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1.
Cell Calcium ; 102: 102527, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026540

RESUMO

CACNA1E is a gene encoding the ion-conducting α1 subunit of R-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, whose roles in tumorigenesis remain to be determined. We previously showed that CACNA1E was significantly mutated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were long-term exposed to household air pollution, with a mutation rate of 19% (15 of 79 cases). Here we showed that CACNA1E was also mutated in 207 (12.8%) of the 1616 patients with NSCLC in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. At mRNA and protein levels, CACNA1E was elevated in tumor tissues compared to counterpart non-tumoral lung tissues in NSCLCs of the public datasets and our settings, and its expression level was inversely associated with clinical outcome of the patients. Overexpression of wild type (WT) or A275S or R249G mutant CACNA1E transcripts promoted NSCLC cell proliferation with activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway, whereas knockdown of this gene exerted inhibitory effects on NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. CACNA1E increased current density and Ca2+ entrance, whereas calcium channel blockers inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation. These data indicate that CACNA1E is required for NSCLC cell proliferation, and blockade of this oncoprotein may have therapeutic potentials for this deadly disease.

2.
Life (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947813

RESUMO

The development of cancer is a multistep and complex process involving interactions between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME). C-X-C chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its receptor, CXCR5, make crucial contributions to this process by triggering intracellular signaling cascades in malignant cells and modulating the sophisticated TME in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. The CXCL13/CXCR5 axis has a dominant role in B cell recruitment and tertiary lymphoid structure formation, which activate immune responses against some tumors. In most cancer types, the CXCL13/CXCR5 axis mediates pro-neoplastic immune reactions by recruiting suppressive immune cells into tumor tissues. Tobacco smoke and haze (smohaze) and the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene induce the secretion of CXCL13 by lung epithelial cells, which contributes to environmental lung carcinogenesis. Interestingly, the knockout of CXCL13 inhibits benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung cancer and azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal cancer in mice. Thus, a better understanding of the context-dependent functions of the CXCL13/CXCR5 axis in tumor tissue and the TME is required to design an efficient immune-based therapy. In this review, we summarize the molecular events and TME alterations caused by CXCL13/CXCR5 and briefly discuss the potentials of agents targeting this axis in different malignant tumors.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 405, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795208

RESUMO

Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non ß0/ß0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.

4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1302: 71-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286442

RESUMO

Chemokines have emerged as important players in tumorigenic process. An extensive body of literature generated over the last two or three decades strongly implicate abnormally activated or functionally disrupted chemokine signaling in liaising most-if not all-hallmark processes of cancer. It is well-known that chemokine signaling networks within the tumor microenvironment are highly versatile and context-dependent: exert both pro-tumoral and antitumoral activities. The C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), and its cognate receptor CXCR5, represents an emerging example of chemokine signaling axes, which express the ability to modulate tumor growth and progression in either way. Collateral evidence indicate that CXCL13-CXCR5 axis may directly modulate tumor growth by inducing proliferation of cancer cells, as well as promoting invasive phenotypes and preventing their apoptosis. In addition, CXCL13-CXCR5 axis may also indirectly modulate tumor growth by regulating noncancerous cells, particularly the immune cells, within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we review the role of CXCL13, together with CXCR5, in the human tumor microenvironment. We first elaborate their patterns of expression, regulation, and biological functions in normal physiology. We then consider how their aberrant activity, as a result of differential overexpression or co-expression, may directly or indirectly modulate the growth of tumors through effects on both cancerous and noncancerous cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Apoptose , Quimiocina CXCL13/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Receptores CXCR5 , Transdução de Sinais
5.
FEBS Open Bio ; 11(9): 2586-2599, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293829

