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1.
PeerJ ; 9: e12300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721983

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae) is an important medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Tanshinones are one of the main active components of S. miltiorrhiza. It has been found that the intraspecific variation of S. miltiorrhiza is relatively large and the content of tanshinones in its roots of different varieties is also relatively different. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that responsible for the differences among these varieties, the tanshinones content was determined and comparative transcriptomics analysis was carried out during the tanshinones accumulation stage. A total of 52,216 unigenes were obtained from the transcriptome by RNA sequencing among which 23,369 genes were differentially expressed among different varieties, and 2,016 genes including 18 diterpenoid biosynthesis-related genes were differentially expressed during the tanshinones accumulation stage. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among these varieties revealed that the pathway related to photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, diterpenoid biosynthesis, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis are the most differentially regulated processes in these varieties. The six tanshinone components in these varieties showed different dynamic changes in tanshinone accumulation stage. In addition, combined with the analysis of the dynamic changes, 277 DEGs (including one dehydrogenase, three CYP450 and 24 transcription factors belonging to 12 transcription factor families) related to the accumulation of tanshinones components were obtained. Furthermore, the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of these 277 DEGs suggested that there might be an interconnection between the primary metabolic processes, signaling processes and the accumulation of tanshinones components. This study expands the vision of intraspecific variation and gene regulation mechanism of secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways in medicinal plants from the "omics" perspective.

2.
Biotechnol Adv ; 54: 107863, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793881

RESUMO

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of bacteria that can oxidize many substrates such as alcohols and sugar alcohols and play important roles in industrial biotechnology. A majority of industrial processes that involve AAB are related to their dehydrogenases, including PQQ/FAD-dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases and NAD(P)+-dependent cytoplasmic dehydrogenases. These cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases must effectively regenerate their cofactors in order to function continuously. For PQQ, FAD and NAD(P)+ alike, regeneration is directly or indirectly related to the electron transport chain (ETC) of AAB, which plays an important role in energy generation for aerobic cell growth. Furthermore, in changeable natural habitats, ETC components of AAB can be regulated so that the bacteria survive in different environments. Herein, the progressive cascade in an application of AAB, including key dehydrogenases involved in the application, regeneration of dehydrogenase cofactors, ETC coupling with cofactor regeneration and ETC regulation, is systematically reviewed and discussed. As they have great application value, a deep understanding of the mechanisms through which AAB function will not only promote their utilization and development but also provide a reference for engineering of other industrial strains.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125978, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598073

RESUMO

Acetyl-CoA is a kind of important cofactor that is involved in many metabolic pathways. It serves as the precursor for many interesting commercial products, such as terpenes, flavonoids and anthraquinones. However, the insufficient supply of acetyl-CoA limits biosynthesis of its derived compounds in the intracellular. In this review, we outlined metabolic pathways involved in the catabolism and anabolism of acetyl-CoA, as well as some important derived products. We examined several strategies for the enhanced supply of acetyl-CoA, and provided insight into pathways that generate acetyl-CoA to balance metabolism, which can be harnessed to improve the titer, yield and productivities of interesting products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotic microorganisms. We believe that peroxisomal fatty acid ß-oxidation could be an attractive strategy for enhancing the supply of acetyl-CoA.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(43): 12763-12772, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694796

RESUMO

Flavan-3-ols are a group of flavonoids that exert beneficial effects. This study aimed to enhance key metabolic processes related to flavan-3-ols biosynthesis. The engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain E32 that produces naringenin from glucose was further engineered for de novo production of two basic flavan-3-ols, afzelechin (AFZ) and catechin (CAT). Through introduction of flavonoid 3-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), de novo production of AFZ and CAT can be achieved. The combination of FaDFR from Fragaria × ananassa and VvLAR from Vitis vinifera was optimal. (GGGGS)2 and (EAAAK)2 linkers between DFR and LAR proved optimal for the production of AFZ and CAT, respectively. Optimization of promoters and the enhanced supply of NADPH further increased the production. By combining the best engineering strategies, the optimum strains produced 500.5 mg/L AFZ and 321.3 mg/L CAT, respectively, after fermentation for 90 h in a 5 L bioreactor. The strategies presented could be applied for a more efficient production of flavan-3-ols by various microorganisms.


