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1.
Neuropsychologia ; 140: 107396, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087206

RESUMO

To integrate auditory and visual signals into a unified percept, the paired stimuli must co-occur within a limited time window known as the Temporal Binding Window (TBW). The width of the TBW, a proxy of audiovisual temporal integration ability, has been found to be correlated with higher-order cognitive and social functions. A comprehensive review of studies investigating audiovisual TBW reveals several findings: (1) a wide range of top-down processes and bottom-up features can modulate the width of the TBW, facilitating adaptation to the changing and multisensory external environment; (2) a large-scale brain network works in coordination to ensure successful detection of audiovisual (a)synchrony; (3) developmentally, audiovisual TBW follows a U-shaped pattern across the lifespan, with a protracted developmental course into late adolescence and rebounding in size again in late life; (4) an enlarged TBW is characteristic of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders; and (5) the TBW is highly flexible via perceptual and musical training. Interventions targeting the TBW may be able to improve multisensory function and ameliorate social communicative symptoms in clinical populations.

2.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(2): 442-453, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355879

RESUMO

A phenomenon in schizophrenia patients that deserves attention is the high comorbidity rate with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the neurobiological basis of schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC). We aimed to investigate whether specific changes in white matter exist in patients with SOC and the relationship between such abnormalities and clinical parameters. Twenty-eight patients with SOC, 28 schizophrenia patients, 30 OCD patients, and 30 demographically matched healthy controls were recruited. Using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and Probabilistic Tractography, we examined the pattern of white matter abnormalities in these participants. We also used ANOVA and Support Vector Classification of various white matter indices and structural connection probability to further examine white matter changes among the 4 groups. We found that patients with SOC had decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity in the right sagittal stratum and the left crescent of the fornix/stria terminalis compared with healthy controls. We also found changed connection probability in the Default Mode Network, the Subcortical Network, the Attention Network, the Task Control Network, the Visual Network, the Somatosensory Network, and the cerebellum in the SOC group compared with the other 3 groups. The classification results further revealed that FA features could differentiate the SOC group from the other 3 groups with an accuracy of .78. These findings highlight the specific white matter abnormalities found in patients with SOC.

3.
Autism Res ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808321

RESUMO

Temporal structure is a key factor in determining the relatedness of multisensory stimuli. Stimuli that are close in time are more likely to be integrated into a unified perceptual representation. To investigate the age-related developmental differences in audiovisual temporal integration and rapid temporal recalibration, we administered simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks to a group of adolescents (11-14 years) and young adults (18-28 years). No age-related changes were found in the width of the temporal binding window within which participants are highly likely to combine multisensory stimuli. The main distinction between adolescents and adults was audiovisual temporal recalibration. Although participants of both age groups could rapidly recalibrate based on the previous trial for speech stimuli (i.e., syllable utterances), only adults but not adolescents showed short-term recalibration for simple and non-speech stimuli. In both adolescents and adults, no significant correlation was found between audiovisual temporal integration ability and autistic or schizotypal traits. These findings provide new information on the developmental trajectory of basic multisensory function and may have implications for neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism) with altered audiovisual temporal integration. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Utilizing temporal cues to integrate and separate audiovisual information is a fundamental ability underlying higher order social communicative functions. This study examines the developmental changes of the ability to detect audiovisual asynchrony and rapidly adjust sensory decisions based on previous sensory input. In healthy adolescents and young adults, the correlation between autistic traits and audiovisual integration ability failed to reach a significant level. Therefore, more research is needed to examine whether impairment in basic sensory functions is correlated with broader autism phenotype in nonclinical populations. These results may help us understand altered multisensory integration in people with autism.

4.
J Cancer ; 10(26): 6673-6680, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777596

RESUMO

Emerging evidence revealed the critical role of systematic inflammation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the present study, we reviewed the records of 279 patients with advanced PDAC. Among them, 147 cases were used as the training cohort and another 132 as the validation cohort. In the training cohort, distant metastasis, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were independent prognostic factors in Cox regression. A nomogram based on these factors was generated to predict median survival time and survival probabilities at 6, 12, and 18 months. The nomogram showed a better discriminatory ability than the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging (C-index: 0.727 vs. 0.610). In the validation cohort, a nomogram composed of the same variables also showed a high discriminatory ability (C-index: 0.784). In the low-risk group with a nomogram total point (NTP) value of more than 175, patients receiving combination therapy showed better prognosis than those receiving monotherapy (P=0.015). In conclusion, the nomogram based on inflammatory biomarkers can serve as useful prognostic tool for advanced PDAC. In addition, patients with high NTP can greater benefit from combination chemotherapy than monotherapy.

