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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114639, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530093

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Luohanguo (LHG) extract major contenting mogrosides, as a nonnutritive sweetener, has been reported to exert a hypoglycemic effect on diabetic patients and animals. As the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs were changed with diabetes, it may lead to the different pharmacological of mogrosides between diabetic and normal subjects. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To characterise the pharmacokinetic profiles of mogrosides in T2DM rats. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: High-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus rats were used to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior of mogroside V and mogrosides IIIA1, IIA1, and IA1 after T2DM rats orally administrated with mogroside V and 1-3 glucose residues' mogrosides, respectively. The validated convenient UPLC-QTOF/MS and UPLC-MS/MS methods were established to use in the pharmacokinetic studies of mogrosides in normal and T2DM rats. Additionally, the expression of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was also detected by immunohistochemical analysis, which assessed the function of passive intestinal permeability in T2DM rats. RESULTS: The results showed that for rats treated with mogroside V, its metabolite mogroside IIIA1 has a significant increase (p < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, 163.80 ± 25.56 ng/mL) and area under the plasma concentration (AUC0-t, 2327.44 ± 474.63 h·ng/mL) in T2DM rats compared with in normal rats. The mean residence time (MRT0-t, 12.04 ± 0.97 h) of mogroside V showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in T2DM rats. However, the mogrosides IIIA1, IIA1and IA1 showed no statistical differences in the normal and T2DM rats after administered with 1-3 glucose residues' mogrosides. Furthermore, the expression level of ZO-1 in the duodenum and colon of T2DM rats were downregulated. CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetic profiles of mogroside V and its metabolite mogroside IIIA1 in T2DM rats and normal rats showed some difference, it might be affected by the metabolic changes in the pathological state of T2DM.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the systemic lipid profile of patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (HUA) and gout using lipidomics, and find potential underlying pathological mechanisms therefrom. METHODS: Sera were collected from Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine as center 1 (discovery and internal validation sets) and Suzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine as center 2 (external validation set) including 88 normal subjects, 157 HUA and 183 gout patients. Lipidomics was performed by UHPLC-Q Exactive MS. Differential metabolites were identifed by both variable importance in the projection ≥ 1 in orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis mode and false discovery rate adjusted p ≤ 0.05. Biomarkers were found by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: In the discovery set, a total of 245 and 150 metabolites respectively were found for normal subjects vs HUA and normal subjects vs gout. The disturbed metabolites included DAG, TAG, PC, PE, PI, etc. We also found 116 differential metabolites for HUA vs gout. Among them, the biomarker panel of TAG 18:1-20:0-22:1 and TAG 14:0-16:0-16:1 could differentiate well between HUA and gout. The area under ROC curve was 0.8288, the sensitivity was 82%, the specificity was 78% at a 95% confidence interval from 0.747-0.9106. In internal validation set, the predictive accuracy of TAG 18:1-20:0-22:1 and TAG 14:0-16:0-16:1 panel for differentiation of HUA and gout reached 74.38%, while 84.03% in external validation set. CONCLUSION: We identified serum biomarkers panel that have the potential to predict and diagnose HUA and gout patients.

3.
J Sep Sci ; 44(22): 4082-4091, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514725

RESUMO

Red and yellow pigments are the major ingredients of safflower, often used to color food and cosmetics. Carthamin was the main component of red pigment and hydroxysafflor yellow A and anhydrosafflower yellow B were representative components of yellow pigment. Plant metabolomics and semi-quantitative analysis were used to analyze the changes of pigment composition during the blooming period, especially these characteristic components. Carthamin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflower yellow B, and other components were screened out as differential metabolites based on plant metabolomics. Then semi-quantitative analysis was used to quantify these three representative components of pigments. Experimental results showed that the content of pigments has dynamic changes along with flowering, in the early blooming period, yellow pigment accumulated much and red pigment was low in content. In the middle period, the accumulation rate of the yellow pigment slowed down and content was stabilized. In the next step, the content of yellow pigments gradually decreased, and the content of red pigments gradually increased. Later, the level of yellow pigment decreased significantly, and the accumulation rate of red pigment increased significantly. Last, the appearance color of safflower was red, with yellow parts barely visible, and accumulation of red pigment was the highest and of the yellow pigment was the lowest in content.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 700367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335665

