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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950164

RESUMO

Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk. Objective: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as between participants at CHR who later developed a psychotic disorder (CHR-PS+) and those who did not (CHR-PS-). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, baseline T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were pooled from 31 international sites participating in the ENIGMA Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Working Group. CHR status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States or Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. MRI scans were processed using harmonized protocols and analyzed within a mega-analysis and meta-analysis framework from January to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Measures of regional cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans. Independent variables were group (CHR group vs control group) and conversion status (CHR-PS+ group vs CHR-PS- group vs control group). Results: Of the 3169 included participants, 1428 (45.1%) were female, and the mean (SD; range) age was 21.1 (4.9; 9.5-39.9) years. This study included 1792 individuals at CHR and 1377 healthy controls. Using longitudinal clinical information, 253 in the CHR-PS+ group, 1234 in the CHR-PS- group, and 305 at CHR without follow-up data were identified. Compared with healthy controls, individuals at CHR exhibited widespread lower CT measures (mean [range] Cohen d = -0.13 [-0.17 to -0.09]), but not surface area or subcortical volume. Lower CT measures in the fusiform, superior temporal, and paracentral regions were associated with psychosis conversion (mean Cohen d = -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.10). Among healthy controls, compared with those in the CHR-PS+ group, age showed a stronger negative association with left fusiform CT measures (F = 9.8; P < .001; q < .001) and left paracentral CT measures (F = 5.9; P = .005; q = .02). Effect sizes representing lower CT associated with psychosis conversion resembled patterns of CT differences observed in ENIGMA studies of schizophrenia (ρ = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.55; P = .004) and individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (ρ = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.61; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence for widespread subtle, lower CT measures in individuals at CHR. The pattern of CT measure differences in those in the CHR-PS+ group was similar to those reported in other large-scale investigations of psychosis. Additionally, a subset of these regions displayed abnormal age associations. Widespread disruptions in CT coupled with abnormal age associations in those at CHR may point to disruptions in postnatal brain developmental processes.

2.
Water Res ; 197: 117083, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813168

RESUMO

Particulate organic carbon (POC) sources, which regulate dissolved organic carbon, sediment organic carbon, and inorganic carbon via deposition, degradation, and mineralization, play an important role in lake ecosystems. Linear or Bayesian algorithms on isotope and n-alkanes have been widely used to identify the source proportion of organic carbon. However, the applicability of these methods is ambiguous because of the unilateral advantages of each model and trace factors. To test the applicability of the various methods for identifying POC sources, we analyzed dual isotopes and n-alkanes in surface water samples of Lake Taihu, and Multi-source mixing model and Bayesian mixing model were used to distinguish between endogenous and exogenous contributions. Carbon isotope presented a clear advantage in West Taihu (-21.85 ± 0.78‰) and Southwest Taih (-22.61 ± 1.35‰); nitrogen isotope also showed high values in Meiliang Bay (9.76 ± 0.92‰). The majority of the lake was dominated by short-chain n-alkanes, except for East Taihu Lake (dominated by medium-chain n-alkanes) and areas with riverine input (dominated by long-chain n-alkanes). Different principles between the Bayesian mixing model (based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm) and the Multi-source mixing model (based on linear estimation) caused discrepancies in the estimations of source contributions. But the fraction of chemical compounds during the migration process, and the overlap of potential sources play important role in the inconsistency of results. The estimations from the different models were consistent in indicating the dominance of endogenous organic carbon in Lake Taihu (mean of 60.18 ± 20.26%), particularly in the north and western regions (West Taihu, Meiliang Bay, and Southwest Taihu). This was likely due to algal aggregation influenced by human activities and climatic factors.