RESUMO

Butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1), a major histocompatibility complex-associated gene that encodes a membrane protein with two extracellular immunoglobulin domains and an intracellular B30.2 domain, is critical in T-cell activation and adaptive immune response. Here, the expression of BTN3A1 in cancers was analyzed in eight databases comprising 86 733 patients of 33 cancers, and the findings were validated in patient samples and cell models. We showed that BTN3A1 was expressed in most cancers, and its expression level was strongly correlated with clinical outcome of 13 cancers. Mutations of BTN3A1 were detected, and the mutations were distributed throughout the entire gene. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that BTN3A1 co-expression genes and interacting proteins were enriched in immune regulation-related pathways. BTN3A1 was associated with tumor-infiltrating immune cells and was co-expressed with multiple immune checkpoints in patients with breast cancer (BRCA) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reported that BTN3A1 was downregulated in 46 of 65 (70.8%) NSCLCs, and its expression level was inversely associated with clinical outcome of the patients. BTN3A1 in tumor samples was lower than in counterpart normal tissues in 31 of 38 (81.6%) BRCAs. Bioinformatics analyses showed that BTN3A1 could be a target gene of transcription factor Spi-1 proto-oncogene (SPI1), and our 'wet' experiments showed that ectopic expression of SPI1 upregulated, whereas silencing of SPI1 downregulated, BTN3A1 expression in cells. These results suggest that BTN3A1 may function as a tumor suppressor and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in NSCLCs and BRCAs.

6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035487

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor p53 is usually inactivated by somatic mutations in malignant neoplasms, and its reactivation represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancers. Here, we reported that a new quinolone compound RYL-687 significantly inhibited non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells which express wild type (wt) p53, in contract to its much weaker cytotoxicity on cells with mutant p53. RYL-687 upregulated p53 in cells with wt but not mutant p53, and ectopic expression of wt p53 significantly enhanced the anti-NSCLC activity of this compound. RYL-687 induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulation of Nrf2, leading to an elevation of the NAD(P)H:quinoneoxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) that can protect p53 by inhibiting its degradation by 20S proteasome. RYL-687 bound NQO1, facilitating the physical interaction between NQO1 and p53. NQO1 was required for RYL-687-induced p53 accumulation, because silencing of NQO1 by specific siRNA or an NQO1 inhibitor uridine, drastically suppressed RYL-687-induced p53 upregulation. Moreover, a RYL-687-related prodrug significantly inhibited tumor growth in NOD-SCID mice inoculated with NSCLC cells and in a wt p53-NSCLC patient-derived xenograft mouse model. These data indicate that targeting NQO1 is a rational strategy to reactivate p53, and RYL-687 as a p53 stabilizer bears therapeutic potentials in NSCLCs with wt p53.

7.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(5): 1816-1826, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901853

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify natural compounds that bear significant anti­tumor activity. Thus, the effects of 63 small molecules that were isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on A549 human non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and MCF­7 breast cancer cells were examined. It was found that ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, exerted significant inhibitory effect on these cells. Further experiments revealed that UA inhibited the proliferation of various lung cancer cells, including the NSCLC cells, H460, H1975, A549, H1299 and H520, the human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells, H82 and H446, and murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. UA induced the apoptosis and autophagy of NSCLC cells. The inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, but not the activation of the extracellular signal­regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway contributed to the UA­induced autophagy of NSCLC cells. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) or siRNA for autophagy­related gene 5 (ATG5) enhanced the UA­induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis, indicating that UA­induced autophagy is a pro­survival mechanism in NSCLC cells. On the whole, these findings suggest that combination treatment with autophagy inhibitors may be a novel strategy with which enhance the antitumor activity of UA in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Oncol ; 56(5): 1274-1283, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319553

