontinuity of CRRT in children.

9.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008178

RESUMO

Proxalutamide is a newly developed androgen receptor (AR) antagonist for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) that has entered phase III clinical trials. In the present study, we intended to elucidate the antitumor efficacy of proxalutamide through the metabolomic profiling of PCa cells. Two AR-positive PCa cell lines and two AR-negative PCa cell lines were investigated. Cell viability assays based on ATP quantitation were conducted. LC-Q/TOF-MS was used to analyze intracellular metabolites before or after the administration of proxalutamide and two other clinical AR antagonists (bicalutamide and enzalutamide). The results of this study showed that the inhibitory effect of proxalutamide on PCa cell proliferation was better than that of bicalutamide and enzalutamide, and proxalutamide preferentially affected AR-positive PCa cells over AR-negative cells. The metabolic composition of PCa cells changed significantly after proxalutamide administration, and these changes in response to proxalutamide were significantly different from those in the presence of the two other AR antagonists. In AR-positive cells, proxalutamide significantly decreased the intracellular levels of glutamine, glutamate, glutathione, cysteine, glycine, aspartate, uridine, cytidine and thymidine. However, the effects of the two other antagonists on these discriminant metabolites were ambiguous, and no changes in these metabolites were found in AR-negative cells. Our findings indicate that proxalutamide has inhibitory effects on glutamine metabolism, redox homeostasis and de novo pyrimidine synthesis in AR-positive PCa cells that enhance the cellular sensitivity to proxalutamide.

10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e49, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054545

RESUMO

A new fast-growing mycobacterium, designated strain QGD101T, was isolated from the sputum of an 84-year-old man suspected of tuberculosis in Wuhan Medical Treatment Center, Hubei, China. This strain was a gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-positive bacterium, which was further identified as the NTM by PNB and TCH tests. The moxifloxacin and levofloxacin exhibited strong suppressing function against QGD101T with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125 µg/ml after drug susceptibility testing of six main antimicrobial agents on mycobacteria. Based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65 and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer, the strain QGD101T could not be identified to a species level. Mycobacterium moriokaense ATCC43059T that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98%) with strain QGD101T was actually different in genomes average nucleotide identity (78.74%). In addition, the major cellular fatty acids of QGD101T were determined as C18:1ω9c, C16:0 and C18:2ω6c. The DNA G + C content was 64.9% measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Therefore, the phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of this strain led us to the conclusion that it represents a novel species of mycobacteria, for which the name Mycobacterium hubeiense sp. nov. (type strain QGD101T = CCTCCAA 2017003T = KCTC39927T) was proposed. Thus, the results of this study are very significant for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis and future personalised medicine.

11.
Life Sci ; 248: 117467, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NQO1 protein acts as a cellular protective system, on account of its role as a quinone reductase and redox regulator. Nonetheless, new NQO1 roles are emerging-including its regulation of the cellular proliferation of many tumor cells-and this enzyme has been found to relate to the incidence of various diseases, including chronic myeloid leukemia. However, the mechanisms through which NQO1 influences leukemia progression remain unclear. MARTIAL AND METHODS: The current study looks to name NQO1 as a novel molecular target that modulates DNA synthesis and chronic myeloid leukemia growth. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the frequency of the T allele of NQO1 polymorphism in chronic myeloid leukemia patients is higher than that among healthy East Asian individuals (0.492 vs. 0.419) and much higher than the average level of the general population (0.492 vs. 0.289) (1000 Genomes). Functionally, NQO1 knockdown increases the protein expression of the TOP2A and MCM complex, and consequently promotes DNA synthesis and K562 cell growth. NQO1 knockdown also promotes tumorigenesis in a xenograft model. NQO1 overexpression, on the other hand, was found to have the opposite effects. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that NQO1 downregulation promotes K562 cellular proliferation via the elevation of DNA synthesis.

