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1.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; : e0014522, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475637

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus strain CPT56D-587-MTF was isolated from nitrate- and toxic metal-contaminated subsurface sediment at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Oak Ridge, TN, USA). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this strain to provide genomic insight into its strategies for survival at this mixed-waste site.

2.
mBio ; : e0080022, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438534

RESUMO

Climate change is the most serious challenge facing humanity. Microbes produce and consume three major greenhouse gases-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-and some microbes cause human, animal, and plant diseases that can be exacerbated by climate change. Hence, microbial research is needed to help ameliorate the warming trajectory and cascading effects resulting from heat, drought, and severe storms. We present a brief summary of what is known about microbial responses to climate change in three major ecosystems: terrestrial, ocean, and urban. We also offer suggestions for new research directions to reduce microbial greenhouse gases and mitigate the pathogenic impacts of microbes. These include performing more controlled studies on the climate impact on microbial processes, system interdependencies, and responses to human interventions, using microbes and their carbon and nitrogen transformations for useful stable products, improving microbial process data for climate models, and taking the One Health approach to study microbes and climate change.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 861549, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464986

RESUMO

As part of free cellulases or scaffolding proteins in cellulosomes, the hydrophilic non-catalytic X2 module is widely distributed in cellulolytic Clostridia or other Firmicutes bacteria. Previous biochemical studies suggest that X2 modules might increase the solubility and substrate binding affinity of X2-bearing proteins. However, their in vivo biological functions remain elusive. Here we employed CRISPR-Cas9 editing to genetically modify X2 modules by deleting the conserved motif (NGNT) from the CipC scaffoldin. Both single and double X2 mutants (X2-N: near the N terminus of CipC; X2-C: near the C terminus of CipC) presented similar stoichiometric compositions in isolated cellulosomes as the wildtype strain (WT). These X2 mutants had an elongated adaptation stage during growth on cellulose compared to cellobiose. Compared to WT, the double mutant ΔX2-NC reduced cellulose degradation by 15% and the amount of released soluble sugars by 63%. Since single X2 mutants did not present such obvious physiological changes as ΔX2-NC, there seems to be a functional redundancy between X2 modules in CipC. The in vivo adhesion assay revealed that ΔX2-NC decreased cell attachment to cellulose by 70% but a weaker effect was also overserved in single X2 mutants. These results highlight the in vivo biological role of X2 in increasing cellulose degradation efficiency by enhancing the binding affinity between cells and cellulose, which provides new perspectives for microbial engineering.

4.
mBio ; : e0382921, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420482

RESUMO

Land conversion for intensive agriculture produces unfavorable changes to soil ecosystems, causing global concern. Soil bacterial communities mediate essential terrestrial ecosystem processes, making it imperative to understand their responses to agricultural perturbations. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing coupled with a functional gene array to study temporal dynamics of soil bacterial communities over 1 year under different disturbance intensities across a U.S. Southern Plains agroecosystem, including tallgrass prairie, Old World bluestem pasture, no-tillage (NT) canola, and conventional tillage (CT) wheat. Land use had the greatest impact on bacterial taxonomic diversity, whereas sampling time and its interaction with land use were central to functional diversity differences. The main drivers of taxonomic diversity were tillage > sampling time > temperature, while all measured factors explained similar amounts of variations in functional diversity. Temporal differences had the strongest correlation with total nitrogen > rainfall > nitrate. Within land uses, community variations for CT wheat were attributed to nitrogen levels, whereas soil organic matter and soil water content explained community variations for NT canola. In comparison, all measured factors contributed almost equally to variations in grassland bacterial communities. Finally, functional diversity had a stronger relationship with taxonomic diversity for CT wheat compared to phylogenetic diversity in the prairie. These findings reinforce that tillage management has the greatest impact on bacterial community diversity, with sampling time also critical. Hence, our study highlights the importance of the interaction between temporal dynamics and land use in influencing soil microbiomes, providing support for reducing agricultural disturbance to conserve soil biodiversity. IMPORTANCE Agricultural sustainability relies on healthy soils and microbial diversity. Agricultural management alters soil conditions and further influences the temporal dynamics of soil microbial communities essential to ecosystem functions, including organic matter dynamics, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. Yet, the responses to agricultural management are also dependent on soil type and climatic region, emphasizing the importance of assessing sustainability at local scales. To evaluate the impact of agricultural management practices, we examined bacterial communities across a management disturbance gradient over 1 year in a U.S. Southern Plains agroecosystem and determined that intensive management disturbance and sampling time critically impacted bacterial structural diversity, while their interactive effect influenced functional diversity and other soil health indicators. Overall, this study provides insights into how reducing soil disturbance can positively impact microbial community diversity and soil properties in the U.S. Southern Plains.