RESUMO

RNA­binding protein Musashi­2 (MSI2) serves as a regulator of numerous pivotal biological processes associated with cancer initiation, development and resistance to treatment, and may represent a promising drug target. However, whether MSI2 inhibition is of value in antitumor treatment remains to be determined. The present study demonstrated that MSI2 was upregulated in non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and was inversely associated with the clinical outcome of the patients. Molecular docking analysis demonstrated that the small compound largazole binds to and may be a potential inhibitor of MSI2. Largazole markedly decreased the protein and mRNA levels of MSI2 and suppressed its downstream mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Largazole also inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of NSCLC and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells (including bone marrow mononuclear cells harvested from CML patients). These results indicate that MSI2 is an emerging therapeutic target for NSCLC and CML, and the MSI2 inhibitor largazole may hold promise as a treatment for these malignancies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsipeptídeos/química , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Tiazóis/química , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102689, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How the oncoprotein epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) evades proteolytic degradation and accumulates in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear, and ubiquitin pathway genes (UPGs) that are critical to NSCLC needs to be systematically identified. METHODS: A total of 696 UPGs (including E1, E2, E3, and deubiquitinases) were silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) library in NSCLC cells, the candidates were verified, and their significance was evaluated in patients with NSCLC. The effects of a candidate gene on EGFR were investigated in vitro and in vivo. FINDINGS: We report 31 candidates that are required for cell proliferation, with the E2 ubiquitin conjugase CDC34 as the most significant one. CDC34 is elevated in tumor tissues in 76 of 114 (66.7%) NSCLCs and inversely associated with prognosis, is higher in smoker patients than nonsmoker patients, and is induced by tobacco carcinogens in normal human lung epithelial cells. Forced expression of CDC34 promotes, whereas knockdown of CDC34 inhibits, NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. CDC34 competes with c-Cbl to bind Y1045 to inhibit polyubiquitination and degradation of EGFR. In EGFR-L858R and EGFR-T790M/Del (exon 19)-driven lung tumor growth in mouse models, knockdown of CDC34 significantly inhibits tumor formation. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that an E2 enzyme is capable of competing with E3 ligase to stabilize substrates, and CDC34 represents an attractive therapeutic target for NSCLCs. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Transcriptoma , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
10.
Cancer Med ; 8(18): 7720-7727, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have documented the abnormal concentrations of major/trace elements in serum or malignant tissues of patients, but very few works systematically tested the concentrations of elements in tumor tissues in comparison with paired adjacent normal tissues from the same patients. METHODS: Tumor and adjacent normal lung tissues were obtained from 93 patients with previously untreated NSCLC, and 43 patients whose tumor and paired normal lung tissues reached 200 mg or more were selected for measurement of the elements' concentrations using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. RESULTS: We found that the concentrations of the 52 elements varied from 0.4 ng/g tissue (Lu, Pd, and Tm) to 1 658 000 ng/g (Na), 1 951 000 ng/g (P), and 2 495 000 ng/g (K). Thirty eight of the 52 (73.1%) elements showed approximately equal concentrations in tumor and adjacent normal lung tissues of the patients. The concentrations of nine elements (K, P, Mg, Zn, Rb, Cu, Se, Cs, and Tl) in tumor samples were significantly higher than their paired normal lung tissues, and five elements (Na, Fe, Cr, Cd, and Ge) exhibited decreased concentrations in cancer samples compared to counterpart normal lung tissues. Low Fe in tumor samples was associated with smoking history, whereas low Cr was associated with histology (squamous cell carcinoma) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that measurement of elements' concentrations in both cancer and paired normal tissues is important to get insights into the roles of these elements in carcinogenesis, and therapeutic approaches to normalize the elements are warranted to treat NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1125, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850589

RESUMO

Whether tobacco carcinogens enable exposed cells immune escape resulting in carcinogenesis, and why patients who smoke respond better to immunotherapies than non-smokers, remains poorly understood. Here we report that cigarette smoke and the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induce PD-L1 expression on lung epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Anti-PD-L1 antibody or deficiency in AhR significantly suppresses BaP-induced lung cancer. In 37 patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab, 13/16 (81.3%) patients who achieve partial response or stable disease express high levels of AhR, whereas 12/16 (75%) patients with progression disease exhibit low levels of AhR in tumor tissues. AhR inhibitors exert significant antitumor activity and synergize with anti-PD-L1 antibody in lung cancer mouse models. These results demonstrate that tobacco smoke enables lung epithelial cells to escape from adaptive immunity to promote tumorigenesis, and AhR predicts the response to immunotherapy and represents an attractive therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Tabaco/toxicidade , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Benzoflavonas/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(1): 143-154, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353639

