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1.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 72, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on intracranial pressure (ICP) in animals with different respiratory mechanics, baseline ICP and volume status. METHODS: A total of 50 male adult Bama miniature pigs were involved in four different protocols (n = 20, 12, 12, and 6, respectively). Under the monitoring of ICP, brain tissue oxygen tension and hemodynamical parameters, PEEP was applied in increments of 5 cm H2O from 5 to 25 cm H2O. Measurements were taken in pigs with normal ICP and normovolemia (Series I), or with intracranial hypertension (via inflating intracranial balloon catheter) and normovolemia (Series II), or with intracranial hypertension and hypovolemia (via exsanguination) (Series III). Pigs randomized to the control group received only hydrochloride instillation while the intervention group received additional chest wall strapping. Common carotid arterial blood flow before and after exsanguination at each PEEP level was measured in pigs with intracranial hypertension and chest wall strapping (Series IV). RESULTS: ICP was elevated by increased PEEP in both normal ICP and intracranial hypertension conditions in animals with normal blood volume, while resulted in decreased ICP with PEEP increments in animals with hypovolemia. Increasing PEEP resulted in a decrease in brain tissue oxygen tension in both normovolemic and hypovolemic conditions. The impacts of PEEP on hemodynamical parameters, ICP and brain tissue oxygen tension became more evident with increased chest wall elastance. Compare to normovolemic condition, common carotid arterial blood flow was further lowered when PEEP was raised in the condition of hypovolemia. CONCLUSIONS: The impacts of PEEP on ICP and cerebral oxygenation are determined by both volume status and respiratory mechanics. Potential conditions that may increase chest wall elastance should also be ruled out to avoid the deleterious effects of PEEP.

2.
Surgeon ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium (ED) is a common phenomenon occurring in the recovery period. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of ED in adults after elective brain tumor resection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of a prospective cohort performed in a tertiary university hospital. Adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) immediately after elective brain tumor resection were consecutively enrolled. Level of consciousness was assessed using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and ED was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Risk factors for ED were determined by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 659 patients met the inclusion criteria, of which 41 patients with coma were excluded. Among the remaining 618 patients, 131 (21.2%) developed ED. Independent risk factors for ED were: age, education level, use of anticholinergic and mannitol, Glasgow Coma Score and arterial partial pressure of oxygen postoperatively, postoperative pain, malignant tumor, and frontal approach craniotomy. ED was associated with increased postoperative delirium, longer length of hospital stay, and higher hospitalization costs. There was no significant difference in the neurological function deficits (modified Rankin Scale score) between ED and non-ED groups. CONCLUSIONS: ED has a high incidence and is associated with poor outcomes in adults after elective brain tumor resection. Early screening and prevention for ED should be established in perioperative management of this population.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 739596, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733862

RESUMO

Background: Lung-protective ventilation (LPV) strategies have been beneficial in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As a vital part of LPV, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can enhance oxygenation. However, randomized clinical trials of different PEEP strategies seem to show no advantages in clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. A potential reason is that diverse etiologies and phenotypes in patients with ARDS may account for different PEEP responses, resulting in variations in mortality. We consider hospital mortality to be associated with a more specific classification of ARDS, such as sepsis induced or not, and pulmonary or extrapulmonary one. Our study aimed to compare clinical outcomes in various patients with ARDS by etiologies using the China Critical Care Sepsis Trial (CCCST) database. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of 2,138 patients with ARDS in the CCCST database. According to ARDS induced by sepsis or not and medical history, patients were stratified into different four groups. Differences among groups were assessed in hospital mortality, ventilation-free days, and other clinical features. Results: A total of 2,138 patients with ARDS were identified in the database, including 647 patients with sepsis-induced pulmonary ARDS (30.3%), 396 patients with sepsis-induced extrapulmonary ARDS (18.5%), 536 patients with non-sepsis pulmonary ARDS (25.1%), and 559 patients with non-sepsis extrapulmonary ARDS (26.1%). The pulmonary ARDS group had higher mortality compared with the extrapulmonary group (45.9 vs. 23.0%, p < 0.01), longer intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays (9 vs. 6 days, p < 0.01, 20 vs. 18 days, p = 0.01, respectively), and fewer ventilation-free days (5 vs. 9 days) in the presence of sepsis. However, the mortality in ARDS without sepsis was inverted compared with extrapulmonary ARDS (pulmonary 23.5% vs. extrapulmonary 29.2%, p = 0.04). After adjusting for the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and sequential organ failure assessment scores and other clinical features, the sepsis-induced pulmonary condition was still a risk factor for death in patients with ARDS (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% CI, 0.54-0.82, p < 0.01) compared with sepsis-induced extrapulmonary ARDS and other subphenotypes. Conclusions: In the presence of sepsis, hospital mortality in pulmonary ARDS is higher compared with extrapulmonary ARDS; however, mortality is inverted in ARDS without sepsis. Sepsis-induced pulmonary ARDS should attract more attention from ICU physicians and be cautiously treated. Trial registration: ChiCTR-ECH-13003934. Registered August 3, 2013, http://www.chictr.org.cn.