RESUMO

Fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka called as "Xiang yuan" in Chinese, which means fragrant and round. It was widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. This fruit has well-known health benefits such as antioxidant, radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory. Naringin, deacetylnomilin, citric acid, limonin, and nomilin were the characteristic components of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka. Although the fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka possessed many applications, there was a lack of research on the growth period and drying process. In this study, plant metabolomics was used to analyze the biomarkers of the growth period, and appearance indicators and metabolites abundance were combined for the analysis of change regularities of the growth period. The representative differential metabolites of naringin, citric acid, and limonin were screened out, and the abundance of these components was relatively highest in the middle of the growth period. Therefore, the fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka should be harvested before it turned yellow completely, which could effectively ensure the content of potential active ingredients. In the comparison of different drying methods, citric acid and naringin were considered to be representative differential components, but limonoids were relatively stable and not easily affected by drying methods. Naringin was an index component that could not only be reflected the maturity but also related to different drying methods. Considering its physical and chemical properties and its position, naringin had the potential to be a biomarker of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.

5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 285, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (A. sinensis) is a Chinese herb grown in different geographical locations. It contains numerous active components with therapeutic value. Rhizosphere microbiomes affect various aspects of plant performance, such as nutrient acquisition, growth and development and plant diseases resistance. So far, few studies have investigated how the microbiome effects level of active components of A. sinensis. This study investigated whether changes in rhizosphere microbial communities and metabolites of A. sinensis vary with the soil microenvironment. Soils from the two main A. sinensis-producing areas, Gansu and Yunnan Province, were used to conduct pot experiments. The soil samples were divided into two parts, one part was sterilized and the other was unsterilized planting with the seedling variety of Gansu danggui 90-01. All seedlings were allowed to grow for 180 days. At the end of the experiment, radix A. sinensis were collected and used to characterize growth targets and chemical compositions. Rhizosphere soils were subjected to microbial analyses. RESULTS: Changes in metabolic profiles and rhizosphere microbial communities of A. sinensis grown under different soil microenvironments were similar. The GN (Gansu non-sterilized), YN (Yunnan non-sterilized), GS (Gansu sterilized), and YS (Yunnan sterilized) groups were significantly separated. Notably, antagonistic bacteria such as Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, etc. were significantly (p < 0.05) enriched in Gansu soil compared with Yunnan soil. Moreover, senkyunolide I and ligustilide dimers which were enriched in GS group were strongly positively correlated with Pseudomonas parafulva; organic acids (including chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-feruloylquinic acid) and their ester coniferyl ferulate which were enriched in YS Group were positively associated with Gemmatimonadetes bacterium WY71 and Mucilaginibater sp., respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The soil microenvironment influences growth and level/type of active components in A. sinensis. Further studies should explore the functional features of quality-related bacteria, identify the key response genes and clarify the interactions between genes and soil environments. This will reveal the mechanisms that determine the quality formation of genuine A. sinensis.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Angelica sinensis/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera
6.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(6): 422-431, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092293

RESUMO

Colon cancer-related anemia (CCRA) is mainly caused by systemic inflammation, intestinal bleeding, iron deficiency and chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in colon cancer. However, the best therapeutic schedule and related mechanism on CCRA were still uncertain. Studies on blood enrichment and anti-tumor effects of combined Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), Fe and rhEPO based on CCRA and gut microbiota modulation were conducted in this paper. Here, CCRA model was successfully induced by subcutaneous inoculation of CT-26 and i.p. oxaliplatin, rhEPO + DBD high dosage + Fe (EDF) and rhEPO + DBD high dosage (ED) groups had the best blood enrichment effect. Attractively, EDF group also showed antitumor activity. The sequencing results of gut microbiota showed that compared to P group, the relative abundances of Lachnospiraceae and opportunistic pathogen (Odoribacter) in ED and EDF groups were decreased. Interestingly, EDF also decreased the relative abundances of cancer-related bacteria (Helicobacter, Lactococcus, Alloprevotella) and imbalance-inducing bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Parabacteroides) and increased the relative abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria (Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014), however, ED showed the opposite effects to EDF, this might be the reason of the smaller tumor volume in EDF group. Our findings proposed the best treatment combination of DBD, rhEPO and Fe in CCRA and provided theoretical basis and literature reference for CCRA-induced intestinal flora disorder and the regulatory mechanism of EDF.