RESUMO

Red wine consists of a large amount of compounds such as resveratrol, which exhibits chemopreventive and therapeutic effects against several types of cancers by targeting cancer driver molecules. In this study, we tested the anti-lung cancer activity of 11 red wine components and reported that a natural polyphenol compound ellagic acid (EA) inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation at an efficacy approximately equal to that of resveratrol. EA markedly increased the expression of the autophagosomal marker LC3-II as well as inactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway. EA elevated autophagy-associated cell death by down-regulating the expression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), and CIP2A overexpression attenuated EA-induced autophagy of lung cancer cells. Treating tumour-bearing mice with EA resulted in significant inhibition of tumour growth with suppression of CIP2A levels and increased autophagy. In addition, EA potentiated the inhibitory effects of the natural compound celastrol on lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by enhancing autophagy and down-regulating CIP2A. These findings indicate that EA may be a promising chemotherapeutic agent for lung cancer, and that the combination of EA and celastrol may have applicability for the treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Autoantígenos/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Elágico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Vinho , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Cancer Lett ; 434: 132-143, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031117

RESUMO

To systematically unveil transcription factors (TFs) that are critical to lung carcinogenesis, here we conducted a genome-wide lethality screening in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and reported that among the 1530 TFs tested, 21 genes were required for NSCLC cell proliferation and were negatively or positively associated with overall survival (OS) of patients with NSCLC. These included 11 potential tumor suppressing genes (AFF3, AhR, AR, CBFA2T3, CHD4, KANK2, NR3C2, PTEN, PRDM16, RB1, and STK11) and 10 potential oncogenic TFs (BARX1, DLX6, ELF3, EN1, ETV1, FOXE1, HOXB7, IRX4, IRX5, and SALL1). The expression levels of IRX5 were positively associated with OS of smoker and inversely associated with OS of non-smoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We showed that tobacco carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced upregulation of IRX5 in lung epithelial cells, and Cyclin D1 was a downstream target of IRX5. Furthermore, silencing of IRX5 by lentivirus mediated transfection of short hairpin RNA significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. These results indicate that tobacco smoke can modulate TFs to facilitate lung carcinogenesis, and inhibition of IRX5 may have therapeutic potentials in NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Interferência de RNA , Terapêutica com RNAi/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
14.
Oncotarget ; 9(15): 12226-12239, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29552305

RESUMO

Air pollution is one of the leading causes of lung cancer. Air pollution-related lung cancer is a deteriorating public health problem, particularly in developing countries. The MUC16 gene is one of the most frequently mutated genes in air pollution-related lung cancer. In the present study, MUC16 mRNA expression was increased in ∼50% of air pollution-related lung cancer samples obtained from patients residing in air-polluted regions (Xuanwei and Fuyuan, Yunnan, China), and MUC16 mRNA levels were correlated with the degree of air pollution. Furthermore, sequencing of the captured MUC16 gene identified 561 mutation sites within the MUC16 gene in the air pollution-related lung cancer tissues. Interestingly, some mutations at specific sites and one region were associated with MUC16 mRNA up-regulation. Therefore, we further investigated the impacts of gene mutation on MUC16 expressions and cell behaviors in cultured cells by inducing certain mutations within the MUC16 gene using CRISPER/Cas9 genome editing technology. Certain mutations within the MUC16 gene induced MUC16 overexpression at both the mRNA and the protein level in the cultured cells. Additionally, MUC16 overexpression induced by gene mutations had functional effects on the behavior of lung cancer cells, including increasing their resistance to cisplatin, promoting their growth, and enhancing their migration and invasion capabilities. Based on the data, we suggest that MUC16 mutations potentially associated with air pollution may participate in the development and progression of air pollution-related lung cancer. In addition to ovarian cancer, MUC16 may be a candidate biomarker for lung cancer.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(2)2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087503