5.
Autism Res ; 2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657124

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are both associated with response inhibition impairment. However, the relative pattern of deficits in these two disorders remains unclear. Twenty-three male children with ASD, 23 male children with SZ, and 32 typically developing male controls were recruited to complete a set of tasks measuring response inhibition in the visual, auditory, and verbal domains. We found that visual, auditory, and verbal response inhibitions were impaired in both children with ASD and children with SZ. Compared with typically developing controls, children with ASD made more commission errors whereas children with SZ responded much slower in the visual response inhibition task. Both clinical groups showed comparable impairment in verbal response inhibition, but children with SZ were more impaired in auditory response inhibition than children with ASD. These different patterns of response inhibition deficit between male children with ASD and SZ may help to differentiate between these two disorders and may be potential targets for intervention. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1-8. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: In this study, we found that male children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) made more commission errors whereas male children with schizophrenia (SZ) responded much slower in the visual response inhibition task. Both clinical groups exhibited comparable impairments in verbal response inhibition, but male children with SZ were more impaired in auditory response inhibition than male children with ASD. Our findings provide potential targets for intervention.

6.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 293: 110987, 2019 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629132

RESUMO

Prospection, which has a close relationship with motivation and goal-directed behavior, could be a potential target for alleviating negative symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the structural neural correlates of prospection impairments and the involvement of working memory in prospection in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls were recruited and all of them completed a prospection task. Working memory was assessed with the Letter Number Span test. In addition, all participants underwent a structural MRI scan. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was used to measure grey matter (GM) volume. We found that in schizophrenia patients, GM loss in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventral medial PFC was correlated with decreased internal details in the prospection task. Moreover, GM volume of the right lateral PFC was found to mediate the relationship between working memory and internal details in these patients. In conclusion, GM loss in the PFC is associated with prospection impairments in schizophrenia patients. Working memory deficits may partially account for prospection impairments in schizophrenia patients.

7.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 44: 209-216, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419738

RESUMO

Schizotypal personality (SP) traits have been found to be correlated with autistic traits, obsessive-compulsive traits, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. However, the overall pattern of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the network structure between SP traits and other subclinical features (symptoms or traits) and test the replicability of these relationships. A total of 2204 college students completed measurements for SP traits, autistic traits, obsessive-compulsive traits, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms, and a validated subsample of 814 completed the same questionnaires again three months later. Using network analysis, we constructed the network structure of subclinical features and then tested its replicability. We found that interpersonal features were the bridge node connecting SP traits and autistic traits (social skill: r = 0.50; attention switching: r = 0.14; communication: r = 0.12), while cognitive-perceptual (obsessing: r = 0.05; neutralizing: r = 0.06) and disorganization (obsessing: r = 0.11) features were the SP traits associated with obsessive-compulsive traits. In addition to interpersonal features (r = 0.10), disorganization (r = 0.12) and cognitive-perceptual (r = 0.05) features were also the overlap between depressive symptoms and SP traits. Anxiety symptoms only connected with interpersonal (r = 0.05) but not cognitive-perceptual features of SP traits. The network showed high predictability (43%) and interpersonal features of SP traits had the highest expected influence (1.67) among all nodes, which may be a potential target for intervention. High similarities were found on network structure (r = 0.86) and expected influence (r = 0.96), and no significant difference on global connectivity was found between these two networks (difference value = 0.45, p = 0.135), suggesting the replicability of the network structure.