Assuntos
Anemia , Neoplasias do Colo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/etiologia , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 628358, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025639

RESUMO

Irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced gastrointestinal toxicity strongly limits its anticancer efficacy. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., especially flavonoids, has strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Herein, we investigate the protective effect of the total flavonoids of G. uralensis (TFGU) on CPT-11-induced colitis mice from the perspective of gut microbiota and fecal metabolism. The body weight and colon length of mice were measured. Our results showed that oral administration of TFGU significantly attenuated the loss of body weight and the shortening of colon length induced by CPT-11. The elevated disease activity index and histological score of colon as well as the up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in the colonic tissue of CPT-11-treated mice were significantly decreased by TFGU. Meanwhile, TFGU restored the perturbed gut microbial structure and function in CPT-11-treated mice to near normal level. TFGU also effectively reversed the CPT-11-induced fecal metabolic disorders in mice, mainly call backing the hypoxanthine and uric acid in purine metabolism. Spearman's correlation analysis further revealed that Lactobacillus abundance negatively correlated with fecal uric acid concentration, suggesting the pivotal role of gut microbiota in CPT-11-induced colitis. Since uric acid is a ligand of the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, TFGU was further validated to inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by CPT-11. Our findings suggest TFGU can correct the overall gut microbial dysbiosis and fecal metabolic disorders in the CPT-11-induced colitis mice, underscoring the potential of using dietary G. uralensis as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Irinotecano , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(34): 47086-47098, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886056

RESUMO

Soil microbial communities are affected by environmental factors. Contamination with heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can decrease soil microbial species richness and substantially alter soil microbial species composition. Investigations of the microbial communities in Cd-contaminated soils are necessary to obtain data for soil bioremediation efforts. However, depth-associated variations in microbial community composition and structure in Cd-contaminated paddy soils are not well understood. Here, the effects of various degrees of long-term Cd pollution on soil microorganisms were investigated at different soil depths within the plough layer using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that, in Cd-polluted soils, microbial communities were more similar between the surface soil and the underlying soil. In addition, microbial community richness and/or diversity were significantly reduced in the Cd-polluted underlying soil as compared with the non-polluted underlying soil. However, species richness in the surface layer was significantly greater in the mildly and severely Cd-polluted soils. The soil microbial communities in the same soil layer differed significantly between the non-polluted and polluted soils. Furthermore, Cd contamination affected the microbial communities of different soil layers differently. Soil pH had a synergistic effect on microbial community abundance and composition. The potential functions of the soil microbiota were mainly related to environmental processing, genetic processing, and metabolic pathways. Notably, our identification of the phyla that were differently abundant among sites with different levels of Cd pollution will provide experimental guidance for further explorations of the effects of Cd on soil microbes in natural environments. Our results not only demonstrate that long-term Cd pollution leads to a marked reduction in microbial richness and diversity in the underlying soil layer, but they also help to clarify how long-term heavy metal contamination affects the soil bacterial community.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 634796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815442

RESUMO

Crop disease remains a major problem to global food production. Excess use of pesticides through chemical disease control measures is a serious problem for sustainable agriculture as we struggle for higher crop productivity. The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a proven environment friendly way of controlling plant disease and increasing crop yield. PGPR suppress diseases by directly synthesizing pathogen-antagonizing compounds, as well as by triggering plant immune responses. It is possible to identify and develop PGPR that both suppress plant disease and more directly stimulate plant growth, bringing dual benefit. A number of PGPR have been registered for commercial use under greenhouse and field conditions and a large number of strains have been identified and proved as effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) under environmentally controlled conditions. However, there are still a number of challenges before registration, large-scale application, and adoption of PGPR for the pest and disease management. Successful BCAs provide strong theoretical and practical support for application of PGPR in greenhouse production, which ensures the feasibility and efficacy of PGPR for commercial horticulture production. This could be pave the way for widespread use of BCAs in agriculture, including under field conditions, to assist with both disease management and climate change conditions.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6672, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758238

