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1.
Life Sci ; : 118766, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245965

RESUMO

Mitochondria are the main source of energy and play an important role in coupling intracellular and intercellular metabolic cooperation. Cellular stress and energetic status can affect various mitochondrial behaviors, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, assembly of respiratory chain supercomplexes and mitochondrial distribution. These modifications usually result in adaptive adjustment of mitochondrial output and resistance to cellular stress. However, when the pro-death signals triggered by excessive damage converge to mitochondria, mitochondrial reserve and functional status can profoundly determine the direction of cell death, and even affect the survival and death of surrounding or distant tissues. In this review, we discuss multiple mitochondrial modifications in eukaryotes based on metabolic status and cellular stress, and review the emerging knowledge about the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on the fate of cells and surrounding tissues.

2.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol ; 24(6): 473-479, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093269

RESUMO

Endothelial cell injury is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. The 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-ß-D-Glucoside (TSG) contributes to alleviate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury through mechanisms still know a little. This study aims to clarify the TSG effects on gene expression (mRNA and microRNA) related to oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by H2O2 in HUVECs. We found that TSG significantly reduced the death rate of cells and increased intracellular superoxide dismutase activity. At qRT-PCR, experimental data showed that TSG significantly counteracted the expressions of miR-9-5p, miR-16, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-145-5p, and miR-204-5p. Besides, TSG prevented the expression of ATF6 and CHOP increasing. In contrast, TSG promoted the expression of E2F1. In conclusion, our results point to the obvious protective effect of TSG on HUVECs injury induced by H2O2, and the mechanism may through miR16/ATF6/ E2F1 signaling pathway.

3.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 979-991, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962483

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Yinhuapinggan granule (YHPG) is frequently used for treating fever, cough, and viral pneumonia in traditional Chinese medicine. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antiviral effects of YHPG in H1N1 influenza virus (IFV)-infected mice and its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ICR mice were intranasally infected with 10 LD50 viral dose of IFV and then oral administration of YHPG (6, 12, and 18 g/kg) or oseltamivir (positive control) once a day for 2 or 4 consecutive days, six mice in each group. The lung, spleen and thymus indexes of IFV-infected mice, the expression of viral loads and pathological changes in lung tissues were performed to evaluate the antiviral effects of YHPG. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were used to determine the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. RESULTS: LD50 in mice was 10-3.5/0.02 mL. YHPG (6, 12, and 18 g/kg) dose-dependently decreased the lung index and viral load; the inhibition ratio of lung index was 5.31, 18.22, and 34.06%, respectively. Further detection revealed that YHPG (12 and 18 g/kg) significantly attenuated lung pathological changes, and increased the spleen and thymus indexes. Moreover, YHPG significantly down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of Bax and caspase-3 in lung tissues of mice infected with IFV, and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: YHPG has significant antiviral effects in IFV-infected mice, partially by inhibiting influenza virus replication and regulating the occurrence of apoptosis induced by influenza virus infection, suggesting that YHPG may be a promising antiviral agent with potential clinical application prospects.

4.
Pharmacol Res ; 160: 105103, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739425

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemic injury exhibits both high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditional research of the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic injury has focused on separate analyses of the involved cell types. In recent years, the neurovascular unit (NVU) mechanism of cerebral ischemic injury has been proposed in modern medicine. Hence, more effective strategies for the treatment of cerebral ischemic injury may be provided through comprehensive analysis of brain cells and the extracellular matrix. However, recent studies that have investigated the function of the NVU in cerebral ischemic injury have been insufficient. In addition, the metabolism and energy conversion of the NVU depend on interactions among multiple cell types, which make it difficult to identify the unique contribution of each cell type. Therefore, in the present review, we comprehensively summarize the regulatory effects and recovery mechanisms of four major cell types (i.e., astrocytes, microglia, brain-microvascular endothelial cells, and neurons) in the NVU under cerebral ischemic injury, as well as discuss the interactions among these cell types in the NVU. Furthermore, we discuss the common signaling pathways and signaling factors that mediate cerebral ischemic injury in the NVU, which may help to provide a theoretical basis for the comprehensive elucidation of cerebral ischemic injury.

