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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 14(1): 44-49, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes


No disponible

2.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2793-2799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293880

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the impact of eye exercises of acupoints on myopic progression among Chinese urban students. Methods: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) was a three-year cohort study, with 386 students (aged 6-17 years) enrolled at baseline. These students were invited to be reexamined in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013. The student's cycloplegic refraction at each visit and the parental non-cycloplegic refraction at baseline were performed. Students were also required to complete the eye exercise of acupoints questionnaire and the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS). Results: At the final follow-up, 226 students (57.2%) with complete refraction and eye exercises questionnaire data were enrolled in the present study. In the multivariate analysis, only students who performed the eye exercises twice or more per day had less myopic refractive change (ß=0.32, p=0.04), as compared to those who performed the eye exercises less than twice per day. No significant association was found between the CISS score and the refractive change for items in the eye exercises questionnaire. Conclusion: In this study cohort, the Chinese eye exercises of acupoints had a modest effect on reducing myopic progression among Chinese urban students aged 6 to 17 years. The precise mechanism remains unclear, especially in the absence of a control group.

3.
J Optom ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes.

4.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 1607064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885881

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the axial length difference (ALD) and the estimated generational axial length shift (ALS) from parents to their children and its risk factors in urban and rural China. Methods: Participants were enrolled from two longitudinal cohort studies, the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) and the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS). Ocular biometry was performed in both parents and their children. ALD was defined as the difference between the children's axial length and the corresponding parental axial length. Generational ALS was estimated according to a binominal prediction model at 18 years of age. Results: 237 and 380 urban and rural Chinese children (6-17 years) and their parents from the BMPS and HOMS, respectively, were enrolled. Children's axial length was estimated to be closest to the parental axial length at 11 and 9 years of age in the urban and rural areas, respectively; the estimated generational ALS would be 1.53 and 0.57 mm, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that older children (urban ß = 0.26, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.11, p < 0.001) and males had larger ALD (urban ß = 0.55, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.52, p < 0.001) in both areas. Furthermore, urban children with more educated parents (fathers: ß = -0.30, p=0.002; mothers: ß = -0.29, p=0.004) and more outdoor activity (ß = -0.23, p=0.006) had a less ALD. Conclusions: The urban generational axial length shift was estimated to be approximately 1 mm longer than that of the rural area. These results suggest different environmental effects on the ocular development in these two populations of Chinese children.

5.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 37(4): 489-497, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503812

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with the progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. METHODS: A total of 386 children aged 6-17 years were enrolled in the baseline investigation of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study in 2010. They were invited for follow-up vision examinations in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, including cycloplegic (cyclopentolate 1%, three times) autorefraction. We investigated the difference between the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) and the non-cycloplegic SE (DSE) provided by autorefraction and its association with refractive error progression. The progression of refractive error was defined as the difference between the cycloplegic SE at follow-up and at baseline. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen children (57%) with completed refractive data (mean ± standard deviation: -1.36 ± 2.44 D at baseline) were ultimately enrolled. The DSE reduced from 0.51 ± 0.72 D at baseline to 0.19 ± 0.43 D in the third year of follow-up (p = 0.01). The baseline DSE was positively associated with the children's baseline cycloplegic refraction (ß = 0.193 dioptre dioptre-1 , p < 0.001). After further divided by refractive status, the DSE was consistently higher in the hyperopic group than in either the emmetropic or myopic groups at each follow-up (all p < 0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, the myopic children with larger baseline DSE (ß = -0.404 dioptre dioptre-1 , p = 0.01) exhibited more myopic refractive change. However, baseline DSE was not found to be a significant risk factor (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 0.79-1.41) for those with newly developed myopia. CONCLUSION: In this sample, the children's DSE was found to be increased as the hyperopic refraction increased. Furthermore, greater the DSE was associated with the progression of refractive error among the myopic children, but not with the onset of myopia.


Assuntos
Ciclopentolato/administração & dosagem , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas , Refração Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais
6.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 24(6): 388-393, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the myopigenic activity change and its risk factors in urban students in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 241 primary or secondary students aged 6-17 years from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were re-examined 3 years after their baseline enrollment. A detailed questionnaire was administered to assess myopigenic activities at both baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. Altogether, 217 students (90.0%) with completed data were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, primary students (n = 123) had significant increases in outdoor sports time (mean ± standard deviation: 3.5 ± 4.3 vs. 2.4 ± 3.0 hours/week, p = 0.02), near work time (32.1 ± 13.4 vs. 24.8 ± 9.2 hours/week, p < 0.001), diopter hours (128.8 ± 53.3 vs. 97.5 ± 35.9 diopter hours/week, p < 0.001), and indoor time (53.8 ± 22.8 vs. 41.4 ± 16.9 hours/week, p < 0.001) at the 3-year follow-up. At both baseline and follow-up, females spent less time than males on outdoor sports (baseline: 2.4 ± 2.8 vs. 4.0 ± 5.2 hours/week, p = 0.006; follow-up: 2.3 ± 3.1 vs. 5.1 ± 5.0 hours/week, p < 0.001), and total outdoors (baseline: 11.9 ± 7.9 vs. 14.4 ± 9.5 hours/week, p = 0.03; follow-up: 10.5 ± 8.2 vs. 13.9 ± 9.6 hours/week, p = 0.005). In the multivariate regression analysis after adjustment by student's gender, younger students had more increase in both near work time (slope = -0.99 hours/week for age, p = 0.009) and indoor time (slope = -2.04 hours/week for age, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the 3-year follow-up, primary students had more myopigenic activities. Female students had more myopigenic activities than males at both baseline and follow-up. Children's age was a significant risk factor for this myopigenic activity change.


Assuntos
Miopia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Medição de Risco , Estudantes , População Urbana , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 254(11): 2247-2255, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of daily activities on myopic refractive change and myopic onset in Chinese urban students. METHODS: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a 3-year cohort study. Cycloplegic refraction and a daily activity questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at follow-up examinations. Refractive change was defined as the difference in cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) between the final follow-up and baseline. 386 students were initially enrolled in the baseline study. RESULTS: At the final follow-up, 222 students (57.5 %) with completed refractive error and daily activity data were analyzed. These students spent 0.32 ± 2.33 h/day more on near work (p = 0.04), and 0.21 ± 1.31 h/day less on outdoor leisure (p = 0.02), than they did at baseline. In the multivariate analysis, the younger among the secondary students (ß = 0.06, p < 0.001), and those with more near work hours at baseline (ß = -0.028, p = 0.033), exhibited more myopic refractive change. However, myopic refractive change was not found to be significantly associated with near work hours in the primary students, or with time spent outdoors, in either school level. After stratifying the activity hours into quartile groups, students with a greater near work load at baseline (trend P = 0.03) exhibited a greater myopic refractive change and had a higher risk to develop myopia (hazard ratio, 95 % confidence interval: 5.19, 1.49-18.13), after adjusting for the confounders. However, no significant association was found related to outdoor activity. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, children with a greater near work load at baseline exhibited more myopic refractive change and were also more likely to develop myopia. The protective effect of outdoor activity on myopic refractive change was not observed.


Assuntos
Miopia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , População Urbana , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Testes Visuais
8.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0139383, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children' refractive error progression in Chinese urban students. METHODS: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student's refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline. RESULTS: At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4%) were reexamined. 226 students (58.5%) with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993-1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003-2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (ß = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001), with more myopic refraction at baseline (ß = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01), and with older maternal reproductive age (ß = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01), had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04) had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades.


Assuntos
Idade Materna , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Erros de Refração/patologia
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