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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111965, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450443

RESUMO

Soil samples from the intertidal zone of Daliao River, Northeast China, were collected in three seasons (autumn, L1; winter, L2; and spring, L3) to evaluate the diversity and structure of bacterial community using high-throughput sequencing. Soil physicochemical characteristics varied greatly with seasons, and the potential nitrification rates were detected in the range of 1.04-2.71 µg NO3--N·g-1 dry soil·h-1 with the highest rate in spring (L3). Soil bacterial communities also differed seasonally, and nitrogen nutrients were the important variables affecting the bacterial communities as demonstrated by distance-based redundancy analysis and Mantel tests. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in soils showing a descending trend from L1 to L3. Woeseia and Ignatzschineria, both affiliating with Gammaproteobacteria, were the two most dominant genera, but they exerted different seasonal variations. The predicted functional profiles revealed 6 major nitrogen cycling processes, and the functional genes in relation to denitrification process were dominant in intertidal soils.

2.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(4): 873-882, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456344

RESUMO

Fluid resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock is a model of systemic ischemia/reperfusion injury (SI/RI), and the liver is one of the main target organs. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can reduce hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI) via autophagy. However, whether remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can alleviate the liver injury that is secondary to hemorrhagic shock and the role of autophagy in this process remain unclear. Thus, we constructed a hemorrhagic shock model in rats with or without RIPC to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP) and investigate liver secondary injury levels via serum aminotransferase, ultrasound, HE staining and TUNEL fluorescence staining. We also detected levels of serum inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELLSA), observed autophagosomes by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and analyzed LC3, Beclin-1, p62 protein expression levels by immunohistochemical (IHC) and western blot (WB). We found that RIPC increased blood pressure adaptability, decreased lactate (Lac) and aminotransferase levels, and delayed the decrease in liver density. Levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1ß and apoptosis were attenuated, autophagosomes was increased in the RIPC group compared with controls. IHC and WB both revealed increased LC3 and Beclin-1 but decreased p62 protein expression levels in the RIPC group. Together, our data suggest that RIPC-activated autophagy could play a protective role against secondary liver injury following hemorrhagic shock.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1687, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462260

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is characterized by high infiltration and rapid growth. The function of the stem cell population is to control and maintain cell regeneration. Therefore, it is necessary to study the prognostic value of stem cell-related genes in LUAD. Signature genes were screened out from 166 stem cell-related genes according to the least absolute shrinkage operator (LASSO) and subsequently multivariate Cox regression analysis, and then established risk model. Immune infiltration and nomogram model were used to evaluate the clinical efficacy of signature. A signature consisting of 10 genes was used to dichotomize the LUAD patients into two groups (cutoff, 1.314), and then validated in GSE20319 and GSE42127. There was a significant correlation between signature and clinical characteristics. Patients with high-risk had a shorter overall survival. Furthermore, significant differences were found in multiple immune cells between the high-risk group and low-risk group. A high correlation was also reflected between signature and immune infiltration. What's more, the signature could effectively predict the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with LUAD, and a nomogram based on signature might accurately predict the prognosis of patients with LUAD. The signature-based of stem cell-related genes might be contributed to predicting prognosis of patients with LUAD.

4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415584

RESUMO

Cadmium exposure may increase the risk of osteoporosis. However, there is no quick method to get bone mineral density (BMD) unless dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examinations were performed. In the present study, we aimed to identify associated factors to osteoporosis and fracture in a Chinese female population with cadmium exposure and develop nomograms to predict the risk. A total of 488 women was included in this study. Cadmium in blood (BCd) and urine (UCd) were determined as exposure biomarkers. BMD was determined using single-photon absorptiometry. Urinary N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and urinary albumin (UALB) were determined as renal function biomarkers. Osteoporosis was defined if T-score < - 2.5. Multiple logistic regression showed that age, BCd, and menopausal status were independent risk factors for osteoporosis. The odds (OR) value was 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.25) for age, 1.05 (95% CI: 1.004-1.10) for BCd, and 4.75 (95% CI: 1.65-13.69) for menopausal status after adjusting with cofounders. Age and UCd were the independent risk factors for bone fracture. Nomograms were developed based on the associated factors. Age was the main determinant for osteoporosis or fracture. Receiver operating curve showed acceptable performance in predicting osteoporosis (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.93, 95CI: 0.90-0.96) and fracture (AUC = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.58-0.75). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) further showed that 88.9% of osteoporosis and 68.4% of fractures were correctly classified. Our study develops nomograms that may be used to predict cadmium-induced osteoporosis or fracture if BMD data is not available.