RESUMO

Salinity one of environmental factor that limits the growth and productivity of crops. This research was done to investigate whether GA3 (0, 144.3, 288.7 and 577.5 µM) and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 90 and 135 kg N ha-1) could mitigate the negative impacts of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) on emergence percentage, seedling growth and some biochemical parameters. The results showed that high salinity level decreased emergence percentage, seedling growth, relative water content, chlorophyll content (SPAD reading), catalase (CAT) and peroxide (POD), but increased soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The SOD activity was decreased by nitrogen. However, the other measurements were increased by nitrogen. The interactive impact between nitrogen and salinity was significant in most parameters except EP, CAT and POD. The seedling length, dry weight, fresh weight, emergence percentage, POD, soluble protein and chlorophyll content were significantly affected by the interaction between GA3 and salinity. The GA3 and nitrogen application was successful mitigating the adverse effects of salinity. The level of 144.3 and 288.7 µm GA3 and the rate of 90 and 135 kg N ha-1 were most effective on many of the attributes studied. Our study suggested that GA3 and nitrogen could efficiently protect early seedlings growth from salinity damage.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 114033, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741440

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Siraitia grosvenorii fruits extract (SG, in which mogrosides are the main components), considered as a non-nutritional sweetener, has an antidiabetic effect. Our previous studies have confirmed that an extract of mogrosides being rich in triterpene glycosides with 1-3 glucosyl residues, designated as low-polar S. grosvenorii glycosides (L-SGgly), had a significant antidiabetic effect. However, whether the mechanism through impacting on gut microbiota to exert the antidiabetic effect of mogrosides remains unclear. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To explore the potential mechanism of mogrosides (SG and L-SGgly) on gut microbiota and faecal metabolites in the treatment of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, the effects of SG and L-SGgly on gut microbiota and faecal endogenous metabolites were explored by sequencing the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region of gut microbiota, and detecting with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight MS (LC-Q-TOF/MS), respectively. In particular, correlation analyses revealed how these influences affect the anti-hyperglycaemic effect, to give the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of the mogrosides in S. grosvenorii fruits. RESULTS: After a 14-day treatment with SG and L-SGgly for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ), the disordered gut microbiota in the faeces of T2DM rats were recovered. At the same time, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration significantly increased and the deoxycholic acid and 1ß-hydroxycholic acid content decreased in the faeces of T2DM rats. Moreover, correlation analyses provided the evidences that gut microbiota and its metabolites could be the target for exerting the anti-hyperglycaemic effects of SG and L-SGgly. Especially, Elusimicrobium, Lachnospiraceae_UCG-004, acetate, butyrate, and 1ß-hydroxycholic acid would be the potential dominant bacteria and biomarkers for SG and L-SGgly in reducing the blood glucose and insulin resistance of T2DM rats. CONCLUSION: It is the first time that a mechanism of targeting on gut microbiota for the antidiabetic effect of mogrosides in S. grosvenorii fruits has been proposed.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Disbiose , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
12.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2021: 8875876, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505766