RESUMO

Background: Overexpression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been reported in lung cancer, but the somatic mutations and alternative splicing variants of this nonreceptor tyrosine kinase remain to be investigated. Methods: FAK in 91 lung cancer patients was sequenced using genomic DNA and cDNA samples of tumor and paired normal lung tissues as templates, and the RNA-seq data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set were assessed. The biological functions of abnormal FAK transcripts and their response to FAK inhibitors were analyzed in eight cell lines using tyrosine kinase activity assay, trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT (3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3, 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide) assay, and transwell assay. Results: We identified an internal tandem duplication (ITD), an A1004S point mutation, an exon 5-27 deletion (ΔE5-27) truncation variant, and four FAK6,7 splicing variants (containing exons for Boxes 6 and 7) in seven (7.7%) patients. Smokers had more FAK abnormalities than nonsmokers. In FAK-ITD, the sequence encoding the C-terminal of the FERM domain and kinase domain was duplicated in-frame and produced a protein product with elevated autophosphorylation and sensitivity to FAK inhibitors. FAK6,7 was detected in the tumor but not counterpart normal lung tissues of four (4.4%) patients. In TCGA RNA-seq data, Box 6 and/or Box 7 (Box 6/7)-containing FAK variants were positive in 42 (8.3%) of 508 lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) and 37 (7.4%) of 501 lung squamous cell carcinomas, and smokers had higher expression of Box 6/7 (+) FAK than reformed or nonsmokers with LUAD. FAK6,7 promoted cell proliferation and migration, exhibited increased autophosphorylation, and was more sensitive to FAK inhibitor compared with wild-type FAK. Conclusions: Somatic mutations and splicing variants of FAK may have a role in lung carcinogenesis and represent potential biomarkers for FAK-targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Adenocarcinoma/enzimologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/enzimologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Oncotarget ; 8(61): 104113-104122, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262625

RESUMO

Somatic genomic mutations in lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) have been extensively dissected, but whether the counterpart normal lung tissues that are exposed to ambient air or tobacco smoke as the tumor tissues do, harbor genomic variations, remains unclear. Here, the genome of normal lung tissues and paired tumors of 11 patients with LUAD were sequenced, the genome sequences of counterpart normal controls (CNCs) and tumor tissues of 513 patients were downloaded from TCGA database and analyzed. In the initial screening, genomic alterations were identified in the "normal" lung tissues and verified by Sanger capillary sequencing. In CNCs of TCGA datasets, a mean of 0.2721 exonic variations/Mb and 5.2885 altered genes per sample were uncovered. The C:G→T:A transitions, a signature of tobacco carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, were the predominant nucleotide changes in CNCs. 16 genes had a variant rate of more than 2%, and CNC variations in MUC5B, ZXDB, PLIN4, CCDC144NL, CNTNAP3B, and CCDC180 were associated with poor prognosis whereas alterations in CHD3 and KRTAP5-5 were associated with favorable clinical outcome of the patients. This study identified the genomic alterations in CNC samples of LUADs, and further highlighted the DNA damage effect of tobacco on lung epithelial cells.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 140(1): 103-108, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27646734

RESUMO

Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may account for resistance after a period of targeted therapies because drugs destroy only a portion of tumor cells. The recognition of ITH helps identify high-risk patients to make effective treatment decisions. However, ITH studies are confounded by interpatient heterogeneity in NSCLC and a large amount of passenger mutations. To address these issues, we recruited NSCLC patients carrying TP53 mutations and selected driver mutations within recurrently mutated genes in NSCLC. A total of 12-paired normal-tumor tissues were subjected to whole-genome/whole-exome sequencing. From these, 367 non-silent mutations were selected as driver mutations and deeply sequenced in 61 intratumoral microdissections. We identified a universal prevalence of heterogeneity in all 12 tumors, indicating branched evolution. Although TP53 mutations were observed in single biopsy of all 12 tumors, most tumors consist of both TP53 mutated and non-mutated cells in separate regions within the same tumor. This suggests the late molecular timing of the acquisition of TP53 mutations; therefore, the detection of TP53 mutations in a single biopsy may simply not reflect the early malignant potential. In addition, we identified regions of loss of heterozygosity surrounding TP53 and CDKN2A mutations in tumor 711, which also exhibited heterogeneity in different regional samples. Because the ITH of driver mutations likely has clinical consequences, further efforts are needed to limit the impact of ITH and to improve therapeutic efficiency, which will benefit NSCLC patients receiving targeted treatments.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Molecular , Heterogeneidade Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Filogenia
18.
Oncotarget ; 8(2): 2681-2693, 2017 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835873