5.
mBio ; 13(2): e0383221, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285696

RESUMO

Microorganisms drive much of the marine nitrogen (N) cycle, which jointly controls the primary production in the global ocean. However, our understanding of the microbial communities driving the global ocean N cycle remains fragmented. Focusing on "who is doing what, where, and how?", this study draws a clear picture describing the global biogeography of marine N-cycling microbial communities by utilizing the Tara Oceans shotgun metagenomes. The marine N-cycling communities are highly variable taxonomically but relatively even at the functional trait level, showing clear functional redundancy properties. The functional traits and taxonomic groups are shaped by the same set of geo-environmental factors, among which, depth is the major factor impacting marine N-cycling communities, differentiating mesopelagic from epipelagic communities. Latitudinal diversity gradients and distance-decay relationships are observed for taxonomic groups, but rarely or weakly for functional traits. The composition of functional traits is strongly deterministic as revealed by null model analysis, while a higher degree of stochasticity is observed for taxonomic composition. Integrating multiple lines of evidence, in addition to drawing a biogeographic picture of marine N-cycling communities, this study also demonstrated an essential microbial ecological theory-determinism governs the assembly of microbial communities performing essential biogeochemical processes; the environment selects functional traits rather than taxonomic groups; functional redundancy underlies stochastic taxonomic community assembly. IMPORTANCE A critical question in microbial ecology is how the complex microbial communities are formed in natural ecosystems with the existence of thousands different species, thereby performing essential ecosystem functions and maintaining ecosystem stability. Previous studies disentangling the community assembly mechanisms mainly focus on microbial taxa, ignoring the functional traits they carry. By anchoring microbial functional traits and their carrying taxonomic groups involved in nitrogen cycling processes, this study demonstrated an important mechanism associated with the complex microbial community assembly. Evidence shows that the environment selects functional traits rather than taxonomic groups, and functional redundancy underlies stochastic taxonomic community assembly. This study is expected to provide valuable mechanistic insights into the complex microbial community assembly in both natural and artificial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nitrogênio , Metagenoma , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
6.
Microorganisms ; 10(3)2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336213

RESUMO

Microbial-mediated utilization of particulate organic matter (POM) during its downward transport from the surface to the deep ocean constitutes a critical component of the global ocean carbon cycle. However, it remains unclear as to how high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) with the sinking particles affects community structure and network interactions of the particle-attached microorganisms (PAM) and those free-living microorganisms (FLM) in the surrounding water. In this study, we investigated microbial succession and network interactions in experiments simulating POM sinking in the ocean. Diatom-derived 13C- and 12C-labeled POM were used to incubate surface water microbial communities from the East China Sea (ECS) under pressure (temperature) of 0.1 (25 °C), 20 (4 °C), and 40 (4 °C) MPa (megapascal). Our results show that the diversity and species richness of the PAM and FLM communities decreased significantly with HHP and LT. Microbial community analysis indicated an increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes at high pressure (40 MPa), mostly at the expense of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gracilibacteria at atmospheric pressure. Hydrostatic pressure and temperature affected lifestyle preferences between particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) microbes. Ecological network analysis showed that HHP and LT enhanced microbial network interactions and resulted in higher vulnerability to networks of the PAM communities and more resilience of those of the FLM communities. Most interestingly, the PAM communities occupied most of the module hubs of the networks, whereas the FLM communities mainly served as connectors of the modules, suggesting their different ecological roles of the two groups of microbes. These results provided novel insights into how HHP and LT affected microbial community dynamics, ecological networks during POM sinking, and the implications for carbon cycling in the ocean.