RESUMO

Angelicae Sinensis Radix is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine and spice in China. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for geographical classification of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and determine the contents of ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide in the samples using near-infrared spectroscopy. A qualitative model was established to identify the geographical origin of Angelicae Sinensis Radix using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Support vector machine (SVM) algorithms were used for the establishment of a qualitative model. The optimum SVM model had a recognition rate of 100% for the calibration set and 83.72% for the prediction set. In addition, a quantitative model was established to predict the content of ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide using FT-NIR. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithms were used for the establishment of a quantitative model. Synergy interval-PLS (Si-PLS) was used to screen the characteristic spectral interval to obtain the best PLSR model. The coefficient of determination for calibration (R2C) for the best PLSR models established with the optimal spectral preprocessing method and selected important spectral regions for the quantitative determination of ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide was 0.9659 and 0.9611, respectively, while the coefficient of determination for prediction (R2P) was 0.9118 and 0.9206, respectively. The values of the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) of the two final optimized PLSR models were greater than 2. The results suggested that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM and PLSR algorithms could be exploited in the discrimination of Angelicae Sinensis Radix from different geographical locations for quality assurance and monitoring. This study might serve as a reference for quality evaluation of agricultural, pharmaceutical, and food products.

13.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128241, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038774

RESUMO

A strategy was developed to distinguish and quantitate nonfumigated ginger (NS-ginger) and sulfur-fumigated ginger (S-ginger), based on Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) and chemometrics. FT-NIR provided a reliable method to qualitatively assess ginger samples and batches of S-ginger (41) and NS-ginger (39) were discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis of FT-NIR data. To generate quantitative methods based on partial least squares (PLS) and counter propagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) from the FT-NIR, major gingerols were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data used as a reference. Finally, PLS and CP-ANN were deployed to predict concentrations of target compounds in S- and NS-ginger. The results indicated that FT-NIR can provide an alternative to HPLC for prediction of active components in ginger samples and was able to work directly on solid samples.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Gengibre/química , Informática , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Catecóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Álcoois Graxos/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 249: 119344, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360057

RESUMO

Flos Mume, an ancient Chinese plant, is widely used for food and medicine. There are numerous varieties of Flos Mume, whose main active components are chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and isoquercitrin. Currently, Flos Mume varieties are mainly distinguished by physical appearance and they have not been scientifically indexed for identification. Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) is a technique that when combined with chemometrics, determines internal components of samples and classifies them. Here, to distinguish between different Flos Mume varieties, we used a qualitative identification model based on FT-NIR. Various model parameters indicated its stability and high predictive performance. We developed a rapid, non-destructive method of simultaneously analyzing 8 components but found that only neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin have application value. Other components were excluded due to low concentration and poor prediction. Chemometric analysis found that chlorogenic acid become an ingredient which is quite different in the different categories. The content of chlorogenic acid were the highest among these components. Different varieties of Flos Mume were distinguished based on chlorogenic acid content, indicating that chlorogenic acid has potential to become a key indicator for application in quality evaluation. The established FT-NIR model for chlorogenic acid detection had excellent predictive capacity. FT-NIR was the first time applied to Flos Mume and our findings offer theoretical reference for the rapid identification and quantitative analysis of Flos Mume based on FT-NIR. Flos Mume could be evaluated for quality quickly and easily by means of FT-NIR spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Flores , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Análise de Fourier , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
PeerJ ; 8: e10302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194446

RESUMO

Cadmium pollution is becoming a serious problem due to its nondegradability and substantial negative influence on the normal growth of crops, thereby harming human health through the food chain. Rhizospheric bacteria play important roles in crop tolerance. However, there is little experimental evidence which demonstrates how various cadmium concentrations affect the bacterial community in wheat fields including rhizosphere microorganisms and nonrhizosphere (bulk) microorganisms. In this study, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing technology was used to investigate bacterial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soils under different levels of pollution in terms of cadmium concentration. Both the richness and diversity of the rhizosphere microorganism community were higher under nonpolluted soil and very mild and mild cadmium-contaminated soils than compared with bulk soil, with a shift in community profile observed under severe cadmium pollution. Moreover, cadmium at various concentrations had greater influence on bacterial composition than for the nonpolluted site. In addition, redundancy analysis (RDA) and Spearman's analysis elucidated the impact of exchangeable Cd and total Cd on bacterial community abundance and composition. This study suggests that cadmium imposes a distinct effect on bacterial community, both in bulk and rhizosphere soils of wheat fields. This study increases our understanding of how bacterial communities in wheat fields shaped under different concentrations of cadmium.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029181