4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 90: 217-224, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275553

RESUMO

Postoperative delirium (POD) is a significant clinical problem in neurosurgical patients after intracranial surgery. Identification of high-risk patients may optimize perioperative management, but an adequate risk model for use at early phase after operation has not been developed. In the secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, 800 adult patients admitted to the ICU after elective intracranial surgeries were included. The POD was diagnosed as Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU positive on postoperative day 1 to 3. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop early prediction model (E-PREPOD-NS) and the final model was validated with 200 bootstrap samples. The incidence of POD in this cohort was19.6%. We identified nine variables independently associated with POD in the final model: advanced age (OR 3.336, CI 1.765-6.305, 1 point), low education level (OR 2.528, 1.446-4.419, 1), smoking history (OR 2.582, 1.611-4.140, 1), diabetes (OR 2.541, 1.201-5.377, 1), supra-tentorial lesions (OR 3.424, 2.021-5.802, 1), anesthesia duration > 360 min (OR 1.686, 1.062-2.674, 0.5), GCS < 9 at ICU admission (OR 6.059, 3.789-9.690, 1.5), metabolic acidosis (OR 13.903, 6.248-30.938, 2.5), and neurosurgical drainage tube (OR 1.924, 1.132-3.269, 0.5). The area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) of the risk score for prediction of POD was 0.865 (95% CI 0.835-0.895). The AUROC was 0.851 after internal validation (95% CI 0.791-0.912). The model showed good calibration. The E-PREPOD-NS model can predict POD in patients admitted to the ICU after elective intracranial surgery with good accuracy. External validation is needed in the future.


Assuntos
Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Delírio do Despertar/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Delírio do Despertar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Surgery ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative frailty is associated with poor outcomes in major surgery. Postoperative delirium is common after neurosurgery. To date, the association of preoperative frailty with postoperative delirium after neurosurgery has not been established. We aimed to determine the association between preoperative frailty and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing elective brain tumor resection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of a prospective cohort, consecutively enrolling adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit after elective craniotomy for brain tumor resection under general anesthesia in a tertiary hospital in China from March 1, 2017 to February 2, 2018. Preoperative frailty was evaluated using the modified frailty index. The primary outcome was postoperative delirium, assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine the association. RESULTS: 659 patients met inclusion criteria for our analysis. There were 398 (60.4%) non-frail (modified frailty index = 0), 237 (36.0%) pre-frail (modified frailty index = 1-2), and 24 (3.6%) frail (modified frailty index ≥ 3) patients. Of these, 124 (18.8%) developed postoperative delirium. In adjusted analyses, frailty was independently associated with postoperative delirium (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.7, P = .032). Frail patients had longer length of hospital stay and higher total costs than non-frail patients. CONCLUSION: Preoperative frailty is associated with postoperative delirium, length of hospital stay, and total costs in patients undergoing elective brain tumor resection. Preoperative frailty assessment and appropriate management strategies should be involved in the perioperative management of postoperative delirium.