12.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 46(1): 75-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of combined scalp acupuncture and cognitive training on cognitive and motor functioning in patients with stroke during the recovery stage. METHODS: Seventy patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. Patients in the experimental group additionally received scalp acupuncture and cognitive training, while the control group received sham scalp acupuncture and cognitive training. The cognitive and motor functioning of all patients were assessed using MMSE, LOTCA, and FMA, before and 12 weeks after treatment. In addition, the plasma BDNF and NGF levels were measured from peripheral blood samples using ELISA kits. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, the MMSE, LOTCA and FMA scores were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. In the experimental group, there was an improvement in the total MMSE score, orientation, spatial executive function, the total LOTCA score, and the score of command of language orientation post-treatment. Significant improvements of BDNF and NGF were found in the experimental group after treatment, while only significant improvements of NGF was found in the control group after treatment. Both BDNF and NGF in the experiment group were higher than those in the control group at the last day of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combined scalp acupuncture and cognitive training can efficiently enhance cognitive and motor functions in patients with stroke during the recovery stage, which may be a more effective rehabilitation treatment after stroke than routine therapy and rehabilitation training alone.

13.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 38, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qiliqiangxin (QLQX) capsule is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been approved in China for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). Our previous study showed with a background of standard HF treatment, QLQX capsules further reduced the levels of NT-proBNP and the incidence of composite cardiac events (CCEs) in CHF patients. This study aims to further assess the reduction in mortality when using QLQX compared with placebo for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients. METHODS: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center, event-driven clinical study of approximately 3080 patients for a targeted 620 events. Patients must have a diagnosis of heart failure for at least 3 months prior to screening. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive the placebo or QLQX in addition to their standard medications of CHF. The primary efficacy outcome event is a composite cardiovascular death and re-hospitalization due to the worsening of heart failure. DISCUSSION: The QUEST study is a randomized control study of TCM in chronic heart failure. It will determine the place of QLQX as an new treatment approach and provide additional and innovative information regarding TCM - and the specific used of QLQX in HFrEF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn. ( Registration No.: ChiCTR1900021929); Date: 2019-03-16.

14.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e919680, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that a neotype rectal cooling device can induce mild hypothermia (MH) in Sprague-Dawley rats with ischemic-hypoxic brain damage (HIBD) and inhibit cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CAl region, and does not cause damage to rectal tissues. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of rectal MH on bacterial translocation (BT) in Sprague-Dawley rats with HIBD. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group (group C), a normothermia group (group NT), a cooling blanket group (group CB), and a rectal cooling group (group RC). Rats in group CB and group RC received MH using a cooling blanket and rectal cooling device after HIBD model establishment. Then, we measured diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate level separately in groups NT, CB, and RC. Finally, the spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes were collected for bacterial culture, and rectal tissues were collected for H&E staining. RESULTS The therapeutic outcome was better in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving rectal MH without rectal injury compared to rats in group CB. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was found in MLNs in group RC. E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter lwoffii were detected in the rats of groups CB and NT. At 12 h following rectal MH, DAO and D-lactate levels were lower than in group NT. CONCLUSIONS The neotype rectal MH cooling method could be a potential strategy to induce rapid, controllable hypothermia, thus reducing the possibility of inflammatory cell infiltration and BT incidence.