Assuntos
Catequina , Vitis , Flavonoides , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(14): 3850-3861, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671203

RESUMO

Background: The application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) NK cells in solid tumors is hindered by lack of tumor-specific targets and inefficient CAR NK cell efficacy. It has been reported that mesothelin (MSLN) may be an ideal immunotherapy target for gastric cancer. However, the feasibility of using anti-MSLN CAR NK cells to treat gastric cancer remains to be studied. Methods: MSLN expression in primary human gastric cancer, normal tissues and cell lines were detected. MSLN and CD19 targeted CAR NK-92 (MSLN- and CD19-CAR NK) cells were constructed, purified and verified. N87, MKN-28, AGS and Huh-7 cells expressing the GFP and luciferase genes were transduced. Cell- and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) were established via NSG mice. The ability of MSLN-CAR NK cells to kill MSLN-positive gastric cancer cells were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results: MSLN-CAR NK cells can specifically kill MSLN-positive gastric cancer cells (N87, MKN-28 and AGS), rather than MSLN negative cell (Huh-7), in vitro. Moreover, compared with parental NK-92 cells and CD19-CAR NK cells, stronger cytokine secretions were secreted in MSLN-CAR NK cells cocultured with N87, MKN-28 and AGS. Furthermore, MSLN-CAR NK cells can effectively eliminate gastric cancer cells in both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumor models. They could also significantly prolong the survival of intraperitoneally tumor-bearing mice. More importantly, the potent antitumor effect and considerable NK cell infiltration were observed in the patient-derived xenograft treated with MSLN-CAR NK cells, which further warranted the therapeutic effects of MSLN-CAR NK cells to treat gastric cancer. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that MSLN-CAR NK cells possess strong antitumor activity and represent a promising therapeutic approach to gastric cancer.

6.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(11): 3084-3093, 2021 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699187

RESUMO

Low expression levels and inflexible induction initiation have been the main obstacles to produce proteins using bacterial quorum sensing (QS). The typical QS system in Bacillus subtilis, ComQXPA, activates the promoter PsrfA using ComX and ComA as an auto-inducer and a promoter activator, respectively. Here, we developed a series of flexible autoinduction expression systems in B. subtilis WB600 based on ComQXPA using a super-folder green fluorescent protein as the reporter. The -35 region of PsrfA was replaced with corresponding conserved sequences of σA-dependent promoters, yielding P1 with 85% enhanced strength. We then applied a semi-rational design within the spacer between the -35 and -15 regions of P1 to generate the QS promoter PS1E, which generated 8.22-fold more expression than PsrfA. Based on PS1E, we finally obtained three types of autoinduction expression systems with initiation ranging from 1.5-9.5 h by optimizing the combination of the promoters for ComX and ComA. The yield of Bacillus deramificans pullulanase generated using autoinduction expression systems in B. subtilis reached 80.2 U/mL, which was 36% more than that of the most powerful constitutive promoter P566. Flexible autoinduction expression systems with diverse dynamic features have considerable potential for improving protein expression and metabolite production in B. subtilis.

7.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109863, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489022

RESUMO

Protein-glutaminase (EC 3.5.1.44, PG) converts protein glutamine residues in proteins and peptides into glutamic acid residue, and markedly improves the solubility, emulsification, and foaming properties of food proteins. However, the source bacteria, Chryseobacterium proteolyticum, have low enzyme production ability, inefficient genetic operation, and high production cost. Therefore, it is critical to establish an efficient expression system for active PG. Here, combinatorial engineering was developed for high-yield production of PG in Bacillus subtilis. First, we evaluated different B. subtilis strains for PG self-activation. Then, combinatorial optimization involving promoters, signal peptides, and culture medium was applied to produce active recombinant PG in a B. subtilis expression system. Through combinatorial engineering, PG enzyme activity reached 3.23 U/mL in shaken-flask cultures. Active PG with the yield of 7.07 U/mL was obtained at 40 h by the PSecA-YdeJ combination in fed-batch fermentation, which is the highest yield of PG in existing reports.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Chryseobacterium , Glutaminase/biossíntese , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Chryseobacterium/enzimologia , Fermentação , Engenharia de Proteínas , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas
8.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(10): 2607-2616, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555894