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the roles of herb pairs containing Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) in Xin-Sheng-Hua Granule (XSHG) on hemolytic and aplastic anemia (HAA) mice. HAA model mice were induced by acetyl phenylhydrazine and cyclophosphamide; then the samples of XSHG and its decomposed recipes (DY, DC, DT, DH, DJ, and DZ) were orally administrated to these mice. Indicators of peripheral blood routine, organ index, and ATPase activities were tested. Moreover, the main effective components in these samples were also analyzed by UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS. Clear separation between the control and model groups from score plot of principal component analysis (PCA) was easily seen, indicating that HAA model was successfully conducted. Afterwards, relative distance calculation method between dose groups and control group from PCA score plot was adopted to evaluate the integrated effects of hematinic function of different samples. And the orders of hematinic effects were as follows: XHSG > DJ > DT > DZ > DH > DC > DY. Further analysis of these samples by UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS revealed that XSHG underwent complicated changes when herb pairs containing Danggui were excluded from XSHG, respectively. Compared with XSHG, the vast majority of active compounds in sample DY (formula minus herb pair Danggui-Yimucao) decreased significantly, which could partly explain why herb pair Danggui-Yimucao made great contribution to XSHG. These findings showed that withdrawal analysis method is a valuable tool to analyze the impacts of herb pairs containing Danggui on XSHG, which could lay foundation to reveal the compatibility rules of this formula.

17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 261: 113000, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663590

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), as a classical Chinese medicine prescription, is composed of Danggui (DG) and Huangqi (HQ) at a ratio of 1:5, and it has been used clinically in treating anemia for hundreds of years. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to explore the treatment mechanisms of DBD in anemia rats from the perspective of thymus and spleen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a successful hemorrhagic anemia model was established, and metabolomics (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) and proteomics (label-free approach) together with bioinformatics (Gene Ontology analysis and Reactome pathway enrichment), correlation analysis (pearson correlation matrix) and joint pathway analysis (MetaboAnalyst) were employed to discover the underlying mechanisms of DBD. RESULTS: DBD had a significant blood enrichment effect on hemorrhagic anemia rats. Metabolomics and proteomics results showed that DBD regulated a total of 10 metabolites (lysophosphatidylcholines, etc.) and 41 proteins (myeloperoxidase, etc.) in thymus, and 9 metabolites (L-methionine, etc.) and 24 proteins (transferrin, etc.) in spleen. With GO analysis and Reactome pathway enrichment, DBD mainly improved anti-oxidative stress ability of thymocyte and accelerated oxidative phosphorylation to provide ATP for splenocyte. Phenotype key indexes were strongly and positively associated with most of the differential proteins and metabolites, especially nucleosides, amino acids, Fabp4, Decr1 and Ndufs3. 14 pathways in thymus and 9 pathways in spleen were obtained through joint pathway analysis, in addition, the most influential pathway in thymus was arachidonic acid metabolism, while in spleen was the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. Furthermore, DBD was validated to up-regulate Mpo, Hbb and Cp levels and down-regulate Ca2+ level in thymus, as well as up-regulate Fabp4, Ndufs3, Tf, Decr1 and ATP levels in spleen. CONCLUSION: DBD might enhance thymus function mainly by reducing excessive lipid metabolism and intracellular Ca2+ level, and promote ATP production in spleen to provide energy.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hematínicos/farmacologia , Hemorragia/complicações , Metabolômica , Proteômica , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia de Sistemas , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/etiologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Baço/metabolismo , Integração de Sistemas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Timo/metabolismo
18.
J Sep Sci ; 43(16): 3170-3182, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506800