5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(2): 105475, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post-ischemic stroke epilepsy (PISE) is one of the common complications of stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methods To determine the risk factors of PISE, in this study, 78 patients with PISE and 86 patients without PISE were recruited. Clinical data and serum neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels were collected and the relative factors including clinical data and serum were analyzed. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed that low serum NPY was significantly associated with PISE. Every 5 ng/ml increment of serum NPY was associated with 62% risk decrease in patients with PISE. The area under curve of serum NPY was 0.910 with a sensitivity of 84.62% and a specificity of 86.05%. The cut-off value of serum NPY was 90 ng/ml. According to cut-off value of serum NPY, the percentage of patients with PISE decreased from 84.6% in low serum NPY group to 14.0% in high serum NPY group. Furthermore, patients were divided into different tertiles according to serum NPY. The percentage of patients with PISE reduced from 90.0% in the lowest tertile (NPY < 85 ng/ml) to 3.5% in the highest tertile (NPY ≥ 105 ng/ml). Compared with patients with normal video-electroencephalogram (VEEG), serum NPY levels significantly decreased in patients with abnormal VEEG; however, serum NPY levels were not associaated with epileptic seizure subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Serum NPY was an independent risk factor for PISE. Targeting serum NPY may be used to the prevention and treatment of PISE.

6.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101777, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166869

RESUMO

The death of cardiomyocytes either through apoptosis or necroptosis is the pathological feature of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5), a mitochondrially-localized serine/threonine-protein phosphatase, functions as a novel inducer of necroptosis. However, intense debate exists regarding the effect of PGAM5 on I/R-related cardiomyocyte death. Using cardiac-specific PGAM5 knockout (PGAM5CKO) mice, we comprehensively investigated the precise contribution and molecular mechanism of PGAM5 in cardiomyocyte death. Our data showed that both PGAM5 transcription and expression were upregulated in reperfused myocardium. Genetic ablation of PGAM5 suppressed I/R-mediated necroptosis but failed to prevent apoptosis activation, a result that went along with improved heart function and decreased inflammation response. Regardless of PGAM5 status, mitophagy-related cell death was not apparent following I/R. Under physiological conditions, PGAM5 overexpression in primary cardiomyocytes was sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte necroptosis rather than apoptosis. At the sub-cellular levels, PGAM5 deficiency increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and transcript levels, normalized mitochondrial respiration, repressed mitochondrial ROS production, and prevented abnormal mPTP opening upon I/R. Molecular investigation demonstrated that PGAM5 deletion interrupted I/R-mediated DrpS637 dephosphorylation but failed to abolish I/R-induce Drp1S616 phosphorylation, resulting in partial inhibition of mitochondrial fission. In addition, declining Mfn2 and OPA1 levels were restored in PGAM5CKO cardiomyocytes following I/R. Nevertheless, PGAM5 depletion did not rescue suppressed mitophagy upon I/R injury. In conclusion, our results provide an insight into the specific role and working mechanism of PGAM5 in driving cardiomyocyte necroptosis through imposing mitochondrial quality control in cardiac I/R injury.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113478, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069788

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tussilago farfara L. (commonly called coltsfoot), known as a vital folk medicine, have long been used to treat various respiratory disorders and consumed as a vegetable in many parts of the world since ancient times. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide a critical evaluation of the current knowledge on the ethnobotanical value, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and quality control of coltsfoot, thus provide a basis for further investigations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed literature search was obtained using various online search engines (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Baidu Scholar, PubMed and CNKI). Additional information was sourced from ethnobotanical literature focusing on Chinese and European flora. The plant synonyms were validated by the database 'The Plant List' (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: Coltsfoot has diverse uses in local and traditional medicine, but similarities have been noticed, specifically for relieving inflammatory conditions, respiratory and infectious diseases in humans. Regarding its pharmacological activities, many traditional uses of coltsfoot are supported by modern in vitro or in vivo pharmacological studies such as anti-inflammatory activities, neuro-protective activity, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant activity. Quantitative analysis (e.g. GC-MS, UHPLC-MRMHR) indicated the presence of a rich (>150) pool of chemicals, including sesquiterpenes, phenolic acids, flavonoids, chromones, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and others from its leaves and buds. In addition, adverse events have resulted from a collection of the wrong plant which contains PAs that became the subject of public concern attributed to their highly toxic. CONCLUSIONS: So far, remarkable progress has been witnessed in phytochemistry and pharmacology of coltsfoot. Thus, some traditional uses have been well supported and clarified by modern pharmacological studies. Discovery of therapeutic natural products and novel structures in plants for future clinical and experimental studies are still a growing interest. Furthermore, well-designed studies in vitro particularly in vivo are required to establish links between the traditional uses and bioactivities, as well as ensure safety before clinical use. In addition, the good botanical identification of coltsfoot and content of morphologically close species is a precondition for quality supervision and control. Moreover, strict quality control measures are required in the studies investigating any aspect of the pharmacology and chemistry of coltsfoot.

