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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4453, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575861

RESUMO

Hydrogen-rich superhydrides are believed to be very promising high-Tc superconductors. Recent experiments discovered superhydrides at very high pressures, e.g. FeH5 at 130 GPa and LaH10 at 170 GPa. With the motivation of discovering new hydrogen-rich high-Tc superconductors at lowest possible pressure, here we report the prediction and experimental synthesis of cerium superhydride CeH9 at 80-100 GPa in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Ab initio calculations were carried out to evaluate the detailed chemistry of the Ce-H system and to understand the structure, stability and superconductivity of CeH9. CeH9 crystallizes in a P63/mmc clathrate structure with a very dense 3-dimensional atomic hydrogen sublattice at 100 GPa. These findings shed a significant light on the search for superhydrides in close similarity with atomic hydrogen within a feasible pressure range. Discovery of superhydride CeH9 provides a practical platform to further investigate and understand conventional superconductivity in hydrogen rich superhydrides.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(36): 17696-17700, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420513

RESUMO

Great progress has been achieved in the research field of topological states of matter during the past decade. Recently, a quasi-1-dimensional bismuth bromide, Bi4Br4, has been predicted to be a rotational symmetry-protected topological crystalline insulator; it would also exhibit more exotic topological properties under pressure. Here, we report a thorough study of phase transitions and superconductivity in a quasihydrostatically pressurized α-Bi4Br4 crystal by performing detailed measurements of electrical resistance, alternating current magnetic susceptibility, and in situ high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction together with first principles calculations. We find a pressure-induced insulator-metal transition between ∼3.0 and 3.8 GPa where valence and conduction bands cross the Fermi level to form a set of small pockets of holes and electrons. With further increase of pressure, 2 superconductive transitions emerge. One shows a sharp resistance drop to 0 near 6.8 K at 3.8 GPa; the transition temperature gradually lowers with increasing pressure and completely vanishes above 12.0 GPa. Another transition sets in around 9.0 K at 5.5 GPa and persists up to the highest pressure of 45.0 GPa studied in this work. Intriguingly, we find that the first superconducting phase might coexist with a nontrivial rotational symmetry-protected topology in the pressure range of ∼3.8 to 4.3 GPa; the second one is associated with a structural phase transition from monoclinic C2/m to triclinic P-1 symmetry.

3.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaav6262, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448324

RESUMO

We investigated the roles of covalent bonding, separation of surface oxygen, and electrolyte pH on the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on transition metal oxides by comparing catalytic onset potentials and activities of CaCoO3 and SrCoO3. Both cubic, metallic perovskites have similar CoIV intermediate spin states and onset potentials, but a substantially smaller lattice parameter and shorter surface oxygen separation make CaCoO3 a more stable catalyst with increased OER activity. The onset potentials are similar, occurring where H+ is removed from surface -OH-, but two competing surface reactions determine the catalytic activity. In one, the surface -O- is attacked by electrolyte OH- to form the surface -OOH-; in the other, two -O- form a surface peroxide ion and an oxygen vacancy with electrolyte OH- attacking the oxygen vacancy. The second pathway can be faster if the surface oxygen separation is smaller.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(18): 185901, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144887

RESUMO

Extrinsic spinon scattering by defects and phonons instead of intrinsic spinon-spinon coupling is responsible for resistive magnetic heat transport in one-dimensional (1D) quantum magnets. Here we report an investigation of the elusive extrinsic effect in the 1D Heisenberg S=1/2 spin chain compound Ca_{2}CuO_{3}, where the defect concentration is determined from the measured specific heat and first-principles calculations are used to separate the lattice component of the measured thermal conductivity to isolate a large magnetic contribution (κ_{m}). The obtained temperature-dependent spinon-defect and spinon-phonon mean free paths can enable a quantitative understanding of both κ_{m} and the spinon-induced spin Seebeck effect.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(15): 155901, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050539

RESUMO

Because of their weak interlayer bonding, van der Waals (vdW) solids are very sensitive to external stimuli such as strain. Experimental studies of strain tuning of thermal properties in vdW solids have not yet been reported. Under ∼9% cross-plane compressive strain created by hydrostatic pressure in a diamond anvil cell, we observed an increase of cross-plane thermal conductivity in bulk MoS_{2} from 3.5 to about 25 W m^{-1} K^{-1}, measured with a picosecond transient thermoreflectance technique. First-principles calculations and coherent phonon spectroscopy experiments reveal that this drastic change arises from the strain-enhanced interlayer interaction, heavily modified phonon dispersions, and decrease in phonon lifetimes due to the unbundling effect along the cross-plane direction. The contribution from the change of electronic thermal conductivity is negligible. Our results suggest possible parallel tuning of structural, thermal, and electrical properties of vdW solids with strain in multiphysics devices.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(40): 9935-9940, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217890

