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1.
ISME J ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612833

RESUMO

Early evolution of mutualism is characterized by big and predictable adaptive changes, including the specialization of interacting partners, such as through deleterious mutations in genes not required for metabolic cross-feeding. We sought to investigate whether these early mutations improve cooperativity by manifesting in synergistic epistasis between genomes of the mutually interacting species. Specifically, we have characterized evolutionary trajectories of syntrophic interactions of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) with Methanococcus maripaludis (Mm) by longitudinally monitoring mutations accumulated over 1000 generations of nine independently evolved communities with analysis of the genotypic structure of one community down to the single-cell level. We discovered extensive parallelism across communities despite considerable variance in their evolutionary trajectories and the perseverance within many evolution lines of a rare lineage of Dv that retained sulfate-respiration (SR+) capability, which is not required for metabolic cross-feeding. An in-depth investigation revealed that synergistic epistasis across pairings of Dv and Mm genotypes had enhanced cooperativity within SR- and SR+ assemblages, enabling their coexistence within the same community. Thus, our findings demonstrate that cooperativity of a mutualism can improve through synergistic epistasis between genomes of the interacting species, enabling the coexistence of mutualistic assemblages of generalists and their specialized variants.

2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528058

RESUMO

Current consensus on global climate change predicts warming trends with more pronounced temperature changes in winter than summer in the Northern Hemisphere at high latitudes. Moderate increases in soil temperature are generally related to faster rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in Northern ecosystems, but there is evidence that SOC stocks have remained remarkably stable or even increased on the Tibetan Plateau under these conditions. This intriguing observation points to altered soil microbial mediation of carbon-cycling feedbacks in this region that might be related to seasonal warming. This study investigated the unexplained SOC stabilization observed on the Tibetan Plateau by quantifying microbial responses to experimental seasonal warming in a typical alpine meadow. Ecosystem respiration was reduced by 17%-38% under winter warming compared with year-round warming or no warming and coincided with decreased abundances of fungi and functional genes that control labile and stable organic carbon decomposition. Compared with year-round warming, winter warming slowed macroaggregate turnover rates by 1.6 times, increased fine intra-aggregate particulate organic matter content by 75%, and increased carbon stabilized in microaggregates within stable macroaggregates by 56%. Larger bacterial "necromass" (amino sugars) concentrations in soil under winter warming coincided with a 12% increase in carboxyl-C. These results indicate the enhanced physical preservation of SOC under winter warming and emphasize the role of soil microorganisms in aggregate life cycles. In summary, the divergent responses of SOC persistence in soils exposed to winter warming compared to year-round warming are explained by the slowing of microbial decomposition but increasing physical protection of microbially derived organic compounds. Consequently, the soil microbial response to winter warming on the Tibetan Plateau may cause negative feedbacks to global climate change and should be considered in Earth system models.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145737, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611012

RESUMO

Unraveling the succession of microbial communities is a core ecological research topic. Yet few studies have focused on how long-term secondary succession affects the functional profiles and ecological processes of abundant and rare microbial subcommunities. Here, we used amplicon sequencing and GeoChip analysis to explore the ecological functions of abundant and rare biospheres and their correlation with soil multinutrient cycling. Samples for this study were collected from a well-established secondary succession chronosequence that spans >30 years of dryland ecosystem development on the Loess Plateau of China. Although both abundant and rare subcommunities shifted with succession, the changing of beta-diversity of the microbial communities was primarily driven by species replacement of the rare biosphere. Phylogenetic changes of abundant and rare taxa were associated with their functional traits, which dominated the diversity-related selection along all succession ages. Neutral theory analysis indicated that the assemblage of abundant taxa over all successional ages was regulated by dispersal homogenizing and ecological drift. The null model revealed that homogeneous and variable selection were the dominant assembly processes for rare subcommunities compared with abundant species. pH and nitrogen content were the paramount drivers determining the assembly of microbial communities and functional genes, consistent with the importance of environmental filtering. Furthermore, the rare biosphere had a paramount role in the entire ecological network and was the major driver for most soil processes such as C, N, and S cycling. Nonetheless, a significant portion of soil P cycling was regulated by abundant taxa. Collectively, our study provides insight into the mechanisms underlying microbial community assembly and soil microbe-driven functional changes in biogeochemical processes during secondary succession.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145630, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582323