5.
Biosci Rep ; 40(9)2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808659

RESUMO

Endotoxemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical condition that lacks effective treatments. Elabela (ELA) is a recently discovered kidney peptide hormone, encoded by the gene apela, and has been reported to improve cardio-renal outcomes in sepsis. However, ELA is a small peptide and is largely unsuitable for clinical use because of its short in vivo half-life. In the present study, we evaluated the potential renoprotective effects of a long-acting constant fragment (Fc)-ELA fusion protein in liposaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI in mice. LPS administration in mice for 5 days greatly lowered the gene expression of apela and impaired kidney function, as evidenced by elevated serum creatinine and the ratio of urine protein to creatinine. In addition, renal inflammation and macrophage infiltration were apparent in LPS-challenged mice. Treatment with the Fc-ELA fusion protein partially restored apela expression and attenuated the kidney inflammation. Moreover, LPS treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis in kidney HK-2 cells as well as in the mouse kidney, which were mitigated by ELA or Fc-ELA treatment. Finally, we found that ELA promoted the survival of HK-2 cells treated with LPS, and this action was abolished by LY204002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the Fc-ELA fusion protein has significant renoprotective activities against LPS-induced AKI in mice.

6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 404: 115181, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758488

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) elicits various abnormalities in glycaemic control and thus correlates with type 2 diabetes. Intermittent fasting is an emerging treatment for type 2 diabetes. This study, therefore, tested whether intermittent fasting ameliorates PM2.5 exposure-induced abnormalities in glycaemic control. To this end, C57Bl/6 J mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) for 16 weeks and concurrently subject to ad libitum feeding or intermittent fasting. The food intake assessment showed that CAP exposure transiently reduced food intake in ad libitum fed mice, but persistently reduced food intake in intermittently fasted mice. In contrast, CAP exposure persistently promoted mouse weight gain in ad libitum fed mice, while intermittent fasting blocked this CAP exposure-induced weight gain. The glucose homeostasis assessments revealed that CAP exposure elicited insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and meanwhile increased glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). The insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, but not the increase in GIIS, induced by CAP exposure were blocked by intermittent fasting. Analysis of Akt phosphorylation, the indicator of local insulin signaling, showed that CAP exposure reduced insulin signaling in the liver and adipose tissues but not in the skeletal muscle. Intermittent fasting blocked CAP exposure-induced insulin resistance in the liver but not in the adipose tissues. The present study demonstrates that intermittent fasting ameliorates PM2.5 exposure-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, strongly supporting that it may be used to prevent type 2 diabetes due to exposure to PM2.5.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829081

RESUMO

We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 214 patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (r-ATG) or ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F). Using propensity score matching, we performed a case-control study comparing 44 and 23 patients in the r-ATG and ATG-F groups, respectively. The median time was 11 versus 11 days (P = .368) for myeloid engraftment and 11 versus 13 days (P = .030) for platelet engraftment in the r-ATG and ATG-F groups, respectively. The r-ATG group showed a lower incidence of grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) than the ATG-F group (2.27% versus 17.39%, P = .026). Similar outcomes were observed between the r-ATG and ATG-F groups for infection rate (59.09% versus 56.52%, P = .840), grade II to IV acute GVHD (20.45% versus 21.74%, P = .948), overall incidence of chronic GVHD (26.83% versus 22.73%, P = .704), moderate to severe chronic GVHD (9.76% versus 13.64%, P = .648), and transplantation-related mortality (11.36% versus 4.35%, P = .614). There was no statistical difference in 5-year overall survival (86.40% versus 95.7%, P = .245); GVHD-free, failure-free survival (77.30% versus 78.30%, P = .986); or health-related quality of life (P > .05) between r-ATG and ATG-F.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3203-3210, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726030