RESUMO

We report a thorough study of the transport properties of the normal and superconducting states of black phosphorus (BP) under magnetic field and high pressure with a large-volume apparatus that provides hydrostatic pressure to induce transitions from the layered A17 phase to the layered A7 phase and to the cubic phase of BP. Quantum oscillations can be observed at P ≥ 1 GPa in both resistivity and Hall voltage, and their evolutions with pressure in the A17 phase imply a continuous enlargement of Fermi surface. A significantly large magnetoresistance (MR) at low temperatures is observed in the A7 phase that becomes superconducting below a superconducting transition temperature T c ∼ 6-13 K. T c increases continuously with pressure on crossing the A7 to the cubic phase boundary. The strong MR effect can be fit by a modified Kohler's rule. A correlation between T c and fitting parameters suggests that phonon-mediated interactions play dominant roles in driving the Cooper pairing, which is further supported by our density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The change of effective carrier mobility in the A17 phase under pressure derived from the MR effect is consistent with that obtained from the temperature dependence of the quantum oscillations. In situ single-crystal diffraction under high pressure indicates a total structural reconstruction instead of simple stretching of the A17 phase layers in the A17-to-A7-phase transition. This finding helps us to interpret transport properties on crossing the phase transition under high pressure.

7.
Science ; 361(6402): 582-585, 2018 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976797

RESUMO

Conventional theory predicts that ultrahigh lattice thermal conductivity can only occur in crystals composed of strongly bonded light elements, and that it is limited by anharmonic three-phonon processes. We report experimental evidence that departs from these long-held criteria. We measured a local room-temperature thermal conductivity exceeding 1000 watts per meter-kelvin and an average bulk value reaching 900 watts per meter-kelvin in bulk boron arsenide (BAs) crystals, where boron and arsenic are light and heavy elements, respectively. The high values are consistent with a proposal for phonon-band engineering and can only be explained by higher-order phonon processes. These findings yield insight into the physics of heat conduction in solids and show BAs to be the only known semiconductor with ultrahigh thermal conductivity.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7721, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769572

RESUMO

The development of novel nano-oxide spintronic devices would benefit greatly from interfacing with emergent phenomena at oxide interfaces. In this paper, we integrate highly spin-split ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO onto perovskite SrTiO3 (001). A careful deposition of Eu metal by molecular beam epitaxy results in EuO growth via oxygen out-diffusion from SrTiO3. This in turn leaves behind a highly conductive interfacial layer through generation of oxygen vacancies. Below the Curie temperature of 70 K of EuO, this spin-polarized two-dimensional t 2g electron gas at the EuO/SrTiO3 interface displays very large positive linear magnetoresistance (MR). Soft x-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SX-ARPES) reveals the t 2g nature of the carriers. First principles calculations strongly suggest that Zeeman splitting, caused by proximity magnetism and oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3, is responsible for the MR. This system offers an as-yet-unexplored route to pursue proximity-induced effects in the oxide two-dimensional t 2g electron gas.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(6): 2214-2220, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334457

RESUMO

Perovskite oxides hosting ferroelectricity are particularly important materials for modern technologies. The ferroelectric transition in the well-known oxides BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 is realized by softening of a vibration mode in the cubic perovskite structure. For most perovskite oxides, octahedral-site tilting systems are developed to accommodate the bonding mismatch due to a geometric tolerance factor t = (A-O)/[√2(B-O)] < 1. In the absence of cations having lone-pair electrons, e.g., Bi3+ and Pb2+, all simple and complex A-site and B-site ordered perovskite oxides with a t < 1 show a variety of tilting systems, and none of them become ferroelectric. The ferroelectric CaMnTi2O6 oxide is, up to now, the only one that breaks this rule. It exhibits a columnar A-site ordering with a pronounced octahedral-site tilting and yet becomes ferroelectric at Tc ≈ 650 K. Most importantly, the ferroelectricity at T < Tc is caused by an order-disorder transition instead of a displacive transition; this character may be useful to overcome the critical thickness problem experienced in all proper ferroelectrics. Application of this new ferroelectric material can greatly simplify the structure of microelectronic devices. However, CaMnTi2O6 is a high-pressure phase obtained at 7 GPa and 1200 °C, which limits its application. Here we report a new method to synthesize a gram-level sample of ferroelectric Ca2-xMnxTi2O6, having the same crystal structure as CaMnTi2O6 and a similarly high Curie temperature. The new finding paves the way for the mass production of this important ferroelectric oxide. We have used neutron powder diffraction to identify the origin of the peculiar ferroelectric transition in this double perovskite and to reveal the interplay between magnetic ordering and the ferroelectric displacement at low temperatures.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 56(14): 8187-8194, 2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640605