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms play important roles in the ecosystem functioning of subtropical broad-leaved forests (SBFs). However, the patterns and environmental indicators of soil microbial functional structure remain unclear in SBFs. In the present work, we used a functional microarray (GeoChip 4.0) to examine the soil microbial functional structure of three types of SBFs, including a deciduous broad-leaved forest (DBF), a mixed evergreen-deciduous broad-leaved forest (MBF), and an evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF). We found that microbial functional structure was significantly different among SBFs (P < 0.05). Compared to the DBF and the EBF, the MBF had higher functional α-diversity (P = 0.001, F = 12.55) but lower ß-diversity (P < 0.001, F = 61.09), and showed more complex functional gene networks. Besides, the MBF had higher relative abundances of functional genes for carbon (C) decomposition, C fixation, nitrogen (N) cycling, sulfur (S) cycling, and phosphorus (P) cycling (P < 0.05), indicating stronger microbial functional capabilities of nutrient cycling processes. Edaphic variables (i.e., soil pH and soil nutrient content) were revealed as better indicators of soil microbial functional structure than plant-related ones (i.e., vegetation type and plant diversity) in SBFs. For example, functional gene structure of the DBF was significantly related to soil total S (P = 0.041), that of the MBF was significantly related to soil organic C (P = 0.027) and plant available P (P = 0.034), and that of the EBF was significantly related to soil pH (P = 0.006) and total potassium (K) (P = 0.038). Overall, through the analysis of microbial functional gene profiles, this study yields unique insights into the environmental indicators of patterns and mechanisms of soil microbial functional structure in SBFs.

5.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 17, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558544

RESUMO

Climate warming is known to impact ecosystem composition and functioning. However, it remains largely unclear how soil microbial communities respond to long-term, moderate warming. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing and microarrays (GeoChip 5.0) to analyze taxonomic and functional gene compositions of the soil microbial community after 14 years of warming (at 0.8-1.0 °C for 10 years and then 1.5-2.0 °C for 4 years) in a Californian grassland. Long-term warming had no detectable effect on the taxonomic composition of soil bacterial community, nor on any plant or abiotic soil variables. In contrast, functional gene compositions differed between warming and control for bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Functional genes associated with labile carbon (C) degradation increased in relative abundance in the warming treatment, whereas those associated with recalcitrant C degradation decreased. A number of functional genes associated with nitrogen (N) cycling (e.g., denitrifying genes encoding nitrate-, nitrite-, and nitrous oxidereductases) decreased, whereas nifH gene encoding nitrogenase increased in the warming treatment. These results suggest that microbial functional potentials are more sensitive to long-term moderate warming than the taxonomic composition of microbial community.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 273: 116487, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482461

RESUMO

Discerning the differences in activated sludge (AS) microbial community due to geographic location and environmental and operational factors is of great significance for precise design and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Hence, in this study, 150 AS samples collected from WWTPs in South China and North China were analyzed by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. In general, AS microbial community in North China had lower diversity, higher proportions of stochastic assembly (35.7% v.s. 15.8%) and more network keystone species (19 v.s. 5) compared with southern AS community. Conductivity and SRT had significant effects on AS community in both regions. Latitude, annual mean temperature, and influent BOD, COD, and ammonia influenced South China community significantly, while pH and influent total phosphorus affected North China community. To achieve stable performance, southern WWTPs should carefully monitor fluctuations in wastewater characteristics, while northern WWTPs should monitor AS communities for shifts in the dominant taxa from immigrant strains brought in through the influent. Additionally, WWTPs in North China should be aware of the need to proactively control sludge bulking because of the high abundance and occurrence of Haliscomenobacter in these AS communities. MAIN FINDING: The call for regional design based on the regional discrepancy of microbial communities in activated sludge is uncovered and according suggestions were given.