8.
Seizure ; 84: 40-46, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278787

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the genetic aetiology in Chinese children diagnosed with status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: Next-generation sequencing, copy number variation (CNV) analysis, and other genetic testing methods were conducted for children with SE lacking an identifiable non-genetic aetiology. Furthermore, the phenotype and molecular data of patients with SE were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Among children with SE lacking an identifiable non-genetic aetiology, 73 out of 163 children (44.8 %) were found to have causative variants associated with SE including 66 monogenic mutations in 22 genes and 7 CNVs. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics scoring system, the monogenic variants included 64 pathogenic/likely pathogenic and 2 uncertain significance variants. SCN1A gene mutations (n = 32) were the most common cause, followed by TSC2 (n = 5), CACNA1A (n = 5), SCN2A (n = 4), SCN9A (n = 2) and DEPDC5 (n = 2) gene mutations. Sixteen mutations were identified in single genes. Furthermore, 51 (77.3 %) monogenic mutations were de novo. Age at SE onset < 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-5.83, p = 0.012) and co-morbidity of intellectual disability (OR = 3.36, 95 %CI: 1.61-6.99, p = 0.001) were independently associated with pathogenic genetic variants. CONCLUSION: This study identified genetic aetiology in 44.8 % of patients with SE, which indicates a high burden of genetic aetiology among children with SE in China. Our findings highlight the importance for genetic testing of children with SE that lacks an identifiable non-genetic aetiology.

9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 340-352, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279048

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the adsorption performance of sludge-based activated carbon (SBC) towards dissolved organic matters (DOMs) removal from sewage, and investigated the modification effect of different types of chemicals on the structure of synthesized SBC. Waste activated sludge (WAS) was used as a carbon source, and HCl, HNO3, and NaOH were used as different types of chemicals to modify the SBC. With the aid of chemical activation, the modified SBC showed higher adsorption performances on DOMs removal with maximum adsorption of 29.05 mg/g and second-order constant (k) of 0.1367 (L/mol/sec) due to the surface elution of ash and minerals by chemicals. The surface elemental composition of MSBC suggested that the content of C-C and C-O functional groups on the surface of modified sludge-based activated carbon (MSBC) played an important role on the adsorption capacities of MSBC towards DOMs removal in sewage. Additionally, the residual molecular weight of DOMs in sewage was investigated using a 3-dimension fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC). Results showed that the chemical modification significantly improved the adsorption capacity of MSBC on humic acids (HA) and aromatic proteins (APN), and both of NaOH-MSBC and HCl-MSBC were effective for a wide range of different AMW DOMs removal from sewage, while the HNO3-MSBC exhibited poorly on AMW organics of 2,617 Da and 409 Da due to the reducing content of macropore. In brief, this study provides reference values for the impact of the chemicals of the activation stage before the SBCs application.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Substâncias Húmicas
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 101: 373-381, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334532

RESUMO

Nitrogen-containing organic pollutants (quinoline, pyridine and indole) are widely distributed in coking wastewater, and bioaugmentation with specific microorganisms may enhance the removal of these recalcitrant pollutants. The bioaugmented system (group B) was constructed through inoculation of two aromatics-degrading bacteria, Comamonas sp. Z1 (quinoline degrader) and Acinetobacter sp. JW (indole degrader), into the activated sludge for treatment of quinoline, indole and pyridine, and the non-bioaugmented activated sludge was used as the control (group C). Both groups maintained high efficiencies (> 94%) for removal of nitrogen-containing organic pollutants and chemical oxygen demand (COD) during the long-term operation, and group B was highly effective at the starting period and the operation stage fed with raw wastewater. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that nitrogen-containing organic pollutants could shape the microbial community structure, and communities of bioaugmented group B were clearly separated from those of non-bioaugmented group C as observed in non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plot. Although the inoculants did not remain their dominance in group B, bioaugmentation could induce the formation of effective microbial community, and the indigenous microbes might play the key role in removal of nitrogen-containing organic pollutants, including Dokdonella, Comamonas and Pseudoxanthomonas. Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis suggested that bioaugmentation could facilitate the enrichment of functional genes related to xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, probably leading to the improved performance in group B. This study indicated that bioaugmentation could promote the removal of nitrogen-containing organic pollutants, which should be an effective strategy for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Microbiota , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 529544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262982