7.
New Phytol ; 234(6): 1987-2002, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211983

RESUMO

Mountains are pivotal to maintaining habitat heterogeneity, global biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services to humans. They have provided classic model natural systems for plant and animal diversity gradient studies for over 250 years. In the recent decade, the exploration of microorganisms on mountainsides has also achieved substantial progress. Here, we review the literature on microbial diversity across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types on global mountains. Microbial community shows climatic zonation with orderly successions along elevational gradients, which are largely consistent with traditional climatic hypotheses. However, elevational patterns are complicated for species richness without general rules in terrestrial and aquatic environments and are driven mainly by deterministic processes caused by abiotic and biotic factors. We see a major shift from documenting patterns of biodiversity towards identifying the mechanisms that shape microbial biogeographical patterns and how these patterns vary under global change by the inclusion of novel ecological theories, frameworks and approaches. We thus propose key questions and cutting-edge perspectives to advance future research in mountain microbial biogeography by focusing on biodiversity hypotheses, incorporating meta-ecosystem framework and novel key drivers, adapting recently developed approaches in trait-based ecology and manipulative field experiments, disentangling biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships and finally modelling and predicting their global change responses.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiota , Animais , Biodiversidade , Plantas
8.
Fac Rev ; 11: 3, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174363

RESUMO

The origin of cellular complexity characterizing eukaryotic cells remains a central unresolved issue in the study of diversification of cellular life on Earth. The isolation by Imachi et al.1 of a member of the Asgard archaea2 - a contemporary relative of organisms thought to have given rise to eukaryotic cells about 2 billion years ago - now promises new insight. The complete genome sequence of the isolated Lokiarchaeum strain confirms that the eukaryotic signature proteins (ESPs) previously identified in the Lokiarchaeota3 and other Asgard archaea2 are indeed encoded by these archaeal genomes and do not represent contamination from eukaryotes. These ESPs encode homologs of eukaryotic actins, small GTPases and the ESCRT complex proteins and are required for the functioning of complex eukaryotic cells. The new, slowly growing, anaerobic laboratory strain allows a first direct look at these organisms and provides key insights into the morphology and metabolism of an Asgard archaeal organism. The work has provided valuable information for other laboratories that aim to isolate and characterize related organisms from other environments.

9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0259121, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107332

RESUMO

Rhodanobacter species dominate in the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subsurface environments contaminated with acids, nitrate, metal radionuclides, and other heavy metals. To uncover the genomic features underlying adaptations to these mixed-waste environments and to guide genetic tool development, we sequenced the whole genomes of eight Rhodanobacter strains isolated from the ORR site. The genome sizes ranged from 3.9 to 4.2 Mb harboring 3,695 to 4,035 protein-coding genes and GC contents approximately 67%. Seven strains were classified as R. denitrificans and one strain, FW510-R12, as R. thiooxydans based on full length 16S rRNA sequences. According to gene annotation, the top two Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COGs) with high pan-genome expansion rates (Pan/Core gene ratio) were "replication, recombination and repair" and "defense mechanisms." The denitrifying genes had high DNA homologies except the predicted protein structure variances in NosZ. In contrast, heavy metal resistance genes were diverse with between 7 to 34% of them were located in genomic islands, and these results suggested origins from horizontal gene transfer. Analysis of the methylation patterns in four strains revealed the unique 5mC methylation motifs. Most orthologs (78%) had ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) less than one when compared to the type strain 2APBS1, suggesting the prevalence of negative selection. Overall, the results provide evidence for the important roles of horizontal gene transfer and negative selection in genomic adaptation at the contaminated field site. The complex restriction-modification system genes and the unique methylation motifs in Rhodanobacter strains suggest the potential recalcitrance to genetic manipulation. IMPORTANCE Despite the dominance of Rhodanobacter species in the subsurface of the contaminated Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) site, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying their adaptions to the various stressors present at ORR. Recently, multiple Rhodanobacter strains have been isolated from the ORR groundwater samples from several wells with varying geochemical properties. Using Illumina, PacBio, and Oxford Nanopore sequencing platforms, we obtained the whole genome sequences of eight Rhodanobacter strains. Comparison of the whole genomes demonstrated the genetic diversity, and analysis of the long nanopore reads revealed the heterogeneity of methylation patterns in strains isolated from the same well. Although all strains contained a complete set of denitrifying genes, the predicted tertiary structures of NosZ differed. The sequence comparison results demonstrate the important roles of horizontal gene transfer and negative selection in adaptation. In addition, these strains may be recalcitrant to genetic manipulation due to the complex restriction-modification systems and methylations.


