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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18900, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reviews indicate that the effect of auricular acupuncture on migraine. However, a systematic review is not available. Therefore, this protocol was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of auricular acupuncture on migraine, by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The following databases will be searched from their inception to October 2019: Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Wan Fang Database, the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Cochrane Library, EMBASE, EBSCO, PubMed. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English or Chinese associated with auricular acupuncture for migraines will be included. Eligible study conference abstracts and reference lists of manuscripts will be searched. The data collection and analysis will be conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Meta-analysis will be performed using Rev Man V.5.3.5 statistical software. RESULTS: This systematic review will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of auricular acupuncture in the treatment of migraine. Therefore, auricular acupuncture in the treatment of migraine needs to be further clarified. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this review will determine whether the impact of auricular acupuncture for intelligence on the treatment of migraines. A better approach may be established for migraine base on this review. It provides reliable evidence for its extensive application. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The private information from individuals will not publish. This systematic review also will not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval is not available. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated in relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/7ZR8Q.


Assuntos
Acupuntura Auricular , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Humanos , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
2.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 174: 113832, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006470

RESUMO

Cardiorenal syndrome type-3 (CRS-3) is characterized by acute cardiac injury induced by acute kidney injury. Here, we investigated the causes of CRS-3 by analyzing cardiac function after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) using echocardiography and evaluation of pro-inflammatory markers, calcium balance, mitochondrial function, and cardiomyocyte death. Our results show that renal IRI reduces cardiac diastolic function associated with cardiomyocyte death and inflammatory responses. Renal IRI also disrupts cardiomyocyte energy metabolism, induces calcium overload, and impairs mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitochondrial fission. Further, renal IRI induces phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and expression of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), resulting in cytoplasmic calcium overload and mitochondrial calcium accumulation. Pretreatment with melatonin attenuates renal IRI-mediated cardiac damage by maintaining myocardial diastolic function and reducing cardiomyocyte death. Melatonin also inhibits IP3R phosphorylation and MCU expression, thereby alleviating cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium overload. Blockade of IP3R has similar cardioprotective effects, whereas MCU activation abrogates the melatonin-mediated cardioprotection. These results show that the negative effects of renal IRI on myocardial viability and cardiac function are caused by induced IP3R phosphorylation, MCU upregulation, and calcium overload. Melatonin protects cardiac function against CRS-3 by suppressing IP3R-MCU signaling.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033237

RESUMO

Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aims to create new knowledge on the antecedents of emotional exhaustion. We explore the internal mechanism and boundary conditions of the impact of ethical leadership on emotional exhaustion, using data gathered from 460 frontline service employees at an airport in China. Employees completed questionnaires regarding ethical leadership, emotional exhaustion, organizational embeddedness, job satisfaction, and demographic variables. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables and company tenure, ethical leadership was found to have a negative impact on emotional exhaustion ( = -0.128, p < 0.01), and to be positively related to organizational embeddedness ( = 0.518, p < 0.01). After adding in the mediating variable (organizational embeddedness), the effect of ethical leadership on emotional exhaustion was no longer significant ( = 0.012, ns), while organizational embeddedness emerged as significantly related to emotional exhaustion ( = -0.269, p < 0.01), implying that the effect of ethical leadership on emotional exhaustion was completely mediated by organizational embeddedness. Simultaneously, the results suggested that job satisfaction could strengthen the mediating effect of organizational embeddedness on emotional exhaustion (the difference in the mediating effect between the groups with respective high and low job satisfaction was -0.096, p < 0.05). This study proposed and validated a moderated mediation model, the implications of which are that ethical leadership is an effective way to alleviate frontline service employees' emotional exhaustion.