RESUMO

The animal model of hyperlipidemia in rats was established to investigate the lipid-lowering effect and mechanism of Danhong Injection on hyperlipidemic rats. SD rats were selected as the research object. The rats in normal group were fed with basic diet, and the rats in other groups were fed with high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia model. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into model group, Danhong Injection low, medium, high dose(1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mL·kg~(-1)) groups, and simvastatin(2.0 mg·kg~(-1)) group. Danhong Injection groups received intraperitoneal administration, and simvastatin group received intragastrical administration, once a day for 4 weeks. At the first, second, third, and fourth weekends after administration, blood was collected from the orbital vein to detect the levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), and then the atherosclerosis index(AI) was calculated. After 4 weeks of administration, the animals were sacrificed, and their heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and adipose tissue were extracted and weighed respectively to calculate the organ index of each group. The expressions of acyl-coaoxidase 1(Acox1), adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase alpha(AMPK-α), bile salt export pump(BSEP), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma(PPAR-γ), catalase(CAT) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) mRNA in liver tissues were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR; the content of cholesteryl ester transfer protein(CETP) and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) in serum was detected by ELISA. The results showed that as compared with the normal group, the levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C in the model group were significantly increased, and the level of HDL-C was significantly decreased, indicating that the hyperlipidemia rat model was successfully constructed. As compared with the model group, Danhong Injection could decrease the contents of TC, TG, LDL-C and increase the content of HDL-C in hyperlipidemia rats; reduce the body weight of hyperlipidemia rats, and reduce the liver weight, liver index, fat weight and fat index; it had no significant effect on the main organ indexes such as heart, spleen, lung and kidney; but it could increase the expressions of Acox1, AMPK-α, BSEP, PPAR-γ, CAT and SOD mRNA in liver tissues of rats; it could also reduce the level of CETP and increase the level of LCAT in serum; and the regulatory effect of Danhong Injection groups all showed a dose-dependent effect. It can be concluded that Danhong Injection can regulate the blood lipid contents, reduce the blood lipid levels and alleviate the accumulation of body fat in rats with hyperlipidemia. The mechanism may be related to inhibiting lipid metabolism disorder and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet feeding, and improving the imbalance of lipid transport system.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Fígado , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625091

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke (IS) is characterized by high morbidity and high mortality. The integration of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine has shown promising benefits in relieving symptoms, promoting neurological recovery, and improving the quality of life of patients with IS. In TCM, Qi-deficiency along with blood-stasis (QDBS) syndrome is one of the common types of IS that is treated by invigorating Qi and activating blood circulation. In TCM theory, improving the corresponding degree of prescription-syndrome correlation (PSC) is helpful to improve clinical efficacy. In this study, we intend to use similar prescriptions that invigorate Qi and activate blood circulation: Buyang Huanwu granules (BHG), Naoxintong capsules (NXTC), and Yangyin Tongnao granules (YTG). The goal is to evaluate their level of PSC inpatients with IS with QDBS syndrome and find relevant biomarkers to provide an objective basis for precise treatment of TCM and improve the clinical therapeutic effects. A multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled intervention trial will be conducted in IS patients with QDBS syndrome, followed by an add-on of Chinese patent medicine. A total of 160 subjects will be randomly assigned to the BHG, NXTC, YTG, and placebo groups in a 1:2:1:1 allocation ratio. All subjects will undergo 28 days of treatment and then followed for another 180 days. The primary outcome is the changes in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score after 28 days of medication. The secondary outcomes include the modified Rankin scale score, activity of daily living scale score, and TCM symptom score. Data will be analyzed in accordance with a predefined statistical analysis plan. Ethical approval of this trial has been granted by the Research Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (ID: 2017-Y-004-02). Written informed consent of patients will be required. This trial is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1800015189), and the results will be disseminated to the public through peer-reviewed journals and academic conferences.

10.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(6): 721-725, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct and evaluate a decision tree based on biomarkers for predicting severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in critical patients. METHODS: A prospectively study was conducted. Critical patients who had been admitted to the department of critical care medicine of Xiaolan Hospital of Southern Medical University from January 2017 to June 2018 were enrolled. The clinical data of the patients were recorded, and the biomarkers, including serum cystatin C (sCys C) and urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) were established immediately after admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and the end points were recorded. The test cohort was established with patient data from January to December 2017. The decision tree classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm was used, and the best cut-off values of biomarkers were used as the decision node to construct a biomarker decision tree model for predicting severe AKI. The accuracy of the decision tree model was evaluated by the overall accuracy and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The validation cohort, established on patient data from January to June 2018, was used to further validate the accuracy and predictive ability of the decision tree. RESULTS: In test cohort, 263 patients were enrolled, of whom 57 developed severe AKI [defined as phase 2 and 3 of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criterion]. Compared with patients without severe AKI, severe AKI patients were older [years old: 64 (49, 74) vs. 52 (41, 66)], acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score were higher [23 (19, 27) vs. 15 (11, 20)], the incidence of hypertension, diabetes and other basic diseases and sepsis were higher (64.9% vs. 40.3%, 28.1% vs. 10.7%, 63.2% vs. 29.6%), the levels of sCys C and uNAG were higher [sCys C (mg/L): 1.38 (1.12, 2.02) vs. 0.79 (0.67, 0.98), uNAG (U/mmol Cr): 5.91 (2.43, 10.68) vs. 2.72 (1.60, 3.90)], hospital mortality and 90-day mortality were higher (21.1% vs. 4.4%, 52.6% vs. 13.1%), the length of ICU stay was longer [days: 6.0 (4.0, 9.5) vs. 3.0 (1.0, 6.0)], and renal replacement therapy requirement was higher (22.8% vs. 1.9%), with statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that the areas under ROC curve (AUC) of sCys C and uNAG in predicting severe AKI were 0.857 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.809-0.897)] and 0.735 (95%CI was 0.678-0.788), and the best cut-off values were 1.05 mg/L and 5.39 U/mmol Cr, respectively. The structure of the biomarker decision tree model constructed by biomarkers were intuitive. The overall accuracy in predicting severe AKI was 86.0%, and AUC was 0.905 (95%CI was 0.863-0.937), the sensitivity was 0.912, and the specificity was 0.796. In validation cohort of 130 patients, this decision tree yielded an excellent AUC of 0.909 (95%CI was 0.846-0.952), the sensitivity was 0.906, and the specificity was 0.816, with an overall accuracy of 81.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision tree model based on biomarkers for predicting severe AKI in critical patients is highly accurate, intuitive and executable, which is helpful for clinical judgment and decision.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Estado Terminal , Biomarcadores , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Terapia de Substituição Renal
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 130: 110527, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688142