Assuntos
Carbono , Sedimentos Geológicos , Alcanos , Teorema de Bayes , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 199, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has rarely been applied in plant science, particularly to study plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we evaluated the freezing resistance of floribunda roses (Rosa Floribunda) during frost dehardening using the EIT technique to identify a new method for rapid and non-destructive measurement of plant freezing resistance. RESULTS: The current was the excitation source, the boundary voltage value was measured, and then the boundary voltage reconstructed value was formed. Using an imaging algorithm, the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of impedance or impedance variation was reconstructed. The EIT reconstructed values decreased obviously with the decline in freezing temperatures. The EIT reconstructed values of stems had the best fit to the logistic equation, and subsequently, the semi-lethal temperatures were calculated. The freezing resistance results evaluated using EIT reconstructed values were linearly correlated with the results of the traditional electrolyte leakage (EL) method (r = 0.93, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, after freezing tests, the reconstructed values of EIT images could be used to quantitatively evaluate the freezing resistance of floribunda rose stems. The present study provides a reference for the further application of the EIT technique for non-destructive and rapid detection of plant freezing resistance.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8442, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875691

RESUMO

Stroke leads to both regional brain functional disruptions and network reorganization. However, how brain functional networks reconfigure as task demand increases in stroke patients and whether such reorganization at baseline would facilitate post-stroke motor recovery are largely unknown. To address this gap, brain functional connectivity (FC) were examined at rest and motor tasks in eighteen chronic subcortical stroke patients and eleven age-matched healthy controls. Stroke patients underwent a 2-week intervention using a motor imagery-assisted brain computer interface-based (MI-BCI) training with or without transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Motor recovery was determined by calculating the changes of the upper extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) score between pre- and post-intervention divided by the pre-intervention FMA score. The results suggested that as task demand increased (i.e., from resting to passive unaffected hand gripping and to active affected hand gripping), patients showed greater FC disruptions in cognitive networks including the default and dorsal attention networks. Compared to controls, patients had lower task-related spatial similarity in the somatomotor-subcortical, default-somatomotor, salience/ventral attention-subcortical and subcortical-subcortical connections, suggesting greater inefficiency in motor execution. Importantly, higher baseline network-specific FC strength (e.g., dorsal attention and somatomotor) and more efficient brain network reconfigurations (e.g., somatomotor and subcortical) from rest to active affected hand gripping at baseline were related to better future motor recovery. Our findings underscore the importance of studying functional network reorganization during task-free and task conditions for motor recovery prediction in stroke.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893582

RESUMO

Natural ferrous minerals are readily available and recyclable catalysts in photo-Fenton-like oxidation for wastewater treatment. In this work, typical ferrous oxide and sulfide minerals including magnetite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite were exploited as catalysts in heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation for purification of biological effluent of dyeing wastewater. In a wide initial pH range (3.0~7.5), ferrous mineral-based heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like reactions were proven to be effective on the oxidation of recalcitrant pollutants. COD removals achieved 60.57%, 58.83%, and 57.41% using pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and magnetite, respectively, as catalyst under ultraviolet irradiation of 220~275 nm at H2O2 concentration of 9.8 mM. The corresponding COD removals were 51.75% and 34.09% with or without ferrous sulfate additions in UV/H2O2 systems. Minerals exhibited excellent stability and reusability with photo-catalytic activity reduction of less than 10% in the reuse of 5 cycles. Dissolved iron concentrations were determined to be 1.86 mg L-1, 4.62 mg L-1, and 7.53 mg L-1 for magnetite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite, respectively, at pH 3 and decreased to zero in neutral pH environment, which were much lower than those required for homogenous Fenton reaction. It was deduced that oxidation of recalcitrant pollutants was mainly catalyzed by Fe(II) on the mineral surface. The more reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals were resulted from the reaction of surface Fe (II) with H2O2, H2O2 photolysis, and charge separation of minerals under UV irradiation.

6.
J Environ Manage ; 290: 112570, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892234

RESUMO

Diesel removal of contaminated soil by washing/flushing was enhanced with micro-bubbles and selected surfactants based on their solubilization properties and decontamination capacities. The influencing factors were studied to aim for increasing washing/flushing efficacy. The mixture solution of saponin and cyclodextrin increased the removal efficiency significantly compared to the single-agent solution flushing with an increasing range of 20%-31%. Meanwhile, micro-bubble enhancement increased over 20% of the diesel removal for the sandy soil flushing. As the flushing process may cause soil eroded, the TDS and soil solute in flushing solution were measured to evaluate the circulation time. The 90 min flushing time ensured the cleaning goal and reserved the soil solute by circulation flushing. The soil solute, especially the electron acceptor (NO3-) , was remained in the soil, which was highly demanded for residual diesel biodegradation of loam soil. It is concluded that mixed agents, circulation of flushing solution, and micro-bubbles increased the diesel removal, and the circulation flushing could be very promising in practical applications.