4.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-15, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological agents are commonly used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). As new treatments, tofacitinib, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have demonstrated efficacy in treating UC. This network meta-analysis aims to determine the efficacy and safety of biological agents, tofacitinib, and FMT. METHODS: A network meta-analysis was conducted by systematically searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Libraries. According to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological agents, tofacitinib, and FMT in UC. A random-effect model was chosen by the network meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis. Heterogeneity test and publication bias test were performed to determine the efficacy of treatments. RESULTS: Data were extracted from 16 RCTs and we found that all treatments were more effective than the placebos. A total of 21 comparisons were made to determine efficiency. We found that infliximab, vedolizumab, and FMT performed better curative effect in terms of absolute effects and relative ranks. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the efficacy of biological agents, tofacitinib, and FMT. Moreover, no treatments were found to increase the occurrence of adverse events when compared with placebos, except infliximab. However, vedolizumab seemed to reduce the occurrence of adverse events compared with infliximab. CONCLUSION: Of the biological agents, vedolizumab and infliximab were the most effective, suggesting that biological agents are still a better choice. Nevertheless, tofacitinib and FMT may be promising alternatives with high efficacies. However, more safety and maintenance studies need to be conducted in future for the acquisition of more accurate results.Abbreviations: FMT: Fecal microbiota transplantation; UC: Ulcerative colitis; RCTs: Randomized controlled trials; IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease; CD: Crohn's disease; IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome; CDI: Clostridium difficile infections; ITT: Intention-to-treat; RR: Relative risk; CI: Confidence interval; CrI: Credible intervals; IFX: Infliximab; ADA: Adalimumab; TFB: Tofacitinib; GLM: Golimumab; VDZ: Vedolizumab; PBO: Placebo; wk: week; F: Female; M: Male; AEs: Adverse events; SAEs: Serious adverse events; anti-TNF: Anti-tumor necrosis factors.

5.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 4(2): 204-215, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine age-related changes in choroidal thickness and the volume of choroidal vessels and stroma using automated algorithms based on structural swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) scans. DESIGN: Prospective and observational study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 144 normal participants with ages ranging from 20 to 88 years. METHODS: A previously reported strategy was used to automatically segment the choroid using SS-OCT structural images. Attenuation correction was applied on B-scans to enhance the choroidal contrast and facilitate more accurate automatic segmentation of the 3-dimensional choroidal vessel and stroma. The parameters that we investigated included mean choroidal thickness (MCT), choroidal vessel volume (CVV), choroidal stroma volume (CSV), choroid vascularity index (CVI), and the choroidal stroma-to-vessel volume ratio (CSVR). Correlations between MCT and choroidal vessel metrics of CVV, CSV, CVI, and CSVR were studied. Regional distributions of MCT and CVI were analyzed using a grid centered on the fovea. Age-related changes in MCT, CVV, CSV, and CVI were studied in the entire scanning region, as well as in the subregions of the grids. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-related changes in MCT, CVV, CSV, and CVI using 6×6-mm and 12×12-mm SS-OCT scans. RESULTS: The automated choroid segmentations were validated against manual segmentations, and MCT measurements were shown to be in good agreement (P < 0.0001). Choroidal vessel volume and CSV showed significant correlations with MCT (all P < 0.0001). Interestingly, CVI and CSVR were constant, with little variation among all participants regardless of age and MCT (61.1±1.8% and 0.64±0.05, respectively). Measurements on 12×12-mm and 6×6-mm scans showed excellent agreement in all scan regions (all P < 0.0001). While choroidal thickness and choroidal volume, which includes both choroidal vessels and stroma, decrease with age (all P < 0.0001), the CVI and CSVR vary little among all ages in all regions. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas MCT, CVV, and CSV decrease with age, the CVI and CSVR remain constant in all regions with age. Ongoing studies are using these automated algorithms on SS-OCT structural datasets to investigate the diagnostic usefulness of these choroidal parameters in a myriad of ocular and systemic diseases.

6.
Theranostics ; 10(1): 384-397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903127

RESUMO

Bax inhibitor-1 (BI1) conveys anti-apoptotic signals for mitochondria while prohibitin 2 (PHB2) is implicated in sustaining mitochondrial morphology and function. However, their regulatory roles in acute kidney injury (AKI) are largely unknown. Methods: In human patients with AKI, levels of BI1 in urine and plasma were determined using ELISA. An experimental model of AKI was established using ATP depletion-mediated metabolic stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in primary tubule cells and BI1 transgenic mice, respectively. Western blots, ELISA, qPCR, immunofluorescence, RNA silencing, and domain deletion assay were employed to evaluate the roles of BI1 and PHB2 in the preservation of mitochondrial integrity. Results: Levels of BI1 in urine and plasma were decreased in patients with AKI and its expression correlated inversely with renal function. However, reconstitution of BI1 in a murine AKI model was capable of alleviating renal failure, inflammation and tubular death. Further molecular scrutiny revealed that BI1 preserved mitochondrial genetic integrity, reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress, promoted mitochondrial respiration, inhibited excessive mitochondrial fission, improved mitophagy and suppressed mitochondrial apoptosis. Intriguingly, levels of the mitochondria-localized PHB2 were sustained by BI1 and knockdown of PHB2 abolished the mitochondrial- and renal- protective properties of BI1. Furthermore, BI1 promoted PHB2 retention within mitochondria through direct interaction with cytoplasmic PHB2 to facilitate its mitochondrial import. This was confirmed by the observation that the C-terminus of BI1 and the PHB domain of PHB2 were required for the BI1-PHB2 cross-linking. Conclusion: Our data have unveiled an essential role of BI1 as a master regulator of renal tubule function through sustaining mitochondrial localization of PHB2, revealing novel therapeutic promises against AKI.