8.
Schizophr Res ; 212: 6-14, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387828

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the relationship between autistic and schizotypal traits in the non-clinical population. We first conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the correlation between self-reported autistic traits and the three dimensions of schizotypal traits (positive, negative and disorganization). The strongest correlation was found between autistic traits and negative schizotypal traits (r = 0.536, 95% CI [0.481, 0.586]), followed by the disorganization (r = 0.355, 95% CI [0.304, 0.404]) and positive (r = 0.256, 95% CI [0.208, 0.302]) dimensions. To visualize the partial correlations between dimensional behavioural traits, we constructed a network model based on a large sample of college students (N = 2469). Negative schizotypal traits were strongly correlated with autistic social/communicative deficits, whereas positive schizotypal traits were inversely correlated with autistic-like traits, lending support to the psychosis-autism diametrical model. Disentangling the overlapping and diametrical structure of autism and schizophrenia may help to elucidate the aetiology of these two neurodevelopmental disorders.

9.
Psych J ; 7(3): 144-151, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113134

RESUMO

Impairments in spatial working memory (SWM) and set-shifting abilities have both been consistently observed in individuals with schizophrenia and are considered to be potential endophenotypes of this illness. However, an endophenotype needs to fulfill a set of stringent criteria, including heritability. This study examined the heritability of these two functions in a healthy Chinese twin sample. Forty-five pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and 35 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins completed the SWM task and the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set-Shifting (IED) task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). We found a moderate heritability for SWM, of which the familial/genetic factors accounted for 33% of the total variance. However, we failed to find any significant heritability for set-shifting ability, of which the specific environmental factor explained most of the variance (85%). The preliminary findings from this small healthy Chinese twin sample suggest that SWM is heritable, whereas the set-shifting ability may reflect "extra-genetic" influences.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Schizophr Res ; 199: 135-141, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We validated the Social Mistrust Scale (SMS) and utilized it to examine the structure, prevalence, and heritability of social mistrust in a large sample of Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: In Study 1, a large sample of healthy twins (N=2094) aged 8 to 14years (M=10.27years, SD=2) completed the SMS. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to assess the structure of the SMS and to estimate the heritability of social mistrust in a sub-sample of twins (n=756 pairs). In Study 2, 32 adolescents with childhood-onset schizophrenia were compared with 34 healthy controls on levels of suspiciousness and clinical symptoms to examine the associations between the SMS and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). RESULTS: We found a three-factor structure for social mistrust (home, school, and general mistrust). Social mistrust was found to be moderately - heritable (19%-40%), with mistrust at home most strongly influenced by genetic factors. Compared with 11.76% of the healthy controls, 56.25% of the adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia exhibited very high levels of social mistrust on all three subscales of the SMS. The SMS exhibited good discriminant validity in distinguishing adolescents with childhood-onset schizophrenia from healthy controls and showed associations with a broad range of symptoms assessed by the PANSS. CONCLUSIONS: Social mistrust assessed by the SMS may be heritable. The SMS demonstrates good discriminant validity with clinical diagnoses of schizophrenia. However, it seems to be correlated with multiple aspects of psychopathology in the schizophrenia group, rather than being specific to delusional ideation/paranoia.


Assuntos
Percepção Social , Confiança , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia da Criança , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Pensamento
11.
Neuropsychologia ; 111: 172-179, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408479

RESUMO

Pleasure experience is an important part of normal healthy life and is essential for general and mental well-being. Many neuroimaging studies have investigated the underlying neural processing of verbal and visual modalities of reward. However, how the brain processes rewards in the olfactory modality is not fully understood. This study aimed to examine the neural basis of olfactory rewards in 25 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We developed an Olfactory Incentive Delay (OLID) imaging task distinguishing between the anticipation and receipt of olfactory rewards and punishments. We found that the pallidum was activated during the anticipation of both olfactory rewards and punishments. The bilateral insula was activated independently from the odours' hedonic valence during the receipt phase. In addition, right caudate activation during the anticipation of unpleasant odours was correlated with self-reported anticipatory hedonic traits, whereas bilateral insular activation during the receipt of pleasant odours was correlated with self-reported consummatory hedonic traits. These findings suggest that activity in the insula and the caudate may be biomarkers of anhedonia. These findings also highlight a useful and valid paradigm to study the neural circuitry underlying reward processing in people with anhedonia.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Punição , Recompensa , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Filosofia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory identification impairments have been consistently found in schizophrenia patients. However, few previous studies have investigated this in first-episode patients. There are also inconsistent findings regarding olfactory identification ability in psychometrically-defined schizotypy individuals. In this study, we directly compared the olfactory identification ability of first-episode schizophrenia patients with schizotypy individuals. The relationship between olfactory identification impairments and hedonic traits was also examined. METHODS: Thirty-five first-episode schizophrenia patients, 40 schizotypy individuals as defined by the Chapman's Anhedonia Scales and 40 demographically matched controls were recruited. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was administered. Hedonic capacity was assessed using the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). RESULTS: The results showed that both the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups showed poorer olfactory identification ability than controls, and the impairment was significantly correlated with reduced pleasure experiences. CONCLUSION: Our findings support olfactory identification impairment as a trait marker for schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia , Filosofia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Percepção Olfatória , Reconhecimento Fisiológico de Modelo , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 86: 66-76, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317216