7.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(11): 2709-2716, 2021 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683256

RESUMO

The rapid development of exosome research provides new insights into the physiological role of exosomes and their significant correlation with human health. Although the exosomes derived from tumor sources have been proven to be promising biomarkers for cancer detection and disease progression due to their inherited biological contents from the parent cancer cells and unique roles in tumor metastasis and invasion, it is still a challenging task to perform rapid and effective isolation from complex biological samples and conduct high-precision real-time analysis. Herein, we propose a magnetic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform to integrate successive breast cancer exosome isolation and Raman signal enhancement into one system to achieve the goal. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to investigate major patterns of the samples. According to the results, the magnetic SERS platform can be applied to distinguish exosomes derived from MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the 95% confidence interval. More importantly, this platform can fully identify breast cancer patients and healthy people with 91.67% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These studies revealed that our magnetic SERS platform would serve as a great potential system for highly efficient real-time liquid biopsy by using the exosomes as cancerous markers, while exempting from pre-treatment of clinical samples or the extra introduction of elements for SERS signal enhancement.

8.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(4): 707-715, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723997

RESUMO

Carboxysomes (CBs) are protein organelles in cyanobacteria, and they play a central role in assimilation of CO2. Heterologous synthesis of CBs in E. coli provides an opportunity for CO2-organic compound conversion under controlled conditions but remains challenging; specifically, the CO2 assimilation efficiency is insufficient. In this study, an auxiliary module was designed to assist self-assembly of CBs derived from a model species cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus marinus (P. marinus) MED4 for synthesizing in E. coli. The results indicated that the structural integrity of synthetic CBs is improved through the transmission electron microscope images and that the CBs have highly efficient CO2-concentrating ability as revealed by enzyme kinetic analysis. Furthermore, the bacterial growth curve and 13C-metabolic flux analysis not only consolidated the fact of CO2 assimilation by synthetic CBs in E. coli but also proved that the engineered strain could efficiently convert external CO2 to some metabolic intermediates (acetyl-CoA, malate, fumarate, tyrosine, etc.) of the central metabolic pathway. The synthesis of CBs of P. marinus MED4 in E. coli provides prospects for understanding their CO2 assimilation mechanism and realizing their modular application in synthetic biology.

9.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(10): 2483-2493, 2021 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656037

RESUMO

In vitro liquid biopsy based on exosomes offers promising opportunities for fast and reliable detection of lung cancers. In this work, we present a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) magnetic aptamer-sensor for magnetic enrichment of exosomes with aptamers and detection of cancerous-surface proteins based on a light-up FRET strategy. Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) and aptamers were introduced onto magnetic nanoparticles and the fluorescence emission turned down when the aptamers were paired with their complementary DNA on the surface of Au nanoparticles. Later, competitive binding of exosomes with the aptamers expelled the Au nanoparticles resulting in an exosome concentration-dependent linear increase of QD fluorescence intensity in a broad exosome concentration range (5 × 102-5 × 109 particles per mL). As found in our work, this system behaved ultra-sensitively and the calculated detection limit of this FRET magnetic aptamer-sensor was as low as 13 particles per mL. Furthermore, taking epithelial cancer-specific antigen (epithelial cell adhesion molecule, EpCAM) screening as a typical example, our built FRET magnetic aptamer-sensor allowed a rapid and efficient distinction of all the epithelial cancer cases (7 lung cancers and 5 other cancers) from health volunteers with 100% accuracy.

10.
Biochemistry ; 60(15): 1178-1190, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749246

RESUMO

Phospholipase A/acyltransferase 3 (PLAAT3) and PLAAT4 are enzymes involved in the synthesis of bioactive lipids. Despite sequential and structural similarities, the two enzymes differ in activity and specificity. The relation between the activity and dynamics of the N-terminal domains of PLAAT3 and PLAAT4 was studied. PLAAT3 has a much higher melting temperature and exhibits less nanosecond and millisecond dynamics in the active site, in particular in loop L2(B6), as shown by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics calculations. Swapping the L2(B6) loops between the two PLAAT enzymes results in strongly increased phospholipase activity in PLAAT3 but no reduction in PLAAT4 activity, indicating that this loop contributes to the low activity of PLAAT3. The results show that, despite structural similarity, protein dynamics differ substantially between the PLAAT variants, which can help to explain the activity and specificity differences.