7.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 115(2): 11, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919590

RESUMO

DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a novel inducer to promote mitochondrial apoptosis and suppress tumor growth in a variety of cells although its role in cardiovascular diseases remains obscure. This study was designed to examine the role of DNA-PKcs in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and mitochondrial damage. Cardiomyocyte-specific DNA-PKcs knockout (DNA-PKcsCKO) mice were subjected to IR prior to assessment of myocardial function and mitochondrial apoptosis. Our data revealed that IR challenge, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) or H2O2-activated DNA-PKcs through post-transcriptional phosphorylation in murine hearts or cardiomyocytes. Mice deficient in DNA-PKcs in cardiomyocytes were protected against cardiomyocyte death, infarct area expansion and cardiac dysfunction. DNA-PKcs ablation countered IR- or HR-induced oxidative stress, mPTP opening, mitochondrial fission, mitophagy failure and Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis, possibly through suppression of Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) activity. A direct association between DNA-PKcs and BI-1 was noted where DNA-PKcs had little effect on BI-1 transcription but interacted with BI-1 to promote its degradation. Loss of DNA-PKcs stabilized BI-1, thus offering resistance of mitochondria and cardiomyocytes against IR insult. Moreover, DNA-PKcs ablation-induced beneficial cardioprotection against IR injury was mitigated by concurrent knockout of BI-1. Double deletion of DNA-PKcs and BI-1 failed to exert protection against global IR injury and mitochondrial damage, confirming a permissive role of BI-1 in DNA-PKcs deletion-elicited cardioprotection against IR injury. DNA-PKcs serves as a novel causative factor for mitochondrial damage via suppression of BI-1, en route to the onset and development of cardiac IR injury.

8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(4): 126907, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902710

RESUMO

Chimeric molecules which effect intracellular degradation of target proteins via E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination (e.g., PROTACs) are currently of high interest in medicinal chemistry. However, these entities are relatively large compounds that often possess molecular characteristics which may compromise oral bioavailability, solubility, and/or in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. Accordingly, we explored whether conjugation of chimeric degraders to monoclonal antibodies using technologies originally developed for cytotoxic payloads might provide alternate delivery options for these novel agents. In this report we describe the construction of several degrader-antibody conjugates comprised of two distinct ERα-targeting degrader entities and three independent ADC linker modalities. We subsequently demonstrate the antigen-dependent delivery to MCF7-neo/HER2 cells of the degrader payloads that are incorporated into these conjugates. We also provide evidence for efficient intracellular degrader release from one of the employed linkers. In addition, preliminary data are described which suggest that reasonably favorable in vivo stability properties are associated with the linkers utilized to construct the degrader conjugates.

9.
iScience ; 23(2): 100831, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982780

RESUMO

Metabolism is a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions. There is a lack of real-time, non-invasive approaches to evaluate metabolism in single HSCs. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we developed a set of metabolic optical biomarkers (MOBs) from the auto-fluorescent properties of metabolic coenzymes NAD(P)H and FAD. The MOBs revealed the enhanced glycolysis, low oxidative metabolism, and distinct mitochondrial localization of HSCs. Importantly, the fluorescence lifetime of enzyme-bound NAD(P)H (τbound) can non-invasively monitor the glycolytic/lactate dehydrogenase activity in single HSCs. As a proof of concept for metabolism-based cell sorting, we further identified HSCs within the Lineage-cKit+Sca1+ (KLS) hematopoietic stem/progenitor population using MOBs and a machine-learning algorithm. Moreover, we revealed the dynamic changes of MOBs, and the association of longer τbound with enhanced glycolysis under HSC stemness-maintaining conditions during HSC culture. Our work thus provides a new paradigm to identify and track the metabolism of single HSCs non-invasively and in real time.