RESUMO

Guanxinshutong capsule (GXST), which consists of five traditional Chinese medicines, has been used for a long time in China for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. However, the effects on GXST on myocardial injury (MI) have not been studied in detail. In these experiments, we found that GXST administration decreased MI-associated ventricular remodeling (VR) with a reduction in interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd), left ventricular posterior wall diameter in systole (LVPWs), and left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole (LVPWd) to ameliorate cardiac function and architecture, as measured by echocardiography. Furthermore, histological analysis showed that GXST could ameliorate pathological alterations in the myocardium. And Sirius red staining, wheat germ agglutinin staining and inflammation-related immunohistochemistry results showed that GXST ameliorated the fibrosis areas, cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-α). In addition, GXST upregulated intercellular junction proteins (N-cad and Cx-43) and downregulated the angiogenesis-related proteins (PDGF and VEGFA), myocardial fibrosis-related proteins (TGF-ß1), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9). We also found that GXST medium-dose group (1 g/kg/d) dosage was the most efficacious. In conclusion, GXST protected cardiac tissues against MI by reducing VR, thus indicating the potential application of GXST in the treatment of MI.

12.
Leukemia ; 34(12): 3359-3369, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591644

RESUMO

We retrospectively compared the efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of (1) first-line haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT, n = 146) combined with unrelated cord blood (UCB) infusion and (2) first-line immunosuppressive therapy (IST, n = 219) in acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients. At 6 months post treatment, 90.30% patients in the haplo-HSCT group and 18.78% patients in the IST group achieved normal blood routine (P < 0.0001). The time required to discontinue red blood cells and platelets transfusion in the IST group were longer than in the haplo-HSCT group (P < 0.0001). The estimated overall survival at 4 years was similar (80.1 ± 3.5% vs. 80.1 ± 3.0%, P = 0.726); the estimated failure-free survival (FFS) at 4 years was 77.8 ± 3.7% in the haplo-HSCT group and 48.0 ± 3.6% in the IST group (P < 0.0001). Patients treated with haplo-HSCT scored significantly better in the HRQoL than treated with IST (P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, first-line haplo-HSCT was the favorable factor for FFS and HRQoL (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that first-line haplo-HSCT combined with UCB infusion might provide a better chance of success and HRQoL than first-line IST for SAA patients.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425776