11.
Med Image Anal ; 71: 101999, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780707

RESUMO

Detecting breast soft-tissue lesions including masses, structural distortions and asymmetries is of great importance due to the high risk leading to breast cancer. Most existing deep learning based approaches detect lesions with only unilateral images. However, multi-view mammogram images provide highly related and complementary information which helps to make the clinical analysis more comprehensive and reliable. In this paper, we propose a multi-view network for breast soft-tissue lesion detection called C2-Net (Compare and Contrast, C2) that fuses information across different views. The proposed model contains the following three modules. The spatial context enhancing (SCE) module compares ipsilateral views and extracts complementary features to model lesion inherent 3D structure. The multi-scale kernel pooling (MKP) module contrasts contralateral views with added misalignment tolerance. Finally, the logic guided fusion (LGF) module fuses multi-view features by enhancing logic modeling capacity. Experimental results on both the public DDSM dataset and the in-house multi-center dataset demonstrate that the proposed method has achieved state-of-the-art performance.

12.
Cancer Med ; 10(8): 2924-2939, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential molecular mechanism of ovarian cancer (OC) evolution and immunological correlation using the integrated bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: Data from the Gene Expression Omnibus was used to gain differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome pathway analysis were completed by utilizing the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. After multiple validations via The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) projects, the Human Protein Atlas, Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter, and immune logical relationships of the key gene SOBP were evaluated based on Tumor Immune Estimation Resource, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) software. Finally, the lncRNAs-miRNAs-mRNAs subnetwork was predicted by starBase, TargetScan, miRBD, and LncBase, individually. Correlation of expression and prognosis for mRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs were confirmed by TCGA, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 (GEPIA 2), starBase, and KM. RESULTS: A total of 192 shared DEGs were discovered from the four data sets, including 125 upregulated and 67 downregulated genes. Functional enrichment analysis presented that they were mainly enriched in cartilage development, pathway in PI3 K-Akt signaling pathway. Lower expression of SOBP was the independent prognostic factor for inferior prognosis in OC patients. The downregulation of SOBP enhanced the infiltration levels of B cells, CD8+ T cells, Macrophage, Neutrophil, and Dendritic cells. GSEA also disclosed low SOBP showed a significantly associated with the activation of various immune-related pathways. Finally, we first reported that the MEG8/miR-378d/SOBP axis was linked to the development and prognosis of OC through regulating the cytokines pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes a novel MEG8/miR-378d/SOBP axis in the development and prognosis of OC, and the triple subnetwork probably affects the progression of the OC by regulating the cytokines pathway.

13.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(4): 1346-1356, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657790

RESUMO

Developing a versatile bioadhesive which is biocompatible, adhesive, hemostatic, and therapeutic is of great significance to promote wound sealing and healing. Herein, an adhesive (GTT-3 hydrogel) is fabricated by catalysis of tannic acid modified gelatin (Gel-TA) with transglutaminase (TG). The hydrogen bonding, imine linking, and acyl-transfer reaction between GTT-3 hydrogel and tissue enable efficient hydrogel integration and adhesion to tissue instantly, so as to seal the wound and stop bleeding. Moreover, the intrinsic wound healing ability of gelatin and the antibacterial properties of TA provide favorable conditions for wound healing after adhesion. In vitro mechanical property testing and cell experimental results determine the elasticity, adhesion, and biocompatibility of the GTT-3 hydrogel. The wound operation in mouse models and pathological sectioning results indicate that GTT-3 adhesive obviously accelerates hemostasis, wound bonding, and healing. With the special property of instant adhesion and excellent hemostatic and therapeutic repair effects, GTT-3 hydrogel may provide a new option for surgical operation.