10.
Redox Biol ; 30: 101415, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901590

RESUMO

FUN14 domain-containing protein 1 (Fundc1)-dependent mitophagy, mainly activated by ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning, benefits acute myocardial reperfusion injury and chronic metabolic syndrome via sustaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondrial fission plays a pathogenic role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) through perturbation of mitochondrial quality and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis. The aim of our study was to explore the role of Fundc1 mitophagy in ischemia preconditioning (IPC)-mediated renoprotection. Proximal tubule-specific Fundc1 knockout (Fundc1PTKO) mice were subjected to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and IPC prior to assessment of renal function, mitophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and Drp1-related mitochondrial fission. Following exposure to IPC, Fundc1 mitophagy was activated through post-transcriptional phosphorylation at Ser17. Interestingly, IRI-mediated renal injury, inflammation, and tubule cell death were mitigated by IPC whereas proximal tubule-specific Fundc1 knockout (Fundc1PTKO) mice abolished IPC-offered renoprotection. Mechanistically, IRI-evoked mitochondrial damage was improved by IPC whereas Fundc1 deficiency provoked mitochondrial abnormality, manifested by impaired mitochondrial quality and hyperactivated Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission. Interestingly, Fundc1 deficiency-associated mitochondrial dysfunction was reversed by pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission. In vivo, Fundc1 deletion-caused renal injury, severe pro-inflammatory response, and tubule cell death could be nullified by way of knockout Drp1 on Fundc1PTKO background. Finally, we also revealed that IPC triggered Fundc1 mitophagy activation through UNC-51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1) and Ulk1 ablation interrupted IPC-mediated Fundc1 activation and thus attenuated IPC-induced renoprotection. Fundc1 mitophagy, primarily driven by IPC, confers resistance to AKI through reconciliation of mitochondrial fission, implicating the therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondrial homeostasis for AKI.

11.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993882

RESUMO

Mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) has been demonstrated to play a role in the activation of mitochondrial cleavage and mitochondrial death, denoting its role in the regulation of mitochondrial quality control. Recent evidence suggested that the mRNA translation of Mff is under the negative regulation by the RNA-binding protein Pumilio2 (Pum2). This study was designed to examine the role of Pum2 and Mff in the governance of mitochondrial quality control in a murine model of acute ischemic kidney injury. Our results indicated that genetic deletion of Mff overtly attenuated ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI)-induced renal failure through inhibition of pro-inflammatory response, tubular oxidative stress, and ultimately cell death in the kidney. Furthermore, Mff inhibition effectively preserved mitochondrial homeostasis through amelioration of mitochondrial mitosis, restoration of Sirt1/3 expression, and boost of mitochondrial respiration. Western blot analysis revealed that levels of Pum2 were significantly downregulated by ischemic AKI, inversely coinciding with levels of Mff. Overexpression of Pum2 reduced ischemic AKI-mediated Mff upregulation and offered protection on renal tubules through modulation of mitochondrial quality control. Taken together, our data have unveiled the molecular mechanism of the Pum2-Mff axis in mitochondrial quality control in a mouse model of ischemic AKI. These data indicated the therapeutic potential of Pum2 activation and Mff inhibition in the management of ischemic AKI.

12.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948043

RESUMO

Mitochondria are key regulators of cell fate through controlling ATP generation and releasing pro-apoptotic factors. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the coronary microcirculation has manifestations ranging in severity from reversible edema to interstitial hemorrhage. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cardiac microvascular I/R injury including edema, impaired vasomotion, coronary microembolization, and capillary destruction. In contrast to their role in cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. It is clear that abnormal mitochondrial signatures, including mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion, and mitophagy, play a substantial role in endothelial cell function. While the pathogenic role of each of these mitochondrial alterations in the endothelial cells I/R injury remains complex, profiling of mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics in endothelial cell dysfunction may offer promising potential targets in the search for novel diagnostics and therapeutics in cardiac microvascular I/R injury. The objective of this review is to discuss the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress on cardiac microvascular endothelial cells dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fission and fusion, are critically discussed to understand their roles in endothelial cell survival. Finally, mitophagy, as a degradative mechanism for damaged mitochondria, is summarized to figure out its contribution to the progression of microvascular I/R injury.