RESUMO

The resistance markers could ensure the entry of the CRISPR/Cas9 system into Aspergillus niger cells instead of gene editing. To increase the efficiency of positive colony screening on the primary transformation plates, we designed a visualized multigene editing system (VMS) via a unique tRNA-guide RNA (gRNA) array containing the gRNAs of a pigment gene albA and target genes. Disruption of albA produces white colonies, and the sequences of the endogenous tRNAAla, tRNAPhe, tRNAArg, tRNAIle, and tRNALeu enhance gRNA release. The disruption efficiencies of multigene were analyzed in the A. niger strain AG11 using ammA, amyA, prtT, kusA, and glaA as reporters. In white colonies on the primary transformation plates, the disruption rates of one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-target genes reached 89.2, 70.91, 50, 22.41, and 4.17%, respectively. The VMS developed here provides an effective method for screening homokaryotic multigene editing strains of A. niger.

9.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 731247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540816

RESUMO

Gluconobacter oxydans is important in the conversion of D-sorbitol into l-sorbose, which is an essential intermediate for industrial-scale production of vitamin C. In a previous study, the strain G. oxydans WSH-004 could directly produce 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG). However, its D-sorbitol tolerance was poor compared with that of other common industrial G. oxydans strains, which grew well in the presence of more than 200 g/L of D-sorbitol. This study aimed to use the microbial microdroplet culture (MMC) system for the adaptive evolution of G. oxydans WSH-004 so as to improve its tolerance to high substrate concentration and high temperature. A series of adaptively evolved strains, G. oxydans MMC1-MMC10, were obtained within 90 days. The results showed that the best strain MMC10 grew in a 300 g/L of D-sorbitol medium at 40°C. The comparative genomic analysis revealed that genetic changes related to increased tolerance were mainly in protein translation genes. Compared with the traditional adaptive evolution method, the application of microdroplet-aided adaptive evolution could improve the efficiency in terms of reducing time and simplifying the procedure for strain evolution. This research indicated that the microdroplet-aided adaptive evolution was an effective tool for improving the phenotypes with undemonstrated genotypes in a short time.

10.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 748213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540818

RESUMO

Scleroglucan is a non-ionic water-soluble polysaccharide, and has been widely used in the petroleum, food, medicine and cosmetics industries. Currently, scleroglucan is mainly produced by Sclerotium rolfsii. A higher level of scleroglucan (42.0 g/L) was previously obtained with S. rolfsii WSH-G01. However, the production of scleroglucan was reduced despite a higher glucose concentration remaining. Additionally, the molecular weight of scleroglucan was large, thus restricted its application. In this study, by adjusting the state of seeds inoculated, the degradation issue of scleroglucan during the fermentation process was solved. By comparing different fed-batch strategies, 66.6 g/L of scleroglucan was harvested by a two-dose fed-batch mode, with 53.3% glucose conversion ratio. To modify the molecular weight of scleroglucan, a combination method with HCl and high-pressure homogenization treatment was established. Finally, scleroglucan with molecular weight of 4.61 × 105 Da was obtained. The developed approaches provide references for the biosynthesis and molecular weight modification of polysaccharides.

12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(22): e0112021, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524893

RESUMO

An efficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification system is vital for the survival of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus within the host high-ROS environment of the host. Therefore, identifying and targeting factors essential for oxidative stress response is one approach to developing novel treatments for fungal infections. The oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1) protein is essential for protection against oxidative stress in mammals, but its functions in pathogenic fungi remain unknown. The present study aimed to characterize the role of an Oxr1 homolog in A. fumigatus. The results indicated that the OxrA protein plays an important role in oxidative stress resistance by regulating the catalase function in A. fumigatus, and overexpression of catalase can rescue the phenotype associated with OxrA deficiency. Importantly, the deficiency of oxrA decreased the virulence of A. fumigatus and altered the host immune response. Using the Aspergillus-induced lung infection model, we demonstrated that the ΔoxrA mutant strain induced less tissue damage along with decreased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin release. Additionally, the ΔoxrA mutant caused inflammation at a lower degree, along with a markedly reduced influx of neutrophils to the lungs and a decreased secretion of cytokine usually associated with recruitment of neutrophils in mice. These results characterize the role of OxrA in A. fumigatus as a core regulator of oxidative stress resistance and fungal pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Knowledge of ROS detoxification in fungal pathogens is useful in the design of new antifungal drugs and could aid in the study of oxidative stress resistance mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that OxrA protein localizes to the mitochondria and functions to protect against oxidative damage. We demonstrate that OxrA contributes to oxidative stress resistance by regulating catalase function, and overexpression of catalase (CatA or CatB) can rescue the phenotype that is associated with OxrA deficiency. Remarkably, a loss of OxrA attenuated the fungal virulence in a mouse model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and altered the host immune response. Therefore, our finding indicates that inhibition of OxrA might be an effective approach for alleviating A. fumigatus infection. The present study is, to the best of our knowledge, a pioneer in reporting the vital role of Oxr1 protein in pathogenic fungi.