6.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(7): 548, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987246

RESUMO

Background: Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) have been shown to improve outcomes in critically ill patients. However, in patients with brain injury, indications for intubation and mechanical ventilation are different from those of non-neurological patients, and the role of an SBT in patients with brain injury is less established. The aim of the present study was to compare key respiratory variables acquired during a successful SBT between patients with successful ventilator liberation versus failed ventilator liberation. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with brain injury (≥18 years of age), who completed a 30-min SBT, were enrolled. Airway pressure, flow, esophageal pressure, and diaphragm electrical activity (ΔEAdi) were recorded before (baseline) and during the SBT. Respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume, inspiratory muscle pressure (ΔPmus), ΔEAdi, and neuromechanical efficiency (ΔPmus/ΔEAdi) of the diaphragm were calculated breath by breath and compared between the liberation success and failure groups. Failed liberation was defined as the need for invasive ventilator assistance within 48 h after the SBT. Results: In total, 46 patients (51.9±13.2 years, 67.4% male) completed the SBT. Seventeen (37%) patients failed ventilator liberation within 48 h. Another 11 patients required invasive ventilation within 7 days after completing the SBT. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the success and failed groups. In-depth analysis showed similar changes in patterns and values of respiratory physiological parameters between the groups. Conclusions: In patients with brain injury, ventilator liberation failure was common after successful SBT. In-depth physiological analysis during the SBT did not provide data to predict successful liberation in these patients. Trial registration: The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (No. NCT02863237).

7.
Anesthesiology ; 134(5): 748-759, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lateral abdominal wall muscles are recruited with active expiration, as may occur with high breathing effort, inspiratory muscle weakness, or pulmonary hyperinflation. The effects of critical illness and mechanical ventilation on these muscles are unknown. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of expiratory muscle (i.e., lateral abdominal wall muscles and rectus abdominis muscle) ultrasound and the impact of tidal volume on expiratory muscle thickness, to evaluate changes in expiratory muscle thickness during mechanical ventilation, and to compare this to changes in diaphragm thickness. METHODS: Two raters assessed the interrater and intrarater reproducibility of expiratory muscle ultrasound (n = 30) and the effect of delivered tidal volume on expiratory muscle thickness (n = 10). Changes in the thickness of the expiratory muscles and the diaphragm were assessed in 77 patients with at least two serial ultrasound measurements in the first week of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The reproducibility of the measurements was excellent (interrater intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.994 [95% CI, 0.987 to 0.997]; intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.992 [95% CI, 0.957 to 0.998]). Expiratory muscle thickness decreased by 3.0 ± 1.7% (mean ± SD) with tidal volumes of 481 ± 64 ml (P < 0.001). The thickness of the expiratory muscles remained stable in 51 of 77 (66%), decreased in 17 of 77 (22%), and increased in 9 of 77 (12%) patients. Reduced thickness resulted from loss of muscular tissue, whereas increased thickness mainly resulted from increased interparietal fasciae thickness. Changes in thickness of the expiratory muscles were not associated with changes in the thickness of the diaphragm (R2 = 0.013; P = 0.332). CONCLUSIONS: Thickness measurement of the expiratory muscles by ultrasound has excellent reproducibility. Changes in the thickness of the expiratory muscles occurred in 34% of patients and were unrelated to changes in diaphragm thickness. Increased expiratory muscle thickness resulted from increased thickness of the fasciae.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/anatomia & histologia , Respiração Artificial , Músculos Respiratórios/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Expiração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto do Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 61, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain, agitation-sedation and delirium management are crucial elements in the care of critically ill patients. In the present study, we aimed to present the current practice of pain, agitation-sedation and delirium assessments in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs) and investigate the gap between physicians' perception and actual clinical performance. METHODS: We sent invitations to the 33 members of the Neuro-Critical Care Committee affiliated with the Chinese Association of Critical Care Physicians. Finally, 24 ICUs (14 general-, 5 neuroscience-, 3 surgical-, and 2 emergency-ICUs) from 20 hospitals participated in this one-day point prevalence study combined with an on-site questionnaire survey. We enrolled adult ICU admitted patients with a length of stay ≥24 h, who were divided into the brain-injured group or non-brain-injured group. The hospital records and nursing records during the 24-h period prior to enrollment were reviewed. Actual evaluations of pain, agitation-sedation and delirium were documented. We invited physicians on-duty during the 24 h prior to the patients' enrollment to complete a survey questionnaire, which contained attitude for importance of pain, agitation-sedation and delirium assessments. RESULTS: We enrolled 387 patients including 261 (67.4%) brain-injured and 126 (32.6%) non-brain-injured patients. There were 19.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.9-23.9%) and 25.6% (95% CI: 21.2-29.9%) patients receiving the pain and agitation-sedation scale assessment, respectively. The rates of these two types of assessments were significantly lower in brain-injured patients than non-brain-injured patients (p = 0.003 and < 0.001). Delirium assessment was only performed in three patients (0.8, 95% CI: 0.1-1.7%). In questionnaires collected from 91 physicians, 70.3% (95% CI: 60.8-79.9%) and 82.4% (95% CI: 74.4-90.4%) reported routine use of pain and agitation-sedation scale assessments, respectively. More than half of the physicians (52.7, 95% CI: 42.3-63.2%) reported daily screening for delirium using an assessment scale. CONCLUSIONS: The actual prevalence of pain, agitation-sedation and delirium assessment, especially delirium screening, was suboptimal in Chinese ICUs. There is a gap between physicians' perceptions and actual clinical practice in pain, agitation-sedation and delirium assessments. Our results will prompt further quality improvement projects to optimize the practice of pain, agitation-sedation and delirium management in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03975751 . Retrospectively registered on 2 June 2019.