RESUMO

Acetylglutamine (NAG) is the derivative of glutamine, which is the richest free amino acid in the human body. In this work, a novel reliable method of the combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and microdialysis (MD) technique for the evaluation of NAG and its metabolites γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid (Glu) in rat blood and brain was proposed. A Zorbax SB-C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3.5 µM) was applied to separate the analytes. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v) containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and the flow rate was 0.3 ml/min. Based on the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of positive ion, the precursors of product ions chosen for NAG, Glu, GABA, and N-carbamyl-L-glutamic (NCG, IS) were (m/z) 189.1→130.0, 148.0→84.1, 104→87.1, and 191.0→130.1, respectively. All the validation data, including precision, accuracy, inter-day repeatability, matrix effect, and stability, were within the acceptable ranges according to the reference of Bioanalytical Method Validation Guidance for Industry (2018). Rats with microdialysis probes inserted into jugular vein and hippocampus were administered the low (75 mg/kg, NAG-L), medium (150 mg/kg, NAG-M), and high (300 mg/kg, NAG-H) doses of NAG and 10 ml/kg Guhong injection (GHI) by tail vein, respectively. In the blood test, the Cmax values of NAG-L group were markedly lower (P < 0.01) than those of NAG-M, NAG-H, and GHI groups, respectively. No differences were observed between NAG-M and GHI groups, while the Cmax values in GHI group were significantly upgraded compared with NAG-H group. There were notable differences in the Cmax values of NAG in brain dialysate after administration of NAG and GHI. The drug distribution coefficients of NAG, Glu, GABA in brain and blood at low, medium, high doses of NAG and GHI groups were 13.99, 27.43, 34.81, 31.37; 11.04, 59.07, 21.69, 2.69%; 212.88, 234.92, 157.59, and 102.65%, respectively. Our investigation demonstrates that NAG and its related metabolites in rat blood and brain can be simultaneously measured according to the above proposed method. Meanwhile, NAG has easy and dose-dependently access to the blood-brain barrier and exhibits a medium retention time in rat.

14.
Food Funct ; 11(6): 5389-5395, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469016

RESUMO

Hydroxycinnamic acids (HAs) are widely spread in food and herbal medicines. The bioavailability of HAs largely depends on the absorption and metabolism in enterohepatic circulation, in which gut microbiota plays a vital role. The present research aims to investigate the metabolism of HAs by gut microbiota, together with the community changes of gut microbiota after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The results showed that non-substituted cinnamic acid (NCA) and sinapic acid (SA) were stable to gut microbiota, while 4-hydrocinnamic acid (4-HA), caffeic acid (CA), and ferulic acid (FA) underwent decarboxylation and hydrogenation after anaerobic incubation. Time-course studies indicated that the gut microbiota from I/R injured rats can catalyze the same reaction, but with a decreased reaction rate. The 16S rRNA sequencing technique was applied to uncover the community changes of gut microbiota. In addition, the metabolites of the three HAs exhibited greater activity in scavenging the DPPH radical and protected PC12 cells against oxidative damage.

15.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the synergistic effect of Naoxintong Capsule (NXTC, ) and Guhong Injection (GHI, ) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups: control group, oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) group, nimodipine group (9.375 mg/kg), NXTC group (0.5 g/kg), GHI group (5 mL/kg) and NXTC+GHI group (0.5 g/kg NXTC+5 mL/kg GHI), after the onset of reperfusion and once per day for the following 7 days. Blood was collected 1 h after final administration, and the sera were collected. Cultured primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs) were subjected to OGD to establish a cell injury model. Untreated rBMECs were used as blank control. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to assess cell viability using the sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis was evaluated after Hoechst33342 staining using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. JC-1 staining was performed to assess changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated that more than 95% of the cells were rBMECs. Compared with the OGD group, the cellular morphology of the all drug delivery groups improved. In particular, the combined drug group had the most significant effect. Compared with the OGD group, all drug intervention groups induced a decrease in the apoptotic rate of rBMECs, increased the SOD levels, and decreased the MDA levels (all P<0.01). Compared with the mono-therapy groups, the NXTC+GHI group exhibited a significant improvement in the number of apoptotic rBMECs (P<0.01). All drug intervention groups showed different degrees of increase in membrane potential, and the NXTC+GHI group was higher than the NXTC or GHI group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The combinationa application of NXTC and GHI on cerebral I/R injury clearly resulted in protective benefits.

16.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(10): 2017-2025, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218529

RESUMO

We analyzed the outcomes of 146 severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who received a combination of haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) and an unrelated cord-blood (UCB) unit between September 2011 and December 2017. One hundred and seventeen patients underwent transplantation as first-line therapy. Seven patients experienced early mortality, and among the evaluable 139 patients, one patient experienced primary graft failure (GF), while the other 138 patients achieved successful haploidentical donor engraftment; additionally, three patients experienced secondary GF. Six patients demonstrated delayed platelet recovery, and three patients demonstrated platelet GF. The median time for myeloid and platelet engraftment was 11 (range: 9-28) days and 15 (range: 9-330) days, respectively. With a median follow-up of 40 (range: 18-93) months, the cumulative incidences were 31.43% and 10.00% for grades II-IV and grades III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), respectively. The cumulative incidences of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and moderate-severe cGVHD were 36.23% and 11.71%, respectively. There was no patient relapse. The probabilities of 4-year overall survival and GVHD-free, failure-free survival were 81.4 ± 3.3% and 69.2 ± 3.9%, respectively. These encouraging preliminary results indicated that haplo-HSCT combined with the infusion of UCB is a feasible choice for SAA patients without matched donors.