14.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661489

RESUMO

Understanding the persistence of antibody in convalescent COVID-19 patients may help to answer the current major concerns such as the risk of reinfection, the protection period of vaccination and the possibility of building an active herd immunity. This retrospective cohort study included 172 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Wuhan. A total of 404 serum samples were obtained over six months from hospitalization to convalescence. Antibodies in the specimens were quantitatively analyzed by the capture chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA). All patients were positive for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG at the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, and the IgG antibody persisted in all the patients during the convalescence. However, only approximately 25% of patients can detect the IgM antibodies, IgM against N protein (N-IgM) and receptor binding domain of S protein (RBD-IgM) at the 27th week. The titers of IgM, N-IgM and RBD-IgM reduced to 16.7%, 17.6% and 15.2% of their peak values respectively. In contrast, the titers of IgG, N-IgG and RBD-IgG peaked at 4-5th week and reduced to 85.9%, 62.6% and 87.2% of their peak values respectively at the end of observation. Dynamic behavior of antibodies and their correlation in age, gender and severity groups were investigated. In general, the COVID-19 antibody was sustained at high levels for over six months in most of the convalescent patients. Only a few patients with antibody reducing to an undetectable level which needs further attention. The humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 patients exhibits a typical dynamic of acquired immunity.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726650

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small population of cancer cells that are able to self-renew and initiate tumors, which undergo epigenetic, epithelial-mesenchymal, immunological, and metabolic reprogramming to adapt to the tumor microenvironment as well as survive host defense or therapeutic insults. The metabolic reprogramming that accompanies cancer onset is known to be critical for the disease pathogenesis. A coordinated dysregulation of lipid metabolism is observed in nearly all cancer types. In addition to fulfilling basic requirements of structural lipids for membrane synthesis, lipids function importantly as signaling molecules and contribute to energy homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the current progress in the attractive research field of aberrant lipid metabolism regarding CSCs in cancer progression, which provides insights into therapeutic agents targeting CSCs based upon their modulation of lipid metabolism.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5975, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727641

RESUMO

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, numerous studies have been attempting to determine biomarkers, which could rapidly and efficiently predict COVID-19 severity, however there is lack of consensus on a specific one. This retrospective cohort study is a comprehensive analysis of the initial symptoms, comorbidities and laboratory evaluation of patients, diagnosed with COVID-19 in Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, from 4th February to 12th March, 2020. Based on the data collected from 63 severely ill patients from the onset of symptoms till the full recovery or demise, we found not only age (average 70) but also blood indicators as significant risk factors associated with multiple organ failure. The blood indices of all patients showed hepatic, renal, cardiac and hematopoietic dysfunction with imbalanced coagulatory biomarkers. We noticed that the levels of LDH (85%, P < .001), HBDH (76%, P < .001) and CRP (65%, P < .001) were significantly elevated in deceased patients, indicating hepatic impairment. Similarly, increased CK (15%, P = .002), Cre (37%, P = 0.102) and CysC (74%, P = 0.384) indicated renal damage. Cardiac injury was obvious from the significantly elevated level of Myoglobin (52%, P < .01), Troponin-I (65%, P = 0.273) and BNP (50%, P = .787). SARS-CoV-2 disturbs the hemolymphatic system as WBC# (73%, P = .002) and NEUT# (78%, P < .001) were significantly elevated in deceased patients. Likewise, the level of D-dimer (80%, P < .171), PT (87%, P = .031) and TT (57%, P = .053) was elevated, indicating coagulatory imbalances. We identified myoglobin and CRP as specific risk factors related to mortality and highly correlated to organ failure in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Mioglobina/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , /mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Troponina I/sangue
17.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 133: 105932, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is now a worldwide disease and is mainly attributable to increased body fat deposition. In a growing number of epidemiological studies, lutein has been revealed to have different degrees of anti-obesity properties, but the potential underlying mechanisms that have been reported are limited. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the protective effects of lutein against excessive lipid accumulation, and we explored the role of SIRT1 and SIRT1-mediated pathways both in abdominal adipose tissue and mature 3T3-L1 cells during lutein administration. METHODS: In our design, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either control or high-fat diets with or without 25 mg/kg·bw/day lutein for 5 weeks. Additionally, differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with 40 µM lutein or 10 µM Ex527 for 24 h. RESULTS: Lutein supplementation decreased the body weight, abdominal fat index ratio, frequency and mean area of larger adipocytes in HE staining induced by the high-fat diet and then activated the expression of SIRT1 and thus upregulated FoxO1, ATGL, and HSL expression and downregulated SREBP-1, FAS, and ACC expression both in abdominal adipose tissue and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. However, coincubation with Ex527 and lutein suppressed the activation of SIRT1 and reversed the expression of FoxO1, ATGL, HSL, SREBP-1, FAS, and ACC in comparison to those in the Lut group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we suggest that the effects of lutein on attenuating excessive lipid accumulation are dependent on the SIRT1-mediated pathway in vivo and in vitro, which indicates that lutein administration may be a potential strategy for preventing excessive lipid accumulation and obesity.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8890513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628827