13.
Metab Eng ; 67: 403-416, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411702

RESUMO

Malonyl-CoA is an important building block for microbial synthesis of numerous pharmaceutically interesting or fatty acid-derived compounds including polyketides, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and fatty acids. However, the tightly regulated intracellular malonyl-CoA availability often impedes overall product formation. Here, in order to unleash this tightly cellular behavior, we present evolution: dual dynamic regulations-based approaches to write artificial robust and dynamic function into intricate cellular background. Firstly, a conserved core domain based evolutionary principles were incorporated into genome mining to explore the biosynthetic diversities of discrete acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) families, as malonyl-CoA is solely derived from carboxylation of acetyl-CoA by ACC in most organisms. A comprehensive phylogenomic and further experimental analysis, which included genomes of 50 strains throughout representative species, was performed to recapitulate the evolutionary history and reveal that previously unnoticed ACC families from Salmonella enterica exhibited the highest activities among all the candidates. A set of orthogonal and bi-functional quorum-sensing (QS)-based regulation tools were further designed and connected with T7 RNA polymerase as genetic amplifier to achieve dual dynamic control in a high dynamic range, which allowed us to efficiently activate and repress different sets of genes dynamically and independently. These genetic circuits were then combined with ACC of S. enterica and CRISPRi system to reprogram central metabolism that rewired the tightly regulated malonyl-CoA pathway to a robust and autonomous behavior, leading to a 29-fold increase of malony-CoA availability. We applied this dual regulation tool to successfully synthesizing malonyl-CoA-derived compound (2S)-naringenin, and achieved the highest production (1073.8 mg/L) reported to date associate with dramatic decreases of by-product formation. Notably, the whole fermentation presents as an autonomous behavior, totally eliminating human supervision and inducer supplementation. Hence, the constructed evolution: dual dynamic regulations-based approaches pave the way to develop an economically viable and scalable procedure for microbial production of malonyl-CoA derived compounds.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10235-10245, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428899

RESUMO

Myoglobin (MG) is one of the eukaryotic heme-binding proteins that is closely associated with the real color and metallic taste of meat and can be used as a color additive in artificial meat alternatives. However, the traditional extraction methods are expensive and time-consuming and the heterologous biosynthesis of MG has never been reported. Herein, we achieved the secretory expression of porcine MG by engineered Komagataella phaffii using the suitable host (X33), signal peptide (α-factor signal peptide), and modified constitutive promoter (G1 promoter). In addition, the fermentation conditions for MG production were optimized at shaking-flask level (BMGY medium with 40 mg/L of hemin, 30 °C) and at fermenter level (30% DO, feeding 150 mg/L of hemin), resulting in the highest titer of 285.42 mg/L MG in fed-batch fermentations. Furthermore, a purification method for food-grade MG was developed, which can obtain 0.22 mol of heme/mol of MG with 88.0% purity and 66.1% recovery rate.


Assuntos
Mioglobina , Saccharomycetales , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Mioglobina/genética , Suínos
15.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361891

RESUMO

Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb), the first discovered bacterial hemoglobin, is a soluble heme-binding protein with a faster rate of oxygen dissociation. Since it can enhance cell growth, product synthesis and stress tolerance, VHb has been widely applied in the field of metabolic engineering for microorganisms, plants, and animals. Especially under oxygen-limited conditions, VHb can interact with terminal oxidase to deliver enough oxygen to achieve high-cell-density fermentation. In recent years, with the development of bioinformatics and synthetic biology, several novel physicochemical properties and metabolic regulatory effects of VHb have been discovered and numerous strategies have been utilized to enhance the expression level of VHb in various hosts, which greatly promotes its applications in biotechnology. Thus, in this review, the new information regarding structure, function and expressional tactics for VHb is summarized to understand its latest applications and pave a new way for the future improvement of biosynthesis for other products.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(11): 2853-2870, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345212