Assuntos
Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Nitratos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Composição de Bases , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Gammaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Bacteriano , Ilhas Genômicas , Genômica , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(2)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992138

RESUMO

Networks are vital tools for understanding and modeling interactions in complex systems in science and engineering, and direct and indirect interactions are pervasive in all types of networks. However, quantitatively disentangling direct and indirect relationships in networks remains a formidable task. Here, we present a framework, called iDIRECT (Inference of Direct and Indirect Relationships with Effective Copula-based Transitivity), for quantitatively inferring direct dependencies in association networks. Using copula-based transitivity, iDIRECT eliminates/ameliorates several challenging mathematical problems, including ill-conditioning, self-looping, and interaction strength overflow. With simulation data as benchmark examples, iDIRECT showed high prediction accuracies. Application of iDIRECT to reconstruct gene regulatory networks in Escherichia coli also revealed considerably higher prediction power than the best-performing approaches in the DREAM5 (Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods project, #5) Network Inference Challenge. In addition, applying iDIRECT to highly diverse grassland soil microbial communities in response to climate warming showed that the iDIRECT-processed networks were significantly different from the original networks, with considerably fewer nodes, links, and connectivity, but higher relative modularity. Further analysis revealed that the iDIRECT-processed network was more complex under warming than the control and more robust to both random and target species removal (P < 0.001). As a general approach, iDIRECT has great advantages for network inference, and it should be widely applicable to infer direct relationships in association networks across diverse disciplines in science and engineering.

11.
Microorganisms ; 10(1)2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056589

RESUMO

Short rotation coppice (SRC) is increasingly being adopted for bioenergy production, pollution remediation and land restoration. However, its long-term effects on soil microbial communities are poorly characterized. Here, we studied soil microbial functional genes and their biogeographic pattern under SRC with willow trees as compared to those under permanent grassland (C). GeoChip analysis showed a lower functional gene diversity in SRC than in C soil, whereas microbial ATP and respiration did not change. The SRC soil had lower relative abundances of microbial genes encoding for metal(-oid) resistance, antibiotic resistance and stress-related proteins. This indicates a more benign habitat under SRC for microbial communities after relieving heavy metal stress, consistent with the lower phytoavailability of some metals (i.e., As, Cd, Ni and Zn) and higher total organic carbon, NO3--N and P concentrations. The microbial taxa-area relationship was valid in both soils, but the space turnover rate was higher under SRC within 0.125 m2, which was possibly linked to a more benign environment under SRC, whereas similar values were reached beyond thisarea. Overall, we concluded that SRC management can be considered as a phytotechnology that ameliorates the habitat for soil microorganisms, owing to TOC and nutrient enrichment on the long-term.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 175, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013303