15.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(3): 311-318, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes health care resource utilization (HCRU) studies tend to focus on patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or pool patients with T2D and type 1 diabetes (T1D). There is a paucity of recent data on the cost of treating patients with T1D in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To (a) estimate the per-patient per-year (PPPY) HCRU and costs, from a payer perspective, associated with treating U.S. adults with T1D and (b) compare these with the HCRU and costs for patients with T2D. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used claims data from the Optum Clinformatics database between January 2015 and December 2017. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with a diagnosis of T1D were propensity score-matched to adults with T2D. Overall and nondiabetes-related HCRU and costs were assessed for T1D and T2D and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Propensity scores were used to match 10,103 patient pairs from T1D and T2D cohorts (mean ages 54.4 and 56.9 years, respectively). In the T1D cohort, inpatient, emergency department (ED), outpatient, and prescription claims occurred in 14.0%, 17.3%, 85.5%, and 100% of patients, respectively, resulting in a mean total cost of U.S. $18,817 PPPY (diabetes-related = $11,002; nondiabetes-related = $7,816). The T1D cohort had significantly higher mean total costs than the T2D cohort ($18,817 vs. $14,148 PPPY; P < 0.001). When extrapolating these findings to a commercial health plan with 1 million covered lives, the estimated total direct medical costs of T1D would be $103.4 million. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the total annual cost of managing an adult with T1D is significantly higher than that of an adult with T2D. Nondiabetes costs accounted for 40% of the total per-patient cost, similar to patients with T2D, confirming that as patients with T1D live longer lives, they may also be at greater risk for cardiometabolic complications. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by Sanofi U.S. and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals as part of a business partnership in a diabetes program at the time this study was conducted. Joish and Davies are employees and stockholders of Lexicon Pharmaceuticals. Zhou, Preblick, and Paranjape are employees and stockholders of Sanofi. Lin was a postdoctoral fellow at Sanofi through Rutgers University during this project. Deshpande provided consulting services through Communication Symmetry. Verma is an employee of Evidera, which was contracted by Sanofi for work on this study. Pettus is a consultant for Diasome, Insulet, Lexicon, Lilly, Mannkind, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, and Senseonics.

16.
Redox Biol ; : 101452, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067911

RESUMO

Improving the limited penetration, accumulation and therapeutic effects of antitumor drugs in the avascular region of the tumor mass is crucial during chemotherapy. P-gp inhibitors have achieved little success despite significant efforts. Excessive P-gp inhibition disturbed the kinetic balance between intracellular accumulation and intercellular penetration, thus resulting in a more inhomogeneous distribution of substrate drugs. Here, we found that ginsenoside Rh2 pretreatment mildly downregulated P-gp expression through reactivating the pentose phosphate pathway and rebalancing redox status. This mild P-gp inhibition not only significantly increased the growth inhibition effect and accumulation profile of adriamycin (ADR) throughout the multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) but also had unique advantages in improving drug penetration. Furthermore, we developed a novel individual-cell-based PK-PD integrated model and proved that metabolic reprogramming and redox rebalancing-based P-gp regulation was sufficient to increase the ADR effect in both central and peripheral cells of MCTS. Thus, a "ginsenoside Rh2-ADR" sequential regimen was proposed and exhibited a potent antitumor effect in vivo. This novel P-gp inhibition via metabolic reprogramming and redox rebalancing provided a new idea for achieving better antitumor effects in the tumor avascular region during chemotherapy.

17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data from in vitro and animal studies support the preventive effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) against colorectal cancer. Further, many epidemiologic studies evaluated the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to systematically assess the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the related articles by searching PubMed and Embase up to June, 2019. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed effect model. RESULTS: Twenty cohort articles were included in the present meta-analysis involving 2,068,137 participants and 21,437 cases. The combined RR of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was determined to 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.01) with marginal heterogeneity (I2 = 24.0%, P = 0.093) among all studies. This indicated that tea consumption had no significant association with colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis showed that no significant differences were found in all subgroups. We further conducted the gender-specific meta-analysis for deriving a more precise estimation. No significant association was observed between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in male (combined RR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.90-1.04). However, tea consumption had a marginal significant inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk in female (combined RR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.86-1.00). Further, we found a stronger inverse association between tea consumption and risk of colorectal cancer among the female studies with no adjustment of coffee intake (RR: 0.90; 95% CI 0.82-1.00, P < 0.05) compared to the female studies that adjusted for coffee intake (RR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.87-1.09, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our finding indicates that tea consumption has no significant impact on the colorectal cancer risk in both genders combined, but gender-specific meta-analysis shows that tea consumption has a marginal significant inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk in female.

