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1.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 67, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac herniation is a rare complication after pulmonary surgery, and there are only a few reports about it. We now report a case of cardiac herniation presenting as superior vena cava obstruction after pneumonectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A-52-years old woman diagnosed right pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma was carried out right pneumonectomy, the pulmonary artery and right superior pulmonary vein were dissected and ligated intrapericardial. The patient developed tachycardia arrhythmias, hypotension, followed by loss of consciousness at about 18 h after operation. After resuscitation, the patient was conscious but developed cyanosis of the superior vena cava drainage area, uropenia, and hypotension (80/30 mmHg). Bedside-echocardiography showed that the SVC was obstructed due to thrombus formation. Chest radiography a shift of the heart into right hemithorax. Rethoracotomy was performed and the herniated heart was replaced into the pericardium, and the pericardium was repaired with Gore Tex patch. The patient recovered smoothly after the second surgery. CONCLUSION: Cardiac herniation is a rare and fatally complication after thoracic surgery, and the prompt recognition with timely intervention is life-saving. Cardiac herniation is a rare but fatal complication of pneumonectomy. The increasing frequency of surgical resection for locally advanced thoracic carcinoma has led to a renewed emphasis regarding early diagnosis and treatment for cardiac herniation. Here we discuss a case of cardiac herniation presented with acute superior vena cava obstruction syndrome and hemodynamic instability after intrapericradial right pneumonectomy.

2.
Rice (N Y) ; 14(1): 35, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) can be used to dissect complex traits, from which single-segment substitution lines (SSSLs) containing a target quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be developed, and they are thus important for functional analysis and molecular breeding. RESULTS: A rice line with short wide grains, CSSL-Z563, was isolated from advanced-generation backcross population (BC3F6) derived from 'Xihui 18' (the recipient parent) and 'Huhan 3' (the donor parent). Z563 carried seven segments from 'Huhan 3', distributed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 8, with average substitution length of 5.52 Mb. Eleven QTLs for grain size were identified using secondary F2 population of 'Xihui 18'/Z563. The QTLs qGL3-1, qGL3-2, and qGL7 control grain length in Z563 and have additive effects to reduce grain length; qGW3-1 and qGW3-2 control grain width in Z563 and have additive effects to increase grain width. Four SSSLs, three double-segment substitution lines (D1-D3), and two triple-segment substitution lines (T1 and T2) were developed containing the target QTLs. The genetic stability of eight QTLs, including qGL3-2, qGL3-1, and qGL7, was verified by the SSSLs. D1 (containing qGL3-2 and qGL3-1), D2 (qGL3-1 and qGL7), and T1 (qGL3-2, qGL3-1, and qGL7) had positive epistatic effects on grain length, and their grain length was shorter than that of the corresponding SSSLs. The QTL qGL3-2 was fine-mapped to a 696 Kb region of chromosome 3 containing five candidate genes that differed between 'Xihui 18' and Z563. These results are important for functional research on qGL3-2 and molecular breeding of hybrid rice cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: The short and wide grain of Z563 was mainly controlled by qGL3-1, qGL3-2, qGL7, qGW3-1 and qGW3-2. The major QTL qGL3-2 was fine-mapped to a 696 Kb region of chromosome 3 containing five candidate genes. Different QTLs pyramiding displayed various phenotypes. In essence, the performance after pyramiding of genes depended on the comparison between the algebraic sum of the additive and epistatic effects of QTLs in the pyramidal line and the additive effect value of the single QTL. The results lay good foundation in the functional analysis of qGL3-2 and molecular design breeding of novel hybrid rice cultivars.

3.
Environ Technol ; : 1-44, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886443

RESUMO

Antibiotic pollution of water resources is a global problem, and the development of new treatments for destroying antibiotics in water is a priority research. We successfully manufactured recyclable magnetic Fe3O4/g-C3N4 through the electrostatic self-assembly method. Selecting tetracycline (TC) as the target pollutant, using Fe3O4/g-C3N4 and H2O2 developed a heterogeneous optical Fenton system to remove TC under visible light. Fe3O4/g-C3N4 was systematically characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS, DRS, and electrochemical methods. The removal efficiency of 7% Fe3O4/g-C3N4 at pH = 3, H2O2 = 5 mM, and catalyst dosage of 1.0 g/L can reach 99.8%. After magnetic separation, the Fe3O4/g-C3N4 photocatalyst can be recycled five times with minimal efficiency loss. The excellent degradation performance of the prepared catalyst may be attributed to the proper coupling interface between Fe3O4 and g-C3N4 which promotes the separation and transfer of photogenerated electrons. Photogenerated electrons can also accelerate the conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+, thereby producing more ˙OH. The new Fe3O4/g-C3N4 can be used as a raw material for advanced oxidation of water contaminated by refractory antibiotics.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861425

RESUMO

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics in soil can cause serious antibiotic pollution. Adsorption is the main factor that influences their destination and transport of antibiotics. Therefore, research on the behaviour of antibiotics once they reach the soil environment is meaningful to design appropriate measures to reduce their potential risks. This research took levofloxacin (LVFX) as the research object and used a static adsorption experiment to study the adsorption behaviour of the vadose zone of silty clay on the North China Plain. The results showed that LVFX had high retention in silty clay, with an average adsorption ratio of more than 90%. Adsorption of LVFX on silty clay reached equilibrium in 24 h with an adsorption amount of 93.5 mg/kg at an initial LVFX concentration of 10 mg/L. Acidity, cations and soil organic matter could affect the adsorption of LVFX, with adsorption variation ratio of 3.3%, 3.4% and 0.6%, respectively. In addition, numerical simulation with Hydrus-1D was utilized, and the results show that LVFX may infiltrate into underground water through silty clay after 28 days and completely penetrate in 100 days.

5.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850295

RESUMO

The membranous receptor syndecan-4 (SDC-4) and the nuclear transcription factor hypoxia-induced factor-2α (HIF-2α) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to determine whether SDC-4 inhibition downregulates HIF-2a expression by microRNA-96-5p (miR-96-5p) in murine chondrocyte and cartilage tissue. The OA model was induced surgically in mice, and SDC-4 polyclonal antibody, HIF-2α small interfering RNA (siRNA) and its control, miR-96-5p mimics and its scrambled controls or anti-miR-