17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 183: 113144, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070931

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of seven main active components of Mahuang decoction (MHD) and its time-concentration-effect relationship. The asthmatic rat model was established by the method of ovalbumin (OVA) sensttization. The plasma concentrations of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, liquiritin, cinnamic acid, glycyrrhizic acid in asthmatic model rat were investigated by a selective and rapid HPLC/MS-MS method. Simultaneously, the asthma-involved cytokines including leukotrienes B4 (LTB4), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), 6-Keto-Prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α) and histamine (HIS) levels in rat plasma were determined by using ELISA. A mathematics method was applied to assess the trend of percentage rate of change among different time intervals of the seven components. The sigmoid E max function was used to establish the PK-PD modeling of MHD. The results indicated that MHD could control or ameliorate asthma. There was a hysteresis between the peaked drug concentration and maximum therapeutic effect of MHD. The PK-PD curves of MHD showed clockwise or counter-clockwise hysteresis loop. In addition, amygdalin might exert a more significant influence on regulating cytokines levels in asthmatic rats among the seven components of MHD.

19.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 393(8): 1559-1571, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900519

RESUMO

A new highly specific high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method coupled to microdialysis sampling was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of L-ephedrine, D-pseudoephedrine, L-methyl-ephedrine, cinnamic acid, liquiritin, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid both in rat blood and brain after oral administration of Mahuang decoction in this paper. An Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 using the 0.1% formic acid water solution and acetonitrile as mobile phase with a gradient elution was applied to the chromatographic separation. The ion transitions were quantified in positive mode for D-pseudoephedrine, L-ephedrine, L-methylephedrine, and diphenhydramine (internal standard), while negative mode for liquiritin, glycyrrhizic acid, amygdalin, cinnamic acid, and prednisolone (internal standard). Several parameters of the method including linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and matrix effect were within acceptable ranges. The results showed the LC-MS/MS method coupled to microdialysis sampling can be utilized for the pharmacokinetic studies of these seven ingredients in vivo. According to the pharmacokinetic results, the pharmacokinetic parameters of L-ephedrine, D-pseudoephedrine, L-methylephedrine, glycyrrhizic acid, cinnamic acid, liquiritin, and amygdalin were totally different in rat blood and brain, the bioavailability of ephedrine and amygdalin in the blood and brain was higher, while the MRT of ephedrine was the shortest. In the rat brain, the elimination rate of three Ephedra alkaloids was lower than that of the remaining four components. This research offered more basic pharmacokinetic information on the safety mechanisms of Mahuang decoction.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112319, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639488

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Apoptosis plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and triggers a series of pathological changes which may even be life-threatening. Astragaloside-IV (AS-IV), a natural compound extracted from Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge., Leguminosae, Huangqi in Chinese), showed neuroprotective effects in the study of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study we investigate the effects of AS-IV on apoptosis induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats, as well as the associated regulatory factors. METHODS: AS-IV was administrated to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion surgery (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, once per day, continued for 7 days after surgey). After seven days of continuous administration, neurological function, cerebral infarction volume, and pathological changes of brain tissue were detected. Fas, FasL, Caspase-8, Bax, and Bcl-2 mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Caspase-8, Bid, Cytochrome C (Cyto C), cleaved Caspase-3 proteins were determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry was used to quantify Cyto C. RESULTS: AS-IV significantly attenuated the neurological deficit in rats with ischemica-reperfusion injury, and reduced cerebral infarction and neuronal apoptosis. AS-IV inhibited the mRNA upregulation of Fas, FasL, Caspase-8, and Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, the protein level of apoptosis cytokines Caspase-8, Bid, cleaved Caspase-3 and Cyto C were also inhibited after ischemia reperfusion, suggesting that AS-IV might alleviate ischemia reperfusion-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of key factors in death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Receptores de Morte Celular/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Infarto Encefálico/genética , Infarto Encefálico/metabolismo , Infarto Encefálico/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Morte Celular/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
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