RESUMO

Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to birth asphyxia is common and causes severe neurological deficits, without any effective therapies currently available. Neuronal death is an important driving factors of neurological disorders after HIE, but the regulatory mechanisms are still uncertain. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) or ceRNA network act as a significant regulator in neuroregeneration and neuronal apoptosis, thus owning a great potential as therapeutic targets in HIE. Here, we found a new lncRNA, is the most functional in targeting the Igfbp3 gene in HIE, which enriched in the cell growth and cell apoptosis processes. In addition, luciferase reporter assay showed competitive regulatory binding sites to the target gene Igfbp3 between TCONS00044054 (Vi4) and miR-185-5p. The change in blood miR-185-5p and Igfbp3 expression is further confirmed in patients with brain ischemia. Moreover, Vi4 overexpression and miR-185-5p knock-out promote the neuron survival and neurite growth, and suppress the cell apoptosis, then further improve the motor and cognitive deficits in rats with HIE, while Igfbp3 interfering got the opposite results. Together, Vi4-miR-185-5p-Igfbp3 regulatory network plays an important role in neuron survival and cell apoptosis and further promote the neuro-functional recovery from HIE, therefore is a likely a drug target for HIE therapy.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23240, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although corticosteroid prophylaxis in adult cardiac surgery has been studied extensively for 40 years, its role remains controversial, and the optimal dose remains uncertain. The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the clinical benefits and risks of corticosteroid use in cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: We will search Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Clinical Trials, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant clinical trials published in any language before August 1, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interest which meet inclusion criteria published or unpublished will be included. We will divide the included studies into child and adult groups for analysis. If sufficient data are available, the included trials will be divided into 4 subgroups: ≤20 mg/kg (low dose), 20-40 mg/kg (slightly high dose), 40-100 mg/kg (high dose), and >100 mg/kg (ultra high dose) based on the equivalent hydrocortisone dose. INPLASY registration number: INPLASY2020100044. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This study will compare the efficacy of tprophylactic corticosteroids for adults and children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. Due to the nature of the disease and intervention methods, randomized controlled trials may be inadequate, and we will carefully consider inclusion in high-quality, non-randomized controlled trials, but this may result in high heterogeneity and affect the reliability of the results.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379154

RESUMO

Oceanic eddy is a common natural phenomenon that has large influence on human activities, and the measurement and detection of offshore eddies are significant for oceanographic research. The previous classical detecting methods, such as the Okubo-Weiss algorithm (OW), vector geometry algorithm (VG), and winding angles algorithm (WA), not only depend on expert's experiences to set an accurate threshold, but also need heavy calculations for large detection regions. Differently from the previous works, this paper proposes a deep eddy detection neural network with pixel segmentation skeleton on high frequency radar (HFR) data, namely, the deep eddy detection network (DEDNet). An offshore eddy detection dataset is firstly constructed, which has origins from the sea surface current data measured by two HFR systems on the South China Sea. Then, a spatial globally optimum and strong detail-distinguishing pixel segmentation network is presented to automatically detect and localize offshore eddies in a flow chart. An eddy detection network based on fully convolutional networks (FCN) is also presented for comparison with DEDNet. Experimental results show that DEDNet performs better than the FCN-based eddy detection network and is competitive with the classical statistics-based methods.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115568, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254717

RESUMO

Previous studies have associated the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with increased exposures to metals and metalloids such as arsenic. In this study, we used an animal-to-human translational strategy to identify key molecular changes that potentially mediated the effects of arsenic exposures on ASD development. In a previously established rat model, we have induced autistic behaviors in rat pups with gestational arsenic exposures (10 and 45 µg/L As2O3 in drinking water). Neuronal apoptosis and the associated epigenetic dysregulations in frontal cortex were assayed to screen potential mediating pathways, which were subsequently validated with qPCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Furthermore, the identified pathway, along with serum levels of 26 elements including arsenic, were characterized in a case-control study with 21 ASD children and 21 age-matched healthy controls. In animals, we found that arsenic exposures caused difficulties of social interaction and increased stereotypic behaviors in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by increased neuronal apoptosis and upregulation of Hipk2-p53 pathway in the frontal cortex. In humans, we found that serum levels of Hipk2 and p53 were 24.7 (95%CI: 8.5 to 43.4) % and 23.7 (95%CI: 10.5 to 38.5) % higher in ASD children than in healthy controls. ASD children had significantly higher serum levels of 15 elements, among which arsenic, silicon, strontium, and vanadium were positively associated with both Hipk2 and p53. Results from both the rat arsenic exposure and human case-control studies suggest a likely role of Hipk2-p53 pathway in ASD development induced by exposures to environmental pollutants such as arsenic.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Animais , Arsênico/toxicidade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Autístico/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas de Transporte , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Ratos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243830, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306736