7.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 20, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil methanogens participate in complex interactions, which determine the community structures and functions. Studies continue to seek the coexistence patterns of soil methanogens, influencing factors and the contribution to methane (CH4) production, which are regulated primarily by species interactions, and the functional significance of these interactions. Here, methane emissions were measured in rice paddies across the Asian continent, and the complex interactions involved in coexistence patterns of methanogenic archaeal communities were represented as pairwise links in co-occurrence networks. RESULTS: The network topological properties, which were positively correlated with mean annual temperature, were the most important predictor of CH4 emissions among all the biotic and abiotic factors. The methanogenic groups involved in commonly co-occurring links among the 39 local networks contributed most to CH4 emission (53.3%), much higher than the contribution of methanogenic groups with endemic links (36.8%). The potential keystone taxa, belonging to Methanobacterium, Methanocella, Methanothrix, and Methanosarcina, possessed high linkages with the methane generation functional genes mcrA, fwdB, mtbA, and mtbC. Moreover, the commonly coexisting taxa showed a very different assembly pattern, with ~ 30% determinism and ~ 70% stochasticity. In contrast, a higher proportion of stochasticity (93~99%) characterized the assembly of endemically coexisting taxa. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the coexistence patterns of microbes are closely tied to their functional significance, and the potential importance of common coexistence further imply that complex networks of interactions may contribute more than species diversity to soil functions. Video abstract.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 403, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452246

RESUMO

As the second-largest terrestrial carbon (C) flux, soil respiration (RS) has been stimulated by climate warming. However, the magnitude and dynamics of such stimulations of soil respiration are highly uncertain at the global scale, undermining our confidence in future climate projections. Here, we present an analysis of global RS observations from 1987-2016. RS increased (P < 0.001) at a rate of 27.66 g C m-2 yr-2 (equivalent to 0.161 Pg C yr-2) in 1987-1999 globally but became unchanged in 2000-2016, which were related to complex temporal variations of temperature anomalies and soil C stocks. However, global heterotrophic respiration (Rh) derived from microbial decomposition of soil C increased in 1987-2016 (P < 0.001), suggesting accumulated soil C losses. Given the warmest years on records after 2015, our modeling analysis shows a possible resuscitation of global RS rise. This study of naturally occurring shifts in RS over recent decades has provided invaluable insights for designing more effective policies addressing future climate challenges.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141513, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853935

RESUMO

Excessive nitrate in water systems is prevailing and a global risk of human health. Polluted river sediments are dominated by anaerobes and often the hotspot of denitrification. So far, little is known about the ecological effects of nitrate pollution on microbial dynamics, especially those in sulfide-rich sediments. Here we simulated a nitrate surge and monitored the microbial responses, as well as the changes of important environmental parameters in a sulfide-rich river sediment for a month. Our analysis of sediment microbial communities showed that elevated nitrate led to (i) a functional convergence at denitrification and sulfide oxidation, (ii) a taxonomic convergence at Proteobacteria, and (iii) a significant loss of biodiversity, community stability and other functions. Two chemolithotrophic denitrifiers Thiobacillus and Luteimonas were enriched after nitrate amendment, although the original communities were dominated by methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. Also, serial dilutions of sediment microbial communities found that Thiobacillus thiophilus dominated 18/30 communities because of its capability of simultaneous nitrate reduction and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, our network analysis indicated that keystone taxa seemed more likely to be native auxotrophs (e.g., syntrophic bacteria, methanogens) rather than dominant denitrifiers, possibly because of the extensive interspecific cross-feeding they estabilished, while environment perturbations probably disrupted that cross-feeding and simplified microbial interactions. This study advances our understanding of microbial community responses to nitrate pollution and possible mechanism in the sulfide-rich river sediment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rios , Desnitrificação , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitratos , Sulfetos , Thiobacillus
10.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143712, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277004