RESUMO

Multisensory temporal integration could be compromised in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and may play an important role in perceptual and cognitive impairment in these two disorders. This review aimed to quantitatively compare the sensory temporal acuity between healthy controls and the two clinical groups (ASD and SSD). Impairment of sensory temporal integration was robust and comparable in both patients with SSD (Hedges' g = 0.91, 95%CI[0.62-1.19]; Z = 6.21, p < .001) and ASD (Hedges' g = 0.85, (95%CI[0.54-1.15]; Z = 5.39, p < .001). By further separating studies into unisensory and multisensory (bimodal: audiovisual) ones, subgroup analysis indicated heterogeneous and unstable effects for unisensory temporal binding in the ASD group, but a more consistent and severe impairment in multisensory temporal integration represented by an enlarged temporal binding window in both clinical groups. Such multisensory dysfunction is associated with symptoms like hallucinations and impaired social communications. Future studies focusing on improving multisensory temporal functions may have important implications for the amelioration of schizophrenia and autistic symptoms.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 257: 418-423, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837930

RESUMO

Nearly all self-report measures of anhedonia have been developed for use in adults. Recently we developed an age and developmentally appropriate measure of social/interpersonal pleasure for adolescents (ACIPS-A), whereby lower scores are indicative of social anhedonia. However the scale had not been administered to Eastern samples. The adolescent version of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS-A) was administered to a general, community-derived Chinese adolescent sample of 442 students, including 186 males (44%), who ranged in age from 12 to 18 years old. The 20-item Chinese Temporal Experience of Pleasure (TEPS) was also administered to the sample. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three factors (Casual bonding, Close relationships, and Shared interests) accounted for nearly 69% of the variance. The total ACIPS-A showed excellent internal consistency, with ordinal alpha = 0.94. Scores on the adolescent version of the ACIPS were positively and significantly associated with total scores on the four Chinese TEPS subscales. The ACIPS-A is a sufficiently robust measure to be useful and valid in Chinese samples as well as in Western (i.e. European and U.S.) samples.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Prazer/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 38(22): 3888-92, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24558870

RESUMO

To compare and study the decoction and dissolution of active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus. HPLC, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction method and the dissolution methods were adopted to compare and study the decoction yield and dissolution rate of loganin and morroniside, active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus. The results showed that the content of active constituents loganin and morroniside in crude and processed Corni Fructus did not change significantly; compared with crude Corni Fructus, processed Corni Fructus (decoction) contained much higher loganin, with no obvious change in morroniside; compared with crude Corni Fructus, processed Corni Fructus (extracts) showed no significant difference in loganin dissolution, but notable increase in morroniside dissolution in intestinal fluid; in gastric fluid, processed Corni Fructus showed significant increase in loganin and morroniside dissolutions. However, in comprehensive consideration of the decoction dose in clinical administration, and calculated on the basis of the formula of the decoction yield x dissolution rate = decoction-dissolution product, it showed increase in the decoction-dissolution products of both of the active constituents loganin and morroniside, with significant difference. This suggested that processed Corni Fructus is superior to crude Corni Fructus in clinical application. In this article, we proposed to compare the changes in decoction and dissolution of active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus, study the decoction-dissolution product, and then apply it in the quality evaluation of crude and processed Corni Fructus.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Solubilidade
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