RESUMO

Nutrient scarcity is pervasive for natural microbial communities, affecting species reproduction and co-existence. However, it remains unclear whether there are general rules of how microbial species abundances are shaped by biotic and abiotic factors. Here we show that the ribosomal RNA gene operon (rrn) copy number, a genomic trait related to bacterial growth rate and nutrient demand, decreases from the abundant to the rare biosphere in the nutrient-rich coastal sediment but exhibits the opposite pattern in the nutrient-scarce pelagic zone of the global ocean. Both patterns are underlain by positive correlations between community-level rrn copy number and nutrients. Furthermore, inter-species co-exclusion inferred by negative network associations is observed more in coastal sediment than in ocean water samples. Nutrient manipulation experiments yield effects of nutrient availability on rrn copy numbers and network associations that are consistent with our field observations. Based on these results, we propose a "hunger games" hypothesis to define microbial species abundance rules using the rrn copy number, ecological interaction, and nutrient availability.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Interações Microbianas/genética , Microbiota/genética , Óperon de RNAr , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Dosagem de Genes , Interações Microbianas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia
13.
ISME J ; 16(3): 726-737, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580430

RESUMO

The recent application of macroecological tools and concepts has made it possible to identify consistent patterns in the distribution of microbial biodiversity, which greatly improved our understanding of the microbial world at large scales. However, the distribution of microbial functions remains largely uncharted from the macroecological point of view. Here, we used macroecological models to examine how the genes encoding the functional capabilities of microorganisms are distributed within and across soil systems. Models built using functional gene array data from 818 soil microbial communities showed that the occupancy-frequency distributions of genes were bimodal in every studied site, and that their rank-abundance distributions were best described by a lognormal model. In addition, the relationships between gene occupancy and abundance were positive in all sites. This allowed us to identify genes with high abundance and ubiquitous distribution (core) and genes with low abundance and limited spatial distribution (satellites), and to show that they encode different sets of microbial traits. Common genes encode microbial traits related to the main biogeochemical cycles (C, N, P and S) while rare genes encode traits related to adaptation to environmental stresses, such as nutrient limitation, resistance to heavy metals and degradation of xenobiotics. Overall, this study characterized for the first time the distribution of microbial functional genes within soil systems, and highlight the interest of macroecological models for understanding the functional organization of microbial systems across spatial scales.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Biodiversidade , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Mol Ecol ; 31(5): 1403-1415, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878672

RESUMO

Microorganisms are major constituents of the total biomass in permafrost regions, whose underlain soils are frozen for at least two consecutive years. To understand potential microbial responses to climate change, here we examined microbial community compositions and functional capacities across four soil depths in an Alaska tundra site. We showed that a 5-year warming treatment increased soil thaw depth by 25.7% (p = .011) within the deep organic layer (15-25 cm). Concurrently, warming reduced 37% of bacterial abundance and 64% of fungal abundances in the deep organic layer, while it did not affect microbial abundance in other soil layers (i.e., 0-5, 5-15, and 45-55 cm). Warming treatment altered fungal community composition and microbial functional structure (p < .050), but not bacterial community composition. Using a functional gene array, we found that the relative abundances of a variety of carbon (C)-decomposing, iron-reducing, and sulphate-reducing genes in the deep organic layer were decreased, which was not observed by the shotgun sequencing-based metagenomics analysis of those samples. To explain the reduced metabolic capacities, we found that warming treatment elicited higher deterministic environmental filtering, which could be linked to water-saturated time, soil moisture, and soil thaw duration. In contrast, plant factors showed little influence on microbial communities in subsurface soils below 15 cm, despite a 25.2% higher (p < .05) aboveground plant biomass by warming treatment. Collectively, we demonstrate that microbial metabolic capacities in subsurface soils are reduced, probably arising from enhanced thaw by warming.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Pergelissolo/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Tundra
15.
Ground Water ; 60(1): 99-111, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490626