10.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(3): 1513-1522, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583308

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between the timing of tracheostomy and clinical outcomes in patients with infratentorial lesions. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study in a neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary academic medical center from January 2014 to December 2018. Consecutive adult patients admitted to the ICU who underwent resection of infratentorial lesions as well as tracheostomy were included for analysis. Early tracheostomy was defined as performed on postoperative days 1-10 and late tracheostomy on days 10-20 after operation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare the characteristics and outcomes between both cohorts. A total of 143 patients were identified, and 96 patients received early tracheostomy. Multivariable analysis identified early tracheostomy as an independent variable associated with lower occurrence of pneumonia (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.09-0.73; p = 0.011), shorter stays in ICUs (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6; p = 0.03), and earlier decannulation (hazard ratio, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8; p = 0.003). However, no significant differences were observed between the early and late tracheostomy groups regarding hospital mortality (p > 0.999) and the modified Rankin scale after 6 months (p = 0.543). We also identified postoperative brainstem deficits, including cough, swallowing attempts, and extended tongue as well as GCS < 8 at ICU admission as the risk factors independently associated with patients underwent tracheostomy. There is a significant association between early tracheostomy and beneficial clinical outcomes or reduced adverse event occurrence in patients with infratentorial lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Infratentoriais/cirurgia , Intubação Intratraqueal/tendências , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia/tendências , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Intubação Intratraqueal/mortalidade , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Chest ; 159(4): 1426-1436, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sigh is a cyclic brief recruitment maneuver: previous physiologic studies showed that its use could be an interesting addition to pressure support ventilation to improve lung elastance, decrease regional heterogeneity, and increase release of surfactant. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is the clinical application of sigh during pressure support ventilation (PSV) feasible? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter noninferiority randomized clinical trial on adult intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or ARDS undergoing PSV. Patients were randomized to the no-sigh group and treated by PSV alone, or to the sigh group, treated by PSV plus sigh (increase in airway pressure to 30 cm H2O for 3 s once per minute) until day 28 or death or successful spontaneous breathing trial. The primary end point of the study was feasibility, assessed as noninferiority (5% tolerance) in the proportion of patients failing assisted ventilation. Secondary outcomes included safety, physiologic parameters in the first week from randomization, 28-day mortality, and ventilator-free days. RESULTS: Two-hundred and fifty-eight patients (31% women; median age, 65 [54-75] years) were enrolled. In the sigh group, 23% of patients failed to remain on assisted ventilation vs 30% in the no-sigh group (absolute difference, -7%; 95% CI, -18% to 4%; P = .015 for noninferiority). Adverse events occurred in 12% vs 13% in the sigh vs no-sigh group (P = .852). Oxygenation was improved whereas tidal volume, respiratory rate, and corrected minute ventilation were lower over the first 7 days from randomization in the sigh vs no-sigh group. There was no significant difference in terms of mortality (16% vs 21%; P = .337) and ventilator-free days (22 [7-26] vs 22 [3-25] days; P = .300) for the sigh vs no-sigh group. INTERPRETATION: Among hypoxemic intubated ICU patients, application of sigh was feasible and without increased risk. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03201263; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória
12.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040939, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative delirium (POD) is prevalent in patients after major surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. Several studies have reported that dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, can decrease the incidence of POD. However, neurosurgical patients are usually excluded from previous studies. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of prophylactic use of low-dose dexmedetomidine on the incidence of POD in patients after intracranial operation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Seven hundred intensive care unit admitted patients after elective intracranial operation for brain tumours under general anaesthesia are randomly assigned to the dexmedetomidine group or the placebo group with a 1:1 ratio. For patients in the dexmedetomidine group, a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine will be started at a rate of 0.1 µg/kg/hour immediately after enrolment on the day of operation and continued until 08:00 on postoperative day 1. For patients in the placebo group, normal saline will be administered at the same rate as in the dexmedetomidine group. The patients will be followed up for 28 days after enrolment. The primary endpoint is the incidence of POD, which is assessed two times per day using the Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit (ICU), during the first 5 postoperative days. The secondary endpoints include the incidence of dexmedetomidine-related adverse events and non-delirium complications, the length of stay in the ICU and hospital and all-cause 28-day mortality after the operation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (No KY2019-091-02) and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. The results of the trial will be presented at national and international conferences relevant to subject fields and submitted to international peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Trial registration number: NCT04399343; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2 , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Delírio , Dexmedetomidina , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 144, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is common in mechanically ventilated patients and may be related to adverse outcomes. Few studies have reported the occurrence of asynchrony in brain-injured patients. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, type and severity of patient-ventilator asynchrony in mechanically ventilated patients with brain injury. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled acute brain-injured patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Esophageal pressure monitoring was established after enrollment. Flow, airway pressure, and esophageal pressure-time waveforms were recorded for a 15-min interval, four times daily for 3 days, for visually detecting asynchrony by offline analysis. At the end of each dataset recording, the respiratory drive was determined by the airway occlusion maneuver. The asynchrony index was calculated to represent the severity. The relationship between the prevalence and the severity of asynchrony with ventilatory modes and settings, respiratory drive, and analgesia and sedation were determined. Association of severe patient-ventilator asynchrony, which was defined as an asynchrony index ≥ 10%, with clinical outcomes was analyzed. RESULTS: In 100 enrolled patients, a total of 1076 15-min waveform datasets covering 330,292 breaths were collected, in which 70,156 (38%) asynchronous breaths were detected. Asynchrony occurred in 96% of patients with the median (interquartile range) asynchrony index of 12.4% (4.3%-26.4%). The most prevalent type was ineffective triggering. No significant difference was found in either prevalence or asynchrony index among different classifications of brain injury (p > 0.05). The prevalence of asynchrony was significantly lower during pressure control/assist ventilation than during other ventilatory modes (p < 0.05). Compared to the datasets without asynchrony, the airway occlusion pressure was significantly lower in datasets with ineffective triggering (p < 0.001). The asynchrony index was significantly higher during the combined use of opioids and sedatives (p < 0.001). Significantly longer duration of ventilation and hospital length of stay after the inclusion were found in patients with severe ineffective triggering (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is common in brain-injured patients. The most prevalent type is ineffective triggering and its severity is likely related to a long duration of ventilation and hospital stay. Prevalence and severity of asynchrony are associated with ventilatory modes, respiratory drive and analgesia/sedation strategy, suggesting treatment adjustment in this particular population. Trial registration The study has been registered on 4 July 2017 in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03212482) ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03212482 ).