13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(1): 76-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is partly attributed to the ineffective delivery of therapeutics through dense mucinous tumor barriers. We modified the surface of Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG-NPs) with a low-density, second PEG layer (PLGA-TPEG-NPs-20) to reduce their binding affinity to proteins and improve diffusion through mucin. METHODS: Nanoprecipitation was used to fabricate PLGA-PEG-NPs. To construct the second PEG layer of PLGA-TPEG-NPs-20, PEG-Thiol was conjugated to PLGA-PEG-NPs composed of 80% methoxy PLGA-PEG and 20% of PLGA-PEG-Maleimide. DiD-labeled nanoparticles (NPs) were added to the inner well of a trans-well system containing cultured LS174T or human PMP tissue. Diffusion of NPs was measured via fluorescence signal in the bottom well. In an ex vivo rat model, small intestine was treated with DiD-labeled NPs. In an in vivo murine LS174T subcutaneous tumor model, Nu/Nu nude mice received supratumoral injections (subcutaneous injection above the tumor) of DiD-labeled NPs. Thirty minutes after injection, mice were sacrificed, and tumors were collected. All tissue was cryosectioned, mounted with DAPI-containing media, and inspected via confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Diffusion profiles of NPs through PMP and cultured LS174T cells were generated. PLGA-TPEG-NPs-20 diffused faster with ~ 100% penetration versus PLGA-PEG-NPs with ~ 40% penetration after 8 h. Increased diffusion of PLGA-TPEG-NPs-20 was further observed in ex vivo rat small intestine as evidenced by elevated luminal NP fluorescence signal on the luminal surface. Subcutaneous LS174T tumors treated with PLGA-TPEG-NPs-20 demonstrated greater diffusion of NPs, showing homogenous fluorescence signal throughout the tumor. CONCLUSIONS: PLGA-TPEG-NPs-20 can be an effective mucin penetrating drug delivery system.

14.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756377

RESUMO

Peniterester (1), a new tricyclic sesquiterpene, together with 6 known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the secondary metabolites of an artificial mutant Penicillium sp. T2-M20 which was obtained from the parental strain Penicillium sp. T2-8 via UV irradiation as well as nitrosoguanidine (NTG) induction. Peniterester was only produced by the mutant T2-M20 on the basis of LC-MS analysis. Meanwhile, the results of in vitro bioactivities screening indicated that peniterester owned obvious antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs of 8.0, 8.0 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Penicillium/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Rizoma/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113604, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761578

RESUMO

The combined effect of polystyrene microplastics (mPS) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a common plastic additive, on the microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was investigated in the present study. The 96 h-IC50 value of DBP was 2.41 mg L-1. Polystyrene microplastics exhibited size-dependent inhibitory effect to C. pyrenoidosa, with the 96 h-IC50 at 6.90 and 7.19 mg L-1 for 0.1 and 0.55 µm mPS respectively, but little toxicity was observed for 5 µm mPS. The interaction parameter ρ based on the response additive response surface (RARS) model varied from -0.309 to 5.845, indicating the interaction pattern varying with exposure concentrations of chemical mixtures. A modified RARS model (taking ρ as a function of exposure concentration) was constructed and could well predict the combined toxicity of mPS and DBP. More than 20% reduction of DBP was observed at 20 mg L-1 mPS, while 1 mg L-1 mPS had no significant effect on the bioavailability of DBP at different sampling time points. Volume, morphological complexity and chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of microalgal cells were disturbed by both DBP and mPS. The antagonistic effect of high concentrations of mPS might be partially attributed to the combination of hetero- and homo-aggregation and the reduced bioavailability of DBP. The overall findings of the present study profiled the combined toxic effects of mPS and DBP on marine phytoplankton species which will be helpful for further evaluation of ecological risks of mPS and DBP in marine environment.

16.
ChemMedChem ; 15(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674143

RESUMO

The ability to selectively degrade proteins with bifunctional small molecules has the potential to fundamentally alter therapy in a variety of diseases. However, the relatively large size of these chimeric molecules often results in challenging physico-chemical properties (e. g., low aqueous solubility) and poor pharmacokinetics which may complicate their in vivo applications. We recently discovered an exquisitely potent chimeric BET degrader (GNE-987) which exhibited picomolar cell potencies but also demonstrated low in vivo exposures. In an effort to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of this molecule, we discovered the first degrader-antibody conjugate by attaching GNE-987 to an anti-CLL1 antibody via a novel linker. A single IV dose of the conjugate afforded sustained in vivo exposures that resulted in antigen-specific tumor regressions. Enhancement of a chimeric protein degrader with poor in vivo properties through antibody conjugation thereby expands the utility of directed protein degradation as both a biological tool and a therapeutic possibility.