18.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound has become the initial approach to evaluating thyroid nodules, facilitating the distinction between benign and malignant nodules based on composition, echogenicity, nodule border or margin, shape, the presence of calcifications, and nodule dimensions. The American College of Radiology (ACR) recommended the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) as a classification system to standardize thyroid ultrasound reports and to predict the probability of malignancy in thyroid nodules using a scoring system (TR1-TR5) based on multiple ultrasound characteristics and nodule size. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is recommended as the next step for nodules that warrant further workup. The authors assessed the accuracy of the ACR TI-RADS based on the corresponding FNA cytology results (Bethesda system diagnoses I-VI). METHODS: ACR TI-RADS ultrasound reports and corresponding FNA cytology diagnoses from January 1, 2018 to August 30, 2018 were evaluated. RESULTS: From January 1, 2018 to August 30, 2018, 2306 thyroid ultrasound-guided FNAs were performed at our institution. Of 2306 cases, 361 had ACR TI-RADS reports available. The majority of FNAs were TR4 (180; 49.9%) or TR3 (108; 29.9%). No TR2 or TR3 nodules were associated with Bethesda category V or VI diagnoses. The majority of TR4 nodules (142 of 180; 78.9%) and TR5 nodules (42 of 65; 64.6%) exhibited benign (Bethesda category II) cytology. Fourteen TR5 cases (21.5%) had malignant (Bethesda category VI) cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no TR2 or TR3 malignant (Bethesda category VI) diagnoses, and there were only a few malignancies in the TR4 and TR5 categories, the current results reassert the notion that the ACR TI-RADS scoring system shows at least some correlation between benign or malignant cytology diagnoses, as illustrated by the greater number of malignant cases in the higher ACR TI-RADS categories.

19.
Injury ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To introduce a classification for medial wall fragments in pertrochanteric femur fractures and investigate potential preoperative predictors of implant failure following fixation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 324 adult patients receiving routine operative treatment using intramedullary devices for pertrochanteric femur fractures with medial wall fragments between August 2008 and May 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential predictors including age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities, AO/OTA classification of fractures were noted. The medial wall fractures were categorized into three types: 1) Type I: avulsion of the lesser trochanter; fracture line does not exceed the base of the lesser trochanter; 2) Type II: fragment involving the posterior cortex near the base of the lesser trochanter; fracture line does not reach the midline of the posterior wall; 3) Type III: fragment involving the large posterior cortex; fracture line reaches or exceeds the midline of the posterior wall. RESULTS: The 8 (2.5%) implant failures comprised 1 in 186 Type I fractures, 1 in 76 Type II fractures and 6 in 62 Type III fractures. The failure rates of each fracture type were 0.5% in Type I, 1.3% in Type II and significantly increased to 9.7% in Type III (odds ratio [OR], 19.821; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.337-168.135; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Type III fractures had a significantly increased failure rate. It is important for orthopedists to identify Type III fractures presurgically, reduction of the medial wall fragment and fixation should be considered during surgery using intramedullary nails.

20.
Food Chem ; 312: 126043, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896450

RESUMO

Dark tea is a unique fermented tea produced by solid-state fermentation of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). It includes ripe Pu-erh tea, Fu brick tea, Liupao tea, and other teas. Microbial fermentation is considered to be the key factor controlling the quality of dark tea. It involves a series of reactions that modify the chemical constituents of tea leaves. These chemical conversions during microbial fermentation of dark tea are associated with a variety of functional core microorganisms. Further, Multi-omics approaches have been used to reveal the microbial impact on the conversion of the chemical components in dark tea. In the present review, we provide an overview of the most recent advances in the knowledge of the microbial bioconversion of the chemical components in dark tea, including the chemical composition of dark tea, microbial community composition and dynamics during the fermentation process, and the role of microorganisms in biotransformation of chemical constituents.

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