RESUMO

Interspecies interaction is an essential mechanism for bacterial communities to develop antibiotic resistance via horizontal gene transfer. Nonetheless, how bacterial interactions vary along the environmental transmission of antibiotics and the underpinnings remain unclear. To address it, we explore potential microbial associations by analyzing bacterial networks generated from 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional networks containing a large number of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs). Antibiotic concentration decreased by more than 4000-fold along the environmental transmission chain from manure samples of swine farms to aerobic compost, compost-amended agricultural soils, and neighboring agricultural soils. Both bacterial and functional networks became larger in nodes and links with decreasing antibiotic concentrations, likely resulting from lower antibiotics stress. Nonetheless, bacterial networks became less clustered with decreasing antibiotic concentrations, while functional networks became more clustered. Modularity, a key topological property that enhances system resilience to antibiotic stress, remained high for functional networks, but the modularity values of bacterial networks were the lowest when antibiotic concentrations were intermediate. To explain it, we identified a clear shift from deterministic processes, particularly variable selection, to stochastic processes at intermediate antibiotic concentrations as the dominant mechanism in shaping bacterial communities. Collectively, our results revealed microbial network dynamics and suggest that the modularity value of association networks could serve as an important indicator of antibiotic concentrations in the environment.

11.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283951

RESUMO

Soil aggregates, with complex spatial and nutritional heterogeneity, are clearly important for regulating microbial community ecology and biogeochemistry in soils. However, how the taxonomic composition and functional attributes of N-cycling-microbes within different soil particle-size fractions under a long-term fertilization treatment remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the composition and metabolic potential for urease activity, nitrification, N2 O production and reduction of the microbial communities attached to different sized soil particles (2000-250, 250-53 and <53µm) using a functional gene microarray (GeoChip) and functional assays. We found that urease activity and nitrification were higher in <53µm fractions, whereas N2 O production and reduction rates were greater in 2000-250 and 250-53µm across different fertilizer regimes. The abundance of key N-cycling genes involved in anammox, ammonification, assimilatory and dissimilatory N reduction, denitrification, nitrification, and N2 -fixation detected by GeoChip increased as soil aggregate size decreased; and the particular key genes abundance (e.g., ureC, amoA, narG, nirS/K) and their corresponding activity were uncoupled. Aggregate fraction exerted significant impacts on N-cycling microbial taxonomic composition, which was significantly shaped by soil nutrition. Taken together, these findings indicate the important roles of soil aggregates in differentiating N-cycling metabolic potential and taxonomic composition, and provide empirical evidence that nitrogen metabolism potential and community are uncoupled due to aggregate heterogeneity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142848, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268263

RESUMO

High amounts of deposited nitrogen (N) dramatically influence the stability and functions of alpine ecosystems by changing soil microbial community functions, but the mechanism is still unclear. To investigate the impacts of increased N deposition on microbial community functions, a 2-year multilevel N addition (0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1 year-1) field experiment was set up in an alpine steppe on the Tibetan Plateau. Soil microbial functional genes (GeoChip 4.6), together with soil enzyme activity, soil organic compounds and environmental variables, were used to explore the response of microbial community functions to N additions. The results showed that the N addition rate of 40 kg N ha-1 year-1 was the critical value for soil microbial functional genes in this alpine steppe. A small amount of added N (≤40 kg N ha-1 year-1) had no significant effects on the abundance of microbial functional genes, while high amounts of added N (>40 kg N ha-1 year-1) significantly increased the abundance of soil organic carbon degradation genes. Additionally, the abundance of microbial functional genes associated with NH4+, including ammonification, N fixation and assimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, was significantly increased under high N additions. Further, high N additions also increased soil organic phosphorus utilization, which was indicated by the increase in the abundance of phytase genes and alkaline phosphatase activity. Plant richness, soil NO2-/NH4+ and WSOC/WSON were significantly correlated with the abundance of microbial functional genes, which drove the changes in microbial community functions under N additions. These findings help us to predict that increased N deposition in the future may alter soil microbial functional structure, which will lead to changes in microbially-mediated biogeochemical dynamics in alpine steppes on the Tibetan Plateau and will have extraordinary impacts on microbial C, N and P cycles.