RESUMO

Microbial-mediated nitrate removal from groundwater is widely recognized as the predominant mechanism for nitrate attenuation in contaminated aquifers and is largely dependent on the presence of a carbon-bearing electron donor. The repeated exposure of a natural microbial community to an electron donor can result in the sustained ability of the community to remove nitrate; this phenomenon has been clearly demonstrated at the laboratory scale. However, in situ demonstrations of this ability are lacking. For this study, ethanol (electron donor) was repeatedly injected into a groundwater well (treatment) for six consecutive weeks to establish the sustained ability of a microbial community to remove nitrate. A second well (control) located upgradient was not injected with ethanol during this time. The treatment well demonstrated strong evidence of sustained ability as evident by ethanol, nitrate, and subsequent sulfate removal up to 21, 64, and 68%, respectively, as compared to the conservative tracer (bromide) upon consecutive exposures. Both wells were then monitored for six additional weeks under natural (no injection) conditions. During the final week, ethanol was injected into both treatment and control wells. The treatment well demonstrated sustained ability as evident by ethanol and nitrate removal up to 20 and 21%, respectively, as compared to bromide, whereas the control did not show strong evidence of nitrate removal (5% removal). Surprisingly, the treatment well did not indicate a sustained and selective enrichment of a microbial community. These results suggested that the predominant mechanism(s) of sustained ability likely exist at the enzymatic- and/or genetic-levels. The results of this study demonstrated the in situ ability of a microbial community to remove nitrate can be sustained in the prolonged absence of an electron donor.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Nitratos/análise , Sulfatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poços de Água
16.
ISME J ; 16(1): 10-25, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211103

RESUMO

Switchgrass is a deep-rooted perennial native to the US prairies and an attractive feedstock for bioenergy production; when cultivated on marginal soils it can provide a potential mechanism to sequester and accumulate soil carbon (C). However, the impacts of switchgrass establishment on soil biotic/abiotic properties are poorly understood. Additionally, few studies have reported the effects of switchgrass cultivation on marginal lands that have low soil nutrient quality (N/P) or in areas that have experienced high rates of soil erosion. Here, we report a comparative analyses of soil greenhouse gases (GHG), soil chemistry, and microbial communities in two contrasting soil types (with or without switchgrass) over 17 months (1428 soil samples). These soils are highly eroded, 'Dust Bowl' remnant field sites in southern Oklahoma, USA. Our results revealed that soil C significantly increased at the sandy-loam (SL) site, but not at the clay-loam (CL) site. Significantly higher CO2 flux was observed from the CL switchgrass site, along with reduced microbial diversity (both alpha and beta). Strikingly, methane (CH4) consumption was significantly reduced by an estimated 39 and 47% at the SL and CL switchgrass sites, respectively. Together, our results suggest that soil C stocks and GHG fluxes are distinctly different at highly degraded sites when switchgrass has been cultivated, implying that carbon balance considerations should be accounted for to fully evaluate the sustainability of deep-rooted perennial grass cultivation in marginal lands.


Assuntos
Panicum , Solo , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Metano , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo/química
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149868, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481163

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanisms and potential risks of river eco-remediation, river water, sediment, and biofilms in remediation facilities were sampled from a 2-year full scale eco-remediation site in an urban river in southeastern China. The samples from both remediated and adjacent control areas were analyzed for chemical properties and functional microbial community structures. The eco-remediation significantly changed the community structures in the river and introduced much more diverse functional microorganisms in facility biofilms. Corresponding to effective reduction of organics and ammonium in river water, some labile-organics-degrading and ammonia-oxidizing gene families showed higher abundances in river water of remediated area than control area, and were obviously more abundant in facility biofilms than in river water and sediment. The eco-remediation facilities showed obvious absorption of N, P, and heavy metals (Mn, CrVI, Fe, Al, As, Co), contributing to nutrients and metals removal from river water. The eco-remediation also increased transparency and sedimentation of some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn), which probably associated with colloids breakdown. Various metal-resistance microorganisms showed different abundances between facility biofilms and sediment, in accordance with relative metals. Most detected pathogens were not significantly affected by eco-remediation. However, our measurements in sediment and facilities showed heavy metals accumulation and development of some pathogens and several antibiotic-resistance pathogens, alerting us to investigate and control these potential risks to ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(5): 1935-1950, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905647