RESUMO

Safflower has both medicinal and edible values but research on its nutrient composition is still lacking. This study was established for the quantitative determination of 28 nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 30 batches of safflower from different producing areas indicated that the contents of l-proline, l-asparagine, l(+)-arginine, l-serine, l-histidine, uracil, guanosine, and uridine was high in safflower. Principle component analysis and cluster analysis found that samples from different regions could be distinguished well, and samples from the same area could be clustered into one class, different geographical environments may cause the differences of nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids in safflower. The analysis of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and counter propagation artificial neural network show similar results. Then the content of nucleosides, nucleobases, and essential amino acids were compared, and found that the content in safflower from Gansu was higher than those from other regions, and there was a little difference between the samples from Xinjiang, Sichuan, and Yunnan. This research revealed the composition of nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids in safflower, and provided a theoretical basis for utilization of safflower.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Nucleosídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1107: 74-84, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200904

RESUMO

A sensitive, rapid, precise and specific analytical method of hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP®/MS2) combined with a high-efficiency and easy sample preparation technology of ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-IL-DLLME) was developed to investigate neurotransmitters (NTs) in mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia and moderate dementia patients' urine samples. Firstly, the UA-IL-DLLME parameters were optimized using Plackett-Burman screening and rotatable central composite design, and the main optimal conditions were obtained: ultrasound power of 307 W, ultrasound time of 4.3 min and agitation time of 4.8 min. Secondly, HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP®/MS2 method was developed to simultaneously determine 15 underivatized NTs in urine samples. The analysis results of clinical samples showed that some NTs such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine (Ach) and glutamic acid (Glu) presented significant differences in different dementia stages. Finally, multivariate analysis based on the combination of principal component analysis and supervised counter propagation artificial neural network was developed for comprehensive analysis of the obtained clinical data sets. As a result, GABA and Glu were simultaneously presented meaningful contribution for classification of samples, and might be considered as potential differential compounds to the urine samples from cluster patients with different dementia stages. In summary, the presented strategy of preparation, analysis and statistics might be used to investigate NTs in different clinical biological fluids.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Demência/urina , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Neurotransmissores/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Ondas Ultrassônicas
20.
Phytomedicine ; 67: 153162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng herb pair (DQ) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long history to prevent and treat the coronary heart disease. However, its protective mechanisms against myocardial ischemia during coronary heart disease remain not well-understood. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to explore the protective mechanisms of DQ on myocardial ischemia from the perspective of serum lipidomics and amino acids (AAs). METHODS: Rats were orally administrated with low-dose DQ (L-DQ, 0.24 g/kg) and high-dose DQ (H-DQ, 0.96 g/kg) for two weeks and subcutaneously injected with isoproterenol (ISO, 65 mg/kg) for two consecutive days (13th and 14th days) to induce acute myocardial ischemia (AMI). Heart histopathology and serum biochemical indices were examined. The specifically altered serum lipid metabolites were profiled via lipidomics approach, while serum AA profiles were analyzed using UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS. RESULTS: Cardiac marker enzymes (CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTn-I) were significantly upregulated in AMI rats with some of which significantly dropped to normal level in L- and H-DQ groups. Serum TC, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL and FFA were improved in AMI rats treatment with L- and H-DQ. Further, the PCA based on lipidomics showed serum lipid metabolites in L- and H-DQ groups were closer to control group than that in model group. Compared with model group, H-DQ pretreatment significantly reduced SM (d34:1) and CE (20:4), and increased FA (20:5), PC (26:1), TG (56:9), TG (54:7), MG (17:0), Cer (d32:0) and Cer (d34:0), whereas L-DQ significantly alleviated the perturbed levels of CE (20:4), FA (20:5), MG (17:0), and SM (d34:1). Moreover, there was a significant increment for leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, lysine and glutamate but a significant reduction for tryptophan in the serum of rats in model group as compared to control group. Intriguingly, H-DQ could significantly decrease the levels of glutamate, lysine, isoleucine, and BCAAs (the sum of leucine, isoleucine and valine) after AMI, while L-DQ had no significant effects on the above altered AAs. The Western blotting results implied that H-DQ could promote the myocardial BCAA catabolism in AMI rats by activation of BCKDHA, whereas by inhibition of BCKDHK. CONCLUSION: This study presents evidence for the therapeutic effects of DQ on AMI injury, in part, via co-regulating lipid and AA metabolisms.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Panax notoginseng/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Animais , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipidômica/métodos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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