RESUMO

In mammals, thermogenic organs exist in the body that increase heat production and enhance energy regulation. Because brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes energy and generates heat, increasing energy expenditure via BAT might be a potential strategy for new treatments for obesity and obesity-related diseases. Thermogenic differentiation affects normal adipose tissue generation, emphasizing the critical role that common transcriptional regulation factors might play in common characteristics and sources. An understanding of thermogenic differentiation and related factors could help in developing ways to improve obesity indirectly or directly through targeting of specific signalling pathways. Many studies have shown that the active components of various natural products promote thermogenesis through various signalling pathways. This article reviews recent major advances in this field, including those in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA), cyclic guanosine monophosphate-GMP-dependent protein kinase G (cGMP-AKT), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), transforming growth factor-ß/bone morphogenic protein (TGF-ß/BMP), transient receptor potential (TRP), Wnt, nuclear factor-κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κΒ), Notch and Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathways in brown and brown-like adipose tissue. To provide effective information for future research on weight-loss nutraceuticals or drugs, this review also highlights the natural products and their active ingredients that have been reported in recent years to affect thermogenesis and thus contribute to weight loss via the above signalling pathways.

17.
Plasmid ; 117: 102588, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256060

RESUMO

Gluconobacter oxydans is an obligate Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Acetobacteraceae. It is one of the most frequently used microorganisms in industrial biotechnology to produce chemicals related to incomplete oxidation. However, the fine-tuning of G. oxydans is hampered by the lack of efficient genetic tools to enable sophisticated metabolic manipulations. Thus, a series of shuttle vectors for G. oxydans inspired by a series of wild-type plasmids in different G. oxydans strains were constructed. Fifteen shuttle vectors were employed to express mCherry in G. oxydans WSH-003 using the replication origin of these wild-type plasmids. Among them, the intensity of fluorescent proteins expressed by p15-K-mCherry was about 10 times that of fluorescent proteins expressed by p5-K-mCherry. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the relative copy number of p15-K-mCherry reached 19 and had high stability. In contrast, some of the plasmids had a relative copy number of less than 10. The co-expression of multiple shuttle vectors revealed five shuttle vectors that could be transformed into G. oxydans WSH-003 and could express five different fluorescent proteins. The shuttle vectors will facilitate genetic operations for Gluconobacter strains to produce useful compounds more efficiently.

18.
J Biotechnol ; 338: 31-39, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246659

RESUMO

Gluconobacter oxydans is an important industrial bacterial strain widely used to produce a lot of useful products. However, very few gene editing tools are available for G. oxydans. This study aimed to develop an efficient genome editing method for G. oxydans using SacB as a counter-selectable marker. A plasmid that could express the kanamycin resistance gene in both E. coli and G. oxydans was constructed using the screened shuttle promoter P116. After optimizing the genome editing conditions, the derivative plasmids could be effectively utilized for diverse genome editing, such as gene deletion, insertion, replacement, and in situ modification in G. oxydans WSH-003. In addition, the SacB-based system also achieved multiple gene editing in G. oxydans. Moreover, the genome of the industrial strain G. oxydans WSH-003 was modified and the growth rate and substrate conversion rate of the strain successfully increased using this system. The system could also have potential to be applied in different G. oxydans strains. The process established in this study also provides a reference for constructing genetic tools for many other genetically recalcitrant bacteria.


Assuntos
Gluconobacter oxydans , Escherichia coli/genética , Edição de Genes , Gluconobacter oxydans/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125467, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320747

RESUMO

Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase is a thermostable enzyme used in industrial starch hydrolysis. However, difficulties in the genetic manipulation of B. licheniformis hamper further enhancement of α-amylase production. In this regard, adaptive evolution is a useful strategy for promoting the productivity of microbial hosts, although the success of this approach requires the application of suitable evolutionary stress. In this study, we designed a growth-coupled adaptive evolution model to enrich B. licheniformis strains with enhanced amylase productivity and utilization capacity of starch substrates. Single cells of high α-amylase-producing B. licheniformis were isolated using a droplet-based microfluidic platform. Clones with 67% higher α-amylase yield were obtained and analyzed by genome resequencing. Our findings confirmed that growth-coupled evolution combined with high-throughput screening is an efficient strategy for enhanced α-amylase production. In addition, we identified several potential target genes to guide further modification of the B. licheniformis host for efficient protein expression.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus , Amilases , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Amido , alfa-Amilases
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