13.
Mol Ecol ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305411

RESUMO

High-latitude tundra ecosystems are increasingly affected by climate warming. As an important fraction of soil microorganisms, fungi play essential roles in carbon degradation, especially the old, chemically recalcitrant carbon. However, it remains obscure how fungi respond to climate warming and whether fungi, in turn, affect carbon stability of tundra. In a two-year winter soil warming experiment of 2 °C by snow fences, we investigated responses of fungal communities to warming in the active layer of an Alaskan tundra. Although fungal community composition, revealed by the 28S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, remained unchanged (P > 0.05), fungal functional gene composition, revealed by a microarray named GeoChip, was altered (P < 0.05). Changes in functional gene composition were linked to winter soil temperature, thaw depth, soil moisture, and gross primary productivity (Canonical Correlation Analysis, P < 0.05). Specifically, relative abundances of fungal genes encoding invertase, xylose reductase, and vanillin dehydrogenase significantly increased (P < 0.05), indicating higher carbon degradation capacities of fungal communities under warming. Accordingly, we detected changes of fungal gene networks under warming, including higher average path distance, lower average clustering coefficient, and lower percentage of negative links, indicating that warming potentially changed fungal interactions. Together, our study reveals higher carbon degradation capacities of fungal communities under short-term warming and highlights the potential impacts of fungal communities on tundra ecosystem respiration, and consequently future carbon stability of high-latitude tundra.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 33317-33324, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318221

RESUMO

Whether and how CO2 and nitrogen (N) availability interact to influence carbon (C) cycling processes such as soil respiration remains a question of considerable uncertainty in projecting future C-climate feedbacks, which are strongly influenced by multiple global change drivers, including elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) and increased N deposition. However, because decades of research on the responses of ecosystems to eCO2 and N enrichment have been done largely independently, their interactive effects on soil respiratory CO2 efflux remain unresolved. Here, we show that in a multifactor free-air CO2 enrichment experiment, BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and N deposition) in Minnesota, the positive response of soil respiration to eCO2 gradually strengthened at ambient (low) N supply but not enriched (high) N supply for the 12-y experimental period from 1998 to 2009. In contrast to earlier years, eCO2 stimulated soil respiration twice as much at low than at high N supply from 2006 to 2009. In parallel, microbial C degradation genes were significantly boosted by eCO2 at low but not high N supply. Incorporating those functional genes into a coupled C-N ecosystem model reduced model parameter uncertainty and improved the projections of the effects of different CO2 and N levels on soil respiration. If our observed results generalize to other ecosystems, they imply widely positive effects of eCO2 on soil respiration even in infertile systems.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Solo/química , Aerobiose , Simulação por Computador , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158888