RESUMO

A SrRhO3 polytype with six-layered (6M) structure was synthesized under high pressure and high temperature. The crystal structure was obtained by refining X-ray powder diffraction with the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice parameters a = 5.5650(1) Å, b = 9.5967(2) Å, c = 14.0224(4) Å, and ß = 92.846(2)°. It is isostructural with SrIrO3 synthesized under ambient pressure and consists of dimers of the face-shared Rh(2)O6 octahedra connected by their vertices to the corner-shared Rh(1)O6 octahedra along the c axis with a stacking of SrO3 layers in the sequence of CCHCCH, where C and H denote cubic and hexagonal closed packing, respectively. With increasing pressure, the 6M SrRhO3 transforms to an orthorhombic perovskite (Pv) phase, having a = 5.5673(1) Å, b = 5.5399(2) Å, c = 7.8550(2) Å in the space group Pbnm. A pressure-temperature phase diagram shows that the 6M-Pv phase boundary moves to lower temperatures with increasing pressure. Both the 6M and the Pv phases of SrRhO3 were characterized by magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, and thermopower; they are all metals with an enhanced and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility; no long-range magnetic order has been found. The polytype structures are normally found in ABO3 oxides with the geometric tolerance factor t > 1. SrRhO3 represents another example (in addition to SrIrO3) where the polytype 6M structure can be stabilized with a t < 1.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(46): 31958-31965, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27844065

RESUMO

Doped BiVO4 is a promising photoelectrochemical water splitting anode, whose activity is hampered by poor charge transport. Here we use a set of X-ray spectroscopic methods to probe the origin and nature of localized electron states in W:BiVO4. Furthermore, using the polarized nature of the X-rays, we probe variations in the electronic structure along the crystal axes. In this manner, we reveal aspects of the electronic structure related to electron localization and observations consistent with conductivity anisotropy between the ab-plane and c-axis. We verify that tungsten substitutes as W6+ for V5+ in BiVO4. This is shown to result in the presence of inter-band gap states related to electrons at V4+ sites of e symmetry. The energetic position of the states in the band gap suggest that they are highly localized and may act as recombination centres. Polarization dependent X-ray absorption spectra reveal anisotropy in the electronic structure between the ab-plane and c-axis. Results show the superior hybridization between V 3d and O 2p states, higher V wavefunction overlap and broader conduction bands in the ab-plane than in the c-axis. These insights into the electronic structure are discussed in the context of existing experimental and theoretical reports regarding charge transport in BiVO4.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(10): 107202, 2016 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636490

RESUMO

The coupling and possible nonequilibrium between magnons and other energy carriers have been used to explain several recently discovered thermally driven spin transport and energy conversion phenomena. Here, we report experiments in which local nonequilibrium between magnons and phonons in a single crystalline bulk magnetic insulator, Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12}, has been created optically within a focused laser spot and probed directly via micro-Brillouin light scattering. Through analyzing the deviation in the magnon number density from the local equilibrium value, we obtain the diffusion length of thermal magnons. By explicitly establishing and observing local nonequilibrium between magnons and phonons, our studies represent an important step toward a quantitative understanding of various spin-heat coupling phenomena.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(34): 9965-8, 2016 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356953

RESUMO

A fluorine-doped antiperovskite Li-ion conductor Li2 (OH)X (X=Cl, Br) is shown to be a promising candidate for a solid electrolyte in an all-solid-state Li-ion rechargeable battery. Substitution of F(-) for OH(-) transforms orthorhombic Li2 OHCl to a room-temperature cubic phase, which shows electrochemical stability to 9 V versus Li(+) /Li and two orders of magnitude higher Li-ion conductivity than that of orthorhombic Li2 OHCl. An all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 with F-doped Li2 OHCl as the solid electrolyte showed good cyclability and a high coulombic efficiency over 40 charge/discharge cycles.

14.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6723, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25872781

RESUMO

A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.

15.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 16(3): 036003, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27877814

RESUMO

Different structural chemistries resulting from the Pb2+ lone-pair electrons in the PbMO3 perovskites are reviewed. The Pb2+ lone-pair electrons enhance the ferroelectric transition temperature in PbTiO3, stabilize vanadyl formation in PbVO3, and induce a disproportionation reaction of CrIV in PbCrO3. A Pb2+ + NiIV = Pb4+ + NiII reaction in PbNiO3 stabilizes the LiNbO3 structure at ambient pressure, but an A-site Pb4+ in an orthorhombic perovskite PbNiO3 is stabilized at modest pressures at room temperature. In PbMnO3, a ferroelectric displacement due to the lone pair electron effect is minimized by the spin-spin exchange interaction and the strong octahedral site preference of the MnIV/III cation. PbRuO3 is converted under pressure from the defective pyrochlore to the orthorhombic (Pbnm) perovskite structure where Pb-Ru interactions via a common O -2p orbital stabilize at low temperature a metallic Imma phase at ambient pressure. Above Pc [Formula: see text] a covalent Pb-Ru bond is formed by Pb2+ + RuIV = Pb4+ + RuII electron sharing.