17.
Immunol Invest ; 49(1-2): 15-31, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298049

RESUMO

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with complex etiology. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is critical for leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and migration out of blood vessels and thus participates in many autoimmune diseases. Previous studies of blood and urinary ICAM-1 in SLE have yielded inconsistent results.Methods: The following databases were searched for studies that compared blood and/or urinary ICAM-1 in SLE patients vs. healthy control subjects, and/or in SLE with active vs. inactive diseases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Web of Science. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model when there was significant heterogeneity (assesses using the Cochrane Q test and I2 statistics), and using a fixed-effects model otherwise. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot and egger text.Results: The initial screening yielded a total of 1,215 articles; 22 articles (14 reporting blood ICAM-1, 7 reporting urinary ICAM-1 and 1 reporting both) were included in the meta-analysis. In comparison to healthy controls, SLE patients had elevated urinary ICAM-1 (SMD: 0.711; 95% CI: 0.521, 0.901) as well as blood ICAM-1 (SMD: 0.725; 95% CI: 0.385, 1.065). Blood ICAM-1 did not differ significantly between active and inactive SLE (SMD: 0.396; 95% CI: -0.556, 1.347).Conclusion: Elevated blood and urinary ICAM-1 is a biomarker for SLE, but does not differentiate active and inactive SLE.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113639, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796315

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have investigated the associations of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure with hypertension risk or blood pressure levels, but findings are inconsistent. Furthermore, the association between its alternatives bisphenol S and F (BPS and BPF) and hypertension risk are not yet known. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1437 eligible participants without hypertension-related diseases, with complete data about blood pressure levels, hypertension diagnosis, and urinary bisphenols concentrations. Multivariable logistic and linear models were respectively applied to examine the associations of urinary bisphenols concentrations with hypertension risk and blood pressure levels. The dose-response relationship was explored by the restricted cubic spline model. Compared with the reference group of BPA, individuals in the middle and high exposure group had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 and 1.40 for hypertension, had a 3.08 and 2.82 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels, respectively, with an inverted "U" shaped dose-response relationship. Compared with the reference group of BPS, individuals in the second and third tertile had an adjusted OR of 1.49 and 1.48 for hypertension, had a 2.61 and 3.89 mm Hg increased levels of SBP, respectively, with a monotonic curve. No significant associations of BPF exposure with hypertension risk or blood pressure levels were found. BPA and BPS exposure were suggested to be associated with increased hypertension risk and blood pressure levels, with different dose-response relationships. Our findings have important implications for public health but require confirmation in prospective studies.

19.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(3): 2847-2856, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535369

RESUMO

Septic cardiomyopathy is associated with mitochondrial damage and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction. However, the upstream mediator of mitochondrial injury and ER stress has not been identified and thus little drug is available to treat septic cardiomyopathy. Here, we explored the role of B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) in septic cardiomyopathy and figure out whether melatonin could attenuate sepsis-mediated myocardial depression via modulating BAP31. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish the septic cardiomyopathy model. Pathway analysis was performed via western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Mitochondrial function and ER stress were detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and immunofluorescence. After exposure to LPS, cardiac function was reduced due to excessive inflammation response and extensive cardiomyocyte death. Mechanistically, melatonin treatment could dose-dependently improve cardiomyocyte viability via preserving mitochondrial function and reducing ER stress. Further, we found that BAP31 transcription was repressed by LPS whereas melatonin could restore BAP31 expression; this effect was dependent on the MAPK-ERK pathway. Inhibition of the ERK pathway and/or knockdown of BAP31 could attenuate the beneficial effects of melatonin on mitochondrial function and ER homeostasis under LPS stress. Altogether, our results indicate that ERK-BAP31 pathway could be used as a critical mediator for mitochondrial function and ER homeostasis in sepsis-related myocardial injury. Melatonin could stabilize BAP31 via the ERK pathway and thus contribute to the preservation of cardiac function in septic cardiomyopathy.

20.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 132: 109408, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731973

RESUMO

Lipase ZC12, a cold-adapted lipase derived from Psychrobacter sp. ZY124, can be effectively activated by Ca2+. Inspired by this significant property, we developed a novel immobilized lipase ZC12/Ca3(PO4)2 hybrid nanoflowers (LHNs). The LHNs have been characterized as a regular hierarchical flowerlike structure nanoflowers by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with free lipase ZC12, the LHNs exerted enhanced enzymatic activity of 206% and 2.31-fold in kcat/Km value, especially high specific activity at low temperature. After 7 successive cycles, the LHNs could still maintain its initial activity, demonstrating superior durability than the free lipase ZC12. Meanwhile, its stability basically kept unchanged in a wide range of temperature and pH. Finally, fructose laurate was transformed by the LHNs with 57.39% conversion rate which is twice as much as the free lipase. To sum up, these results validated that LHNs could emerge as an efficient immobilized lipase and possess the promising potential for practical applications.

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