RESUMO

Under anoxic conditions, many bacteria including Shewanella loihica PV-4 strain could use nitrate as electron acceptors for dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and/or denitrification. Previous and current studies have shown that DNRA is favored under higher ambient carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios while denitrification is upregulated under lower C/N ratios, which is consistent with our bioenergetics calculations. Interestingly, computational analyses indicate that the common cyclic AMP receptor protein (designated CRP1) and its paralogue CRP2 might be both involved in the regulation of two competing dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, DNRA and denitrification, in S. loihica PV-4 and several other denitrifying Shewanella species. To explore the regulatory mechanism underlying the DNR pathways, nitrate reduction of a series of in-frame deletion mutants was analyzed and compared under different C/N ratios. Deletion of crp1 could accelerate reduction of nitrite to NO under both low and high C/N ratios. CRP1 is not required for denitrification and actually suppresses production of NO and N2O gases. Deletion of either NO-forming nitrite reductase gene nirK or crp2 blocked production of NO gas. Furthermore, real-time PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that the transcription of DNRA-relevant genes such as nap-beta (napDABGH), nrfA and cymA genes were upregulated by CRP1, while nirK transcription was dependent on CRP2. There are tradeoffs between the different physiological roles of nitrate/lactate as nitrogen nutrient/carbon source and electron acceptor/donor and CRPs may leverage dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways for maximizing energy yield and bacterial survival under ambient environments.Importance Some microbes utilize different dissimilatory nitrate reduction (DNR) pathways, including DNR to ammonia (DNRA) and denitrification, for anaerobic respiration in response to ambient carbon/nitrogen ratio changes. Large-scale industrial nitrogen fixation and fertilizer application raise the concern of emission of N2O, a stable gas with a potent global warming potential, as consequence of microbial respiration, hereby aggravating global warming and climate change. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the choice of two competing DNR pathways. We demonstrate that the global regulator CRP1 widely encoded in bacteria is required for DNRA in S. loihica PV-4 strain while the CRP2 paralogue is required for transcription of nitrite reductase gene nirK for denitrification. Sufficient carbon source leads to the predominance of DNRA, while carbon source/electron donor deficiency may result in an incomplete denitrification process, raising the concern of high levels of N2O emission from nitrate-rich and carbon source-poor waters and soils.

16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103781

RESUMO

Although interactions between plants and microbes at the plant-soil interface are known to be important for plant nutrient acquisition, relatively little is known about how root exudates contribute to nutrient exchange over the course of plant development. In this study, root exudates from slow- and fast-growing stages of Arabidopsis thaliana plants were collected, chemically analysed and then applied to a sandy nutrient-depleted soil. We then tracked the impacts of these exudates on soil bacterial communities, soil nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, available phosphorus and potassium) and plant growth. Both pools of exudates shifted bacterial community structure. GeoChip analyses revealed increases in the functional gene potential of both exudate-treated soils, with similar responses observed for slow-growing and fast-growing plant exudate treatments. The fast-growing stage root exudates induced higher nutrient mineralization and enhanced plant growth as compared to treatments with slow-growing stage exudates and the control. These results suggest that plants may adjust their exudation patterns over the course of their different growth phases to help tailor microbial recruitment to meet increased nutrient demands during periods demanding faster growth.

17.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107668

RESUMO

A major conundrum in the isolation of prokaryotes from open environments is stochasticity. It is especially difficult to study low abundance groups where very little biological information exists, although single-cell genomics and metagenomics have alleviated some of this bottleneck. Here, we report an approach to capture lignin-utilizing bacteria by linking a physical model to actual organisms. Extracellular enzymes, lignin degradation and cell growth are crucial phenotypes of lignin-utilizing bacteria, but their interrelationships remain poorly understood. In this study, the phenotypes of bacteria isolated from in situ lignocellulose enrichment samples in coastal waters were traced and statistically analysed. It suggested cell growth, dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly correlated with lignin degradation, exhibiting a genus-specific property. The established models enabled us to efficiently capture lignin-utilizing bacteria and rapidly evaluate lignin degradation for Bacillus and Vibrio strains. Through the model, we identified several previously unrecognized marine bacterial lignin degraders. Moreover, it demonstrated that the isolated marine lignin-utilizing bacteria employ a DyP-based system and ROS for lignin depolymerization, providing insights into the mechanism of marine bacterial lignin degradation. Our findings should have implications beyond the capture of lignin-utilizing bacteria, in the isolation of other microorganisms with as-yet-unknown molecular biomarkers.