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantitatively assess choriocapillaris (CC) flow deficits in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). METHODS: Diabetic subjects with different stages of DR and age-matched healthy subjects were recruited and imaged with SS-OCTA. The en face CC blood flow images were generated using previously published and validated algorithms. The percentage of CC flow deficits (FD%) and the mean CC flow deficit size were calculated in a 5-mm-diameter circle centered on the fovea from the 6×6-mm scans. RESULTS: Forty-five diabetic subjects and 27 control subjects were included in the study. The CC FD% in diabetic eyes was on average 1.4-fold greater than in control eyes (12.34±4.14% vs 8.82±2.61%, P < 0.001). The mean CC FD size in diabetic eyes was on average 1.4-fold larger than in control eyes (2151.3± 650.8µm2 vs 1574.4±255.0 µm2, P < 0.001). No significant difference in CC FD% or mean CC FD size was observed between eyes with nonproliferative DR and eyes with proliferative DR (P = 1.000 and P = 1.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CC perfusion in DR can be objectively and quantitatively assessed with FD% and FD size. In the macular region, both CC FD% and CC FD size are increased in eyes with DR. SS-OCTA provides new insights for the investigations of CC perfusion status in diabetes in vivo.

17.
Food Chem ; 346: 128857, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373822

RESUMO

Human milk lipids are an important energy source and essential nutrients for the growth and development of infants. The UPLC/Q-TOF-MS was used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze human milk lipids. Totally, 411 species of lipids were identified, in which the content of OPL was generally higher than that of OPO; SM (75.38 mg/L, 40.39%), PE (51.12 mg/L, 27.39%) and PC (40.10 mg/L, 21.49%) had the highest contents among polar lipids, mainly including SM42:2:2 (22.24 mg/L), PE36:2 (C18:0-C18:2, 21.39 mg/L) and PC36:2 (C18:0-C18:2, 19.80 mg/L). In human milk, TAG56:7 (137.14 mg/L), TAG56:8 (59.49 mg/L), TAG58:8 (65.90 mg/L) and TAG58:9 (49.99 mg/L) were the main sources of AA and DHA; PE was an important source of AA and DHA in polar lipids; and linoleic acyl in glycerides and phospholipids had higher contents than other polyunsaturated fatty acyls. These results provided the scientific basis for the simulation of human milk at molecular level.

18.
Mol Plant ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307246

RESUMO

Rice grain oil is a valuable nutrient source. However, the genetic basis of oil biosynthesis in rice grains remains unclear. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study on oil composition and oil concentration in a diverse panel of 533 cultivated rice accessions. High variation for eleven oil-related traits was observed and oil composition was found to differentiate in rice grains among the subpopulations. We identified 46 loci that are significantly associated with grain oil concentration or composition, of which 16 were detected in three RIL populations. Twenty-six candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in oil metabolism were identified from these forty-six loci, of which four genes (OsPAL6, OsLIN6, OsMYR2 and OsFAE6) were found to contribute to natural variation in oil composition and show differentiation among the subpopulations. Interestingly, population genetic analyses revealed that specific haplotypes of OsPAL6 and OsLIN6 were selected in japonica rice. Based on these results, we propose a possible oil biosynthetic pathway in rice grains. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the genetic basis of oil biosynthesis in rice grains and would facilitate marker-based breeding of rice varieties with enhanced oil and grain quality.