14.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949037, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of derecruitment volume (VDER) assessed by pressure-impedance (P-I) curves derived from electrical impedance tomography (EIT). METHODS: Six pigs with acute lung injury received decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) from 15 to 0 in steps of 5 cmH2O. At the end of each PEEP level, the pressure-volume (P-V) curves were plotted using the low constant flow method and release maneuvers to calculate the VDER between the PEEP of setting levels and 0 cmH2O (VDER-PV). The VDER derived from P-I curves that were recorded simultaneously using EIT was the difference in impedance at the same pressure multiplied by the ratio of tidal volume and corresponding tidal impedance (VDER-PI). The regional P-I curves obtained by EIT were used to estimate VDER in the dependent and nondependent lung. RESULTS: The global lung VDER-PV and VDER-PI showed close correlations (r = 0.948, P<0.001); the mean difference was 48 mL with limits of agreement of -133 to 229 mL. Lung derecruitment extended into the whole process of decremental PEEP levels but was unevenly distributed in different lung regions. CONCLUSIONS: P-I curves derived from EIT can assess VDER and provide a promising method to estimate regional lung derecruitment at the bedside.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Impedância Elétrica , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Suínos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Tomografia
15.
J Int Med Res ; 48(6): 300060520920426, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measurement of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)-induced recruitment lung volume using passive spirometry is based on the assumption that the functional residual capacity (FRC) is not modified by the PEEP changes. We aimed to investigate the influence of PEEP on FRC in different models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A randomized crossover study was performed in 12 pigs. Pulmonary (n = 6) and extra-pulmonary (n = 6) ARDS models were established using an alveolar instillation of hydrochloric acid and a right atrium injection of oleic acid, respectively. Low (5 cmH2O) and high (15 cmH2O) PEEP were randomly applied in each animal. FRC and recruitment volume were determined using the nitrogen wash-in/wash-out technique and release maneuver. RESULTS: FRC was not significantly different between the two PEEP levels in either pulmonary ARDS (299 ± 92 mL and 309 ± 130 mL at 5 and 15 cmH2O, respectively) or extra-pulmonary ARDS (305 ± 143 mL and 328 ± 197 mL at 5 and 15 cmH2O, respectively). The recruitment volume was not significantly different between the two models (pulmonary, 341 ± 100 mL; extra-pulmonary, 351 ± 170 mL). CONCLUSIONS: PEEP did not influence FRC in either the pulmonary or extra-pulmonary ARDS pig model.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Espirometria/métodos , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Capacidade Residual Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between aminoglycoside use and intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness remains controversial. In the present study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the relationship between aminoglycoside use and ICU-acquired weakness in critically ill patients. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases were searched from the earliest available date to July 10, 2019. Randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies examining the relationship between aminoglycosides and ICU-acquired weakness in adult ICU patients were included. Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts, reviewed full text and extracted data from the included studies. We performed the Meta-analysis using Stata version 15.0 and used the DerSimonian-Laird random effects model for data analyses. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the χ2 statistic and I2 statistic. Publication bias was evaluated with funnel plots qualitatively, the Begg's test and Egger's test quantitatively. RESULTS: Ten prospective cohort studies were included and analysed in this review. The overall effect sizes of the studies revealed a statistically significant relationship between aminoglycoside use and ICU-acquired weakness (OR, 2.06; 95%CI, 1.33-3.21; I2 = 56%). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses suggested a significant association between aminoglycoside use and studies limited to patients with clinical weakness (OR, 2.74; 95%CI, 1.83-4.10; I2 = 0%), and not to studies limited to patients with abnormal electrophysiology (OR, 1.78; 95%CI, 0.94-3.39; I2 = 59%), a large sample size (OR, 1.81; 95%CI, 0.97-3.39; I2 = 75%), or low risk of bias (OR, 1.59; 95%CI, 0.97-2.60; I2 = 56%); however, statistical heterogeneity was obvious. There were no significant publication biases found in the review. CONCLUSIONS: The review revealed a significant relationship between aminoglycoside use and ICU-acquired weakness.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/induzido quimicamente , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922609, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a real-time tool used to monitor lung volume change at the bedside, which could be used to measure lung recruitment volume (VREC) for setting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We assessed and compared the agreement in VREC measurement with the EIT method versus the flow-derived method. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 12 Bama pigs, lung injury was induced by tracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid and verified by an arterial partial pressure of oxygen to inspired oxygen fraction ratio below 200 mmHg. During the end-expiratory occlusion, an airway release maneuver was conduct at 5 and 15 cmH2O of PEEP. VREC was measured by flow-integrated PEEP-induced lung volume change (flow-derived method) and end-expiratory lung impedance change (EIT-derived method). Linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis were used to test the correlation and agreement between these 2 measures. RESULTS Lung injury was successfully induced in all the animals. EIT-derived VREC was significantly correlated with flow-derived VREC (R²=0.650, p=0.002). The bias (the lower and upper limits of agreement) was -19 (-182 to 144) ml. The median (interquartile range) of EIT-derived VREC was 322 (218-469) ml, with 110 (59-142) ml and 194 (157-307) ml in dependent and nondependent lung regions, respectively. Global and regional respiratory system compliance increased significantly at high PEEP compared to those at low PEEP. CONCLUSIONS Close correlation and agreement were found between EIT-derived and flow-derived VREC measurements. The advantages of EIT-derived recruitability assessment included the avoidance of ventilation interruption and the ability to provide regional recruitment information.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Tomografia/métodos , Animais , Impedância Elétrica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e033441, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To define the core competencies essential for specialist training in neurocritical care in China. DESIGN: Modified Delphi method and nominal group (NG) technique. SETTING: National. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1094 respondents from 33 provinces in China participated in the online survey. A NG of 11 members was organised by the Neuro-Critical Care Committee affiliated with the Chinese Association of Critical Care Physicians and the National Center for Healthcare Quality Management in Neurological Diseases. RESULTS: 1094 respondents from 33 provinces in China participated in the online survey. A formal list containing 329 statements was generated for the rating by a NG. After five rounds of NG meetings and one round of comments and iterative review, 198 core competencies (54 on neurological diseases, 64 on general medical diseases, 42 on monitoring of practical procedures, 20 on professionalism and system management, five on ethical and legal aspects, three on the principles of research and certification and 10 on scoring systems) formed the final list. CONCLUSION: By using consensus techniques, we have developed a list of core competencies for neurocritical care training, which may serve as a reference for future specialist training programmes in China.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Currículo/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Médicos/normas , China , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 37(1): 14-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) has been confirmed as an important complication after major surgery. However, neurosurgical patients have usually been excluded in previous studies. To date, data on POD and risk factors in patients after intracranial surgery are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and risk factors of POD in patients after intracranial surgery. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A neurosurgical ICU of a university-affiliated hospital, Beijing, China. INTERVENTIONS: Adult patients admitted to the ICU after elective intracranial surgery under general anaesthesia were consecutively enrolled between 1 March 2017 and 2 February 2018. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. POD was diagnosed as Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU positive on either postoperative day 1 or day 3. Patients were classified into groups with or without POD. Data were collected for univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the risk factors for POD. RESULTS: A total of 800 patients were included. POD was diagnosed in 157 patients (19.6%, 95% confidence interval 16.9 to 22.4%). Independent risk factors for POD included age, nature of intracranial lesion, frontal approach craniotomy, duration of surgery, presence of an episode of low pulse oxygenation at ICU admission, presence of inadequate emergence and emergence delirium, postoperative pain and presence of immobilising events. POD was associated with adverse outcomes and high costs. CONCLUSION: POD is prevalent in patients after elective intracranial surgery. The identified risk factors for and the potential association of POD with adverse outcomes suggest that a comprehensive strategy involving screening for predisposing factors and early prevention of modifiable factors should be established in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03087838.