18.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 126, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial predation is an important selective force in microbial community structure and dynamics. However, only a limited number of predatory bacteria have been reported, and their predatory strategies and evolutionary adaptations remain elusive. We recently isolated a novel group of bacterial predators, Bradymonabacteria, representative of the novel order Bradymonadales in δ-Proteobacteria. Compared with those of other bacterial predators (e.g., Myxococcales and Bdellovibrionales), the predatory and living strategies of Bradymonadales are still largely unknown. RESULTS: Based on individual coculture of Bradymonabacteria with 281 prey bacteria, Bradymonabacteria preyed on diverse bacteria but had a high preference for Bacteroidetes. Genomic analysis of 13 recently sequenced Bradymonabacteria indicated that these bacteria had conspicuous metabolic deficiencies, but they could synthesize many polymers, such as polyphosphate and polyhydroxyalkanoates. Dual transcriptome analysis of cocultures of Bradymonabacteria and prey suggested a potential contact-dependent predation mechanism. Comparative genomic analysis with 24 other bacterial predators indicated that Bradymonabacteria had different predatory and living strategies. Furthermore, we identified Bradymonadales from 1552 publicly available 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing samples, indicating that Bradymonadales was widely distributed and highly abundant in saline environments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there may be six subgroups in this order; each subgroup occupied a different habitat. CONCLUSIONS: Bradymonabacteria have unique living strategies that are transitional between the "obligate" and the so-called facultative predators. Thus, we propose a framework to categorize the current bacterial predators into 3 groups: (i) obligate predators (completely prey-dependent), (ii) facultative predators (facultatively prey-dependent), and (iii) opportunistic predators (prey-independent). Our findings provide an ecological and evolutionary framework for Bradymonadales and highlight their potential ecological roles in saline environments. Video abstract.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4897, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994415

RESUMO

Soil microbial respiration is an important source of uncertainty in projecting future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks. However, its feedbacks to climate warming and underlying microbial mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we show that the temperature sensitivity of soil microbial respiration (Q10) in a temperate grassland ecosystem persistently decreases by 12.0 ± 3.7% across 7 years of warming. Also, the shifts of microbial communities play critical roles in regulating thermal adaptation of soil respiration. Incorporating microbial functional gene abundance data into a microbially-enabled ecosystem model significantly improves the modeling performance of soil microbial respiration by 5-19%, and reduces model parametric uncertainty by 55-71%. In addition, modeling analyses show that the microbial thermal adaptation can lead to considerably less heterotrophic respiration (11.6 ± 7.5%), and hence less soil C loss. If such microbially mediated dampening effects occur generally across different spatial and temporal scales, the potential positive feedback of soil microbial respiration in response to climate warming may be less than previously predicted.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Aclimatação/genética , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Aquecimento Global , Pradaria , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica , Modelos Genéticos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poaceae/química
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0232437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986713

RESUMO

Subsurface microbial communities mediate the transformation and fate of redox sensitive materials including organic matter, metals and radionuclides. Few studies have explored how changing geochemical conditions influence the composition of groundwater microbial communities over time. We temporally monitored alterations in abiotic forces on microbial community structure using 1L in-field bioreactors receiving background and contaminated groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation, TN. Planktonic and biofilm microbial communities were initialized with background water for 4 days to establish communities in triplicate control reactors and triplicate test reactors and then fed filtered water for 14 days. On day 18, three reactors were switched to receive filtered groundwater from a contaminated well, enriched in total dissolved solids relative to the background site, particularly chloride, nitrate, uranium, and sulfate. Biological and geochemical data were collected throughout the experiment, including planktonic and biofilm DNA for 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, cell counts, total protein, anions, cations, trace metals, organic acids, bicarbonate, pH, Eh, DO, and conductivity. We observed significant shifts in both planktonic and biofilm microbial communities receiving contaminated water. This included a loss of rare taxa, especially amongst members of the Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Betaproteobacteria, but enrichment in the Fe- and nitrate- reducing Ferribacterium and parasitic Bdellovibrio. These shifted communities were more similar to the contaminated well community, suggesting that geochemical forces substantially influence microbial community diversity and structure. These influences can only be captured through such comprehensive temporal studies, which also enable more robust and accurate predictive models to be developed.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Água Subterrânea/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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