RESUMO

Motivation. At present, the research methods for image genetics of Alzheimer's disease based on machine learning are mainly divided into three steps: the first step is to preprocess the original image and gene information into digital signals that are easy to calculate; the second step is feature selection aiming at eliminating redundant signals and obtain representative features; and the third step is to build a learning model and predict the unknown data with regression or bivariate correlation analysis. This type of method requires manual extraction of feature single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and the extraction process relies on empirical knowledge to a certain extent, such as linkage imbalance and gene function information in a group sparse model, which puts forward certain requirements for applicable scenarios and application personnel. To solve the problems of insufficient biological significance and large errors in the previous methods of association analysis and disease diagnosis, this paper presents a method of correlation analysis and disease diagnosis between SNP and region of interest (ROI) based on a deep learning model. It is a data-driven method, which has no obvious feature selection process. Results. The deep learning method adopted in this paper has no obvious feature extraction process relying on prior knowledge and model assumptions. From the results of correlation analysis between SNP and ROI, this method is complementary to other regression model methods in application scenarios. In order to improve the disease diagnosis performance of deep learning, we use the deep learning model to integrate SNP characteristics and ROI characteristics. The SNP feature, ROI feature, and SNP-ROI joint feature were input into the deep learning model and trained by cross-validation technique. The experimental results show that the SNP-ROI joint feature describes the information of the samples from different angles, which makes the diagnosis accuracy higher.

19.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(2): 162-168, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of nine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in treating patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of NSAIDs for the treatment in children with JIA were searched systematically by using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for available literature up to January 1, 2019. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to combine direct and indirect evidence on treatment effectiveness and safety. RESULTS: Eight eligible RCTs involving 1112 patients with JIA were identified, addressing 9 interventions. The ranking probability plot based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) indicated that celecoxib (6 mg/kg twice-a-day) had the highest probability of being most effective (SUCRA = 76.4%) among four NSAIDs (celecoxib, rofecoxib, meloxicam, and naproxen). Also, rofecoxib (0.3 mg/kg once-a-day) and piroxicam demonstrated a higher probability of safety in treating children with JIA (SUCRA = 33.0% and 35.5%, respectively), compared with other interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of available evidence limits the formation of powerful conclusions regarding the comparative efficacy or safety of NSAIDs used to treat JIA.

20.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(3): 1177-1185, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586430

RESUMO

Glycopolymers that can mimic natural glycosaminoglycan, such as heparin, have shown great potentials in inhibition of cancer metastasis. In the current work, a novel series of brush-like glycopolymers (BGPs) with simultaneous functionalization of various monosaccharide or disaccharide compositions have been synthesized through a new grafting-polymerization strategy, in order to mimic the activities of both heparin and P-selectin ligand PSGL-1. In the subsequent in vitro assays of antiadhesion, platelets activation, heparanase inhibition, and so on, BGP-SFH, as one of the BGPs with the composition of the combined three sugar units, sialic acids, fucoses, and heparin disaccharides, showed the highest antimetastasis ability, similar to its prototype heparin. Moreover, in a mouse metastatic melanoma model, the BGP-SFH also inhibited B16 cell metastasis effectively. Thus, the current work not only demonstrated a type of promising antimetastasis glycopolymer BGPs, but also illustrated an easy synthetic approach to multifunctionalized glycopolymers, leading to potential applications for broader biomedical research.

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