RESUMO

The S phase kinase-associated protein 1 (Skp1), an adaptor protein of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein complex, binds the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp2 and is critical to its biological functions. Targeting of Skp1 by a small compound 6-O-angeloylplenolin (6-OAP) results in dissociation and degradation of Skp2 and mitotic arrest of lung cancer cells. Here, by using a proteome microarray containing 16,368 proteins and a biotinylated 6-OAP, we identified 99 proteins that could bind 6-OAP, with Skp1 and STAT3 sitting at the central position of the 6-OAP interactome. 6-OAP formed hydrogen bonds with Ser611/Ser613/Arg609 at the SH2 domain of STAT3 and inhibited the constitutive and interleukin-6-induced phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), leading to inhibitory effects on lung cancer cells and suppression of Skp2 transcription. STAT3 was overexpressed in tumor samples compared to counterpart normal lung tissues and was inversely associated with prognosis of the patients. 6-OAP inhibited tumor growth in SCID mice intravenously injected with lung cancer cells, and downregulated both STAT3 and Skp2 in tumor samples. Given that 6-OAP is a Skp1 inhibitor, our data suggest that this compound may target Skp1 and STAT3 to suppress Skp2, augmenting its anti-lung cancer activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteômica , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Proteínas Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Oncogênicas/química , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/química , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/genética , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Transcrição Genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Oncotarget ; 8(1): 1369-1391, 2017 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901495

RESUMO

The lung cancer incidence in the Xuanwei and neighboring region, Yunnan, China, is among the highest in China and is attributed to severe air pollution with high benzo(a)pyrene levels. We systematically and comparatively analyzed DNA methylation alterations at genome and gene levels in Xuanwei lung cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as benzo(a)pyrene-treated cells and mouse samples. We obtained a comprehensive dataset of genome-wide cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer samples. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure induced multiple alterations in DNA methylation and in mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases and ten-11 translocation proteins; these alterations partially occurred in Xuanwei lung cancer. Furthermore, benzo(a)pyrene-induced DKK2 and EN1 promoter hypermethylation and LPAR2 promoter hypomethylation led to down-regulation and up-regulation of the genes, respectively; the down-regulation of DKK2 and EN1 promoted the cellular proliferation. Thus, DNA methylation alterations induced by benzo(a)pyrene contribute partially to abnormal DNA methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer, and these DNA methylation alterations may affect the development and progression of lung cancer. Additionally, vitamin C and B6 can reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA methylation alterations and may be used as chemopreventive agents for air pollution-related lung cancer.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Benzo(a)pireno/administração & dosagem , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Vitamina B 6/farmacologia
20.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 14(5): 280-288, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27397102

RESUMO

As a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, lung cancer is a collection of diseases with diverse etiologies which can be broadly classified into small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer is characterized by genomic and epigenomic alterations; however, mechanisms underlying lung tumorigenesis remain to be elucidated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that consist of ⩾200 nucleotides but possess low or no protein-coding potential. Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormal expression of lncRNAs is associated with tumorigenesis of various cancers, including lung cancer, through multiple biological mechanisms involving epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional alterations. In this review, we highlight the expression and roles of lncRNAs in NSCLC and discuss their potential clinical applications as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Humanos
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