Assuntos
Delírio/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14542, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601935

RESUMO

The standard high-flow tracheal (HFT) interface was modified by adding a 5-cm H2O/L/s resistor to the expiratory port. First, in a test lung simulating spontaneous breathing, we found that the modified HFT caused an elevation in airway pressure as a power function of flow. Then, three tracheal oxygen treatments (T-piece oxygen at 10 L/min, HFT and modified HFT at 40 L/min) were delivered in a random crossover fashion to six tracheostomized pigs before and after the induction of lung injury. The modified HFT induced a significantly higher airway pressure compared with that in either T-piece or HFT (p < 0.001). Expiratory resistance significantly increased during modified HFT (p < 0.05) to a mean value of 4.9 to 6.7 cm H2O/L/s. The modified HFT induced significant augmentation in end-expiratory lung volume (p < 0.05) and improved oxygenation for lung injury model (p = 0.038) compared with the HFT and T-piece. There was no significant difference in esophageal pressure swings, transpulmonary driving pressure or pressure time product among the three treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the modified HFT with additional expiratory resistance generated a clinically relevant elevation in airway pressure and lung volume. Although expiratory resistance increased, inspiratory effort, lung stress and work of breathing remained within an acceptable range.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiologia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Mecânica Respiratória , Traqueostomia/instrumentação , Traqueostomia/métodos , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Algoritmos , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Expiração , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Respiração , Suínos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
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