19.
Funct Plant Biol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278911

RESUMO

Late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins are the products of an important gene family in plants that play vital roles in regulating growth and development as well as a variety of stress responses. In our study, 67 members of LEA (BdLEA) were identified in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon L. Analyses of gene structure, evolutionary relationships and protein motifs showed that the BdLEAs belonged to six subfamilies. Analyses of chromosomal locations and duplication events revealed that the 67 BdLEAs were distributed over all five chromosomes and 26 BdLEAs were identified as products of duplication events. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation results suggested that nearly 60% of BdLEAs could be involved in stress response. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis showed that the BdLEAs were differentially expressed in nine organs and responded to low stringency of exogenous phytohormones. Subsequently, 18 BdLEAs from six subfamilies were randomly selected for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, which showed that they were mainly expressed in the spikelets and they may preferentially respond to salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA) stress. This study is the first to report the characteristics of the BdLEA family, providing valuable information for understanding the evolution of LEAs in the model plant B. distachyon and supporting future functional research on these proteins.

20.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258424

RESUMO

Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae) is traditionally used for hemostasis and detumescence in China. In April 2019, a leaf spot disease on B. striata was observed in plant nurseries in Guilin, Guangxi Province, China, with an estimated incidence of ~30%. Initial symptoms include the appearance of circular or irregular brown spots on leaf surfaces, which progressively expand into large, dark brown, necrotic areas. As lesions coalesce, large areas of the leaf die, ultimately resulting in abscission. To isolate the pathogen, representative samples exhibiting symptoms were collected, leaf tissues (5 × 5 mm) were cut from the junction of diseased and healthy tissue, surface-disinfected in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 min, rinsed three times in sterile water, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and incubated at 28°C (12-h light-dark cycle) for 3 days. Hyphal tips from recently germinated spores were transferred to PDA to obtain pure cultures. Nine fungal isolates with similar morphological characteristics were obtained. Colonies on PDA were villose, had a dense growth of aerial mycelia and appeared pinkish white from above and greyish orange at the center and pinkish-white at the margin on the underside. Macroconidia were smooth, and hyaline, with a dorsiventral curvature, hooked to tapering apical cells, and 3- to 5-septate. Three-septate macroconidia were 21.2 to 32.1 × 2.4 to 3.9 µm (mean ± SD: 26.9 ± 2.5 × 3.2 ± 0.4 µm, n = 30); 4-septate macroconidia were 29.5 to 38.9 × 3.0 to 4.3 µm (mean ± SD: 33.5 ± 2.6 × 3.6 ± 0.3 µm, n = 40); and 5-septate macroconidia were 39.3 to 55.6 × 4.0 to 5.4 µm (mean ± SD: 48.0 ± 3.9 × 4.5 ± 0.3 µm, n = 50). These morphological characteristics were consistent with F. ipomoeae, a member of the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) (Wang et al. 2019). To confirm the fungal isolate's identification, the genomic DNA of the single-spore isolate BJ-22.3 was extracted using the CTAB method (Guo et al. 2000). The internal transcribed space (ITS) region of rDNA, translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α), and partial RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) were amplified using primer pairs [ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), EF-1/EF-2 (O'Donnell et al. 1998), and 5f2/11ar (Liu, Whelen et al. 1999, Reeb, Lutzoni et al. 2004), respectively]. The ITS (MT939248), TEF-1α (MT946880), and RPB2 (MT946881) sequences of the BJ-22.3 isolate were deposited in GenBank. BLASTN analysis of these sequences showed over 99% nucleotide sequence identity with members of the FIESC: the ITS sequence showed 99.6% identity (544/546 bp) to F. lacertarum strain NRRL 20423 (GQ505682); the TEF-1α sequence showed 99.4% similarity (673/677 bp) to F. ipomoeae strain NRRL 43637 (GQ505664); and the RPB2 sequence showed 99.6% identity (1883/1901 bp) to F. equiseti strain GZUA.1657 (MG839492). Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of ITS, TEF-1α, and RPB2 showed that BJ-22.3 clustered monophyletically with strains of F. ipomoeae. Therefore, based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the isolate BJ-22.3 was identified as F. ipomoeae. To verify the F. ipomoeae isolate's pathogenicity, nine 1.5-year-old B. striata plants were inoculated with three 5 × 5 mm mycelial discs of strain BJ-22.3 from 4-day-old PDA cultures. Additionally, three control plants were inoculated with sterile PDA discs. The experiments were replicated three times. All plants were enclosed in transparent plastic bags and incubated in a greenhouse at 26°C for 14 days. Four days post-inoculation, leaf spot symptoms appeared on the inoculated leaves, while no symptoms were observed in control plants. Finally, F. ipomoeae was consistently re-isolated from leaf lesions from the infected plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. ipomoeae causing leaf spot disease on B. striata in China. The spread of this disease might pose a serious threat to the production of B. striata. Growers should implement disease management to minimize the risks posed by this pathogen.

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