16.
Sci Rep ; 4: 6282, 2014 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25186916

RESUMO

Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 53(9): 4281-3, 2014 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24716725

RESUMO

The search for new double-perovskite oxides has grown rapidly in recent years because of their interesting physical properties like ferroelectricity, magnetism, and multiferroics. The synthesis of double perovskites, especially the A-site-ordered perovskites, in most cases needs to be made under high pressure, which is a drawback for applying these materials. Here we have demonstrated synthetic routes at ambient pressure by which we have obtained a high-quality duo-sites-ordered double perovskite, CaCu3Fe2Sb2O12, which has been previously synthesized under high pressure. The availability of a large quantity of the powder sample allows us to determine the crystal and magnetic structures by neutron powder diffraction (NPD) at 300 and 1.3 K. Measurements of the magnetization and heat capacity showed a ferrimagnetic transition at 160 K. A ferrimagnetic structure consisting of the uncompensated antiferromagnetic coupling between neighboring collinear copper and iron spins has been resolved from the low-temperature NPD data.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(30): 11389-96, 2013 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23869474

RESUMO

Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising photoelectrode material for the oxidation of water, but fundamental studies of this material are lacking. To address this, we report electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of BiVO4 single crystals (undoped, 0.6% Mo, and 0.3% W:BiVO4) grown using the floating zone technique. We demonstrate that a small polaron hopping conduction mechanism dominates from 250 to 400 K, undergoing a transition to a variable-range hopping mechanism at lower temperatures. An anisotropy ratio of ~3 was observed along the c axis, attributed to the layered structure of BiVO4. Measurements of the ac field Hall effect yielded an electron mobility of ~0.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for Mo and W:BiVO4 at 300 K. By application of the Gärtner model, a hole diffusion length of ~100 nm was estimated. As a result of low carrier mobility, attempts to measure the dc Hall effect were unsuccessful. Analyses of the Raman spectra showed that Mo and W substituted for V and acted as donor impurities. Mott-Schottky analysis of electrodes with the (001) face exposed yielded a flat band potential of 0.03-0.08 V versus the reversible H2 electrode, while incident photon conversion efficiency tests showed that the dark coloration of the doped single crystals did not result in additional photocurrent. Comparison of these intrinsic properties to those of other metal oxides for PEC applications gives valuable insight into this material as a photoanode.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 52(4): 2138-41, 2013 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23350864

RESUMO

A new Bi(3)Ge(3)O(10.5) compound has been synthesized under high pressure, P = 7 GPa, and 700 °C. Instead of the pyrochlore that is normally stabilized under high pressure, the Bi(3)Ge(3)O(10.5) crystallizes in a KSbO(3)-ype crystal structure. The crystal structure has been refined by the Rietveld method from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Moreover, we have also characterized the Bi(3)Ge(3)O(10.5) by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and specific heat.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(7): 2776-86, 2013 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331245

RESUMO

A new pyroxene compound, NaMnGe(2)O(6), has been synthesized at 3 GPa and 800 °C and fully characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, and measurements of magnetization and specific heat. NaMnGe(2)O(6) crystallizes into a monoclinic C2/c structure with unit-cell parameters a = 9.859(2) Å, b = 8.7507(18) Å, c = 5.5724(11) Å, and ß = 105.64(3)° at 153 K. A cooperative Jahn-Teller distortion is formed by an ordering of the longest Mn-O bonds between two neighboring octahedra along the chain direction. This feature distinguishes NaMnGe(2)O(6) from other pyroxene compounds without Jahn-Teller active cations and suggests that the Jahn-Teller distortion competes with the intrinsic local distortion in the pyroxene structure. No orbital order-disorder transition has been found up to 750 K. Like other alkali-metal pyroxenes with S > (1)/(2), NaMnGe(2)O(6) (S = 2) was found to undergo a long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering at T(N) = 7 K due to intrachain and interchain exchange interactions. Due to the peculiar structural features and the corresponding magnetic coupling, the weak AF spin ordering gives way to a ferromagnetic-like state at a sufficiently high magnetic field. Specific-heat measurements demonstrated that a large portion of the magnetic entropy, >60%, has been removed above T(N) as a result of strong spin correlations within the quasi-one-dimensional Mn(3+)-spin chains. The Reitveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data gives a commensurate magnetic structure defined by k = [0 0 0.5] with Mn moments aligned mainly along the c-axis with a small component along both a- and b-axes.

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