RESUMO

Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and their complex responses to environmental changes have received increasing attention. However, large uncertainties in model predictions remain, partially due to the lack of explicit representation and parameterization of microbial processes. One great challenge is to effectively integrate rich microbial functional traits into ecosystem modeling for better predictions. Here, using soil enzymes as indicators of soil function, we developed a competitive dynamic enzyme allocation scheme and detailed enzyme-mediated soil inorganic N processes in the Microbial-ENzyme Decomposition (MEND) model. We conducted a rigorous calibration and validation of MEND with diverse soil C-N fluxes, microbial C:N ratios, and functional gene abundances from a 12-year CO2  × N grassland experiment (BioCON) in Minnesota, USA. In addition to accurately simulating soil CO2 fluxes and multiple N variables, the model correctly predicted microbial C:N ratios and their negative response to enriched N supply. Model validation further showed that, compared to the changes in simulated enzyme concentrations and decomposition rates, the changes in simulated activities of eight C-N-associated enzymes were better explained by the measured gene abundances in responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Our results demonstrated that using enzymes as indicators of soil function and validating model predictions with functional gene abundances in ecosystem modeling can provide a basis for testing hypotheses about microbially mediated biogeochemical processes in response to environmental changes. Further development and applications of the modeling framework presented here will enable microbial ecologists to address ecosystem-level questions beyond empirical observations, toward more predictive understanding, an ultimate goal of microbial ecology.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Carbono , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 736751, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803950

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) bioavailability in the rice rhizosphere is influenced by many microbial interactions, particularly by metal-transforming functional groups at the root-soil interface. This study was conducted to examine As-transforming microbes and As-speciation in the rice rhizosphere compartments, in response to two different water management practices (continuous and intermittently flooded), established on fields with high to low soil-As concentration. Microbial functional gene composition in the rhizosphere and root-plaque compartments were characterized using the GeoChip 4.0 microarray. Arsenic speciation and concentrations were analyzed in the rhizosphere soil, root-plaque, pore water, and grain samples. Results confirmed several As-biotransformation processes in the rice rhizosphere compartments, and distinct assemblage of As-reducing and methylating bacteria was observed between the root-plaque and rhizosphere. Results confirmed higher potential for microbial As-reduction and As-methylation in continuously flooded, long term As-contaminated fields, which accumulated highest concentrations of AsIII and methyl-As concentrations in pore water and rice grains. Water management treatment significantly altered As-speciation in the rhizosphere, and intermittent flooding reduced methyl-As and AsIII concentrations in the pore water, root-plaque and rice grain. Ordination and taxonomic analysis of detected gene-probes indicated that root-plaque and rhizosphere assembled significantly different microbial functional groups demonstrating niche separation. Taxonomic non-redundancy was evident, suggesting that As-reduction, -oxidation and -methylation processes were performed by different microbial functional groups. It was also evident that As transformation was coupled to different biogeochemical cycling processes (nutrient assimilation, carbon metabolism etc.) in the compartments and between treatments, revealing functional non-redundancy of rice-rhizosphere microbiome in response to local biogeochemical conditions and As contamination. This study provided novel insights on As-biotransformation processes and their implications on As-chemistry at the root-soil interface and their responses to water management, which could be applied for mitigating As-bioavailability and accumulation in rice grains.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 772149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795658

RESUMO

From increasing evidence has emerged a tight link among the environment, intestine microbiota, and host health status; moreover, the microbial interaction in different habitats is crucial for ecosystems. However, how the environmental microbial community assembly governs the intestinal microbiota and microbial communities of multiple habitats contribute to the metacommunity remain elusive. Here, we designed two delicate experiments from temporal and spatial scales in a shrimp culture pond ecosystem (SCPE). Of the SCPE metacommunity, the microbial diversity was mainly contributed to by the diversity of-ß IntraHabitats and ß InterHabitats , and water and sediment communities had a large contribution to the shrimp intestine community as shown by SourceTracker and Sloan neutral community model analyses. Also, phylogenetic bin-based null model results show that microbial assembly of three habitats in the SCPE appeared to be largely driven by stochastic processes. These results enrich our understanding of the environment-intestinal microbiota-host health closely linked relationship, making it possible to be the central dogma for an anthropogenic aquaculture ecosystem. Our findings enhance the mechanistic understanding of microbial assembly in the SCPE for further analyzing metacommunities, which has important implications for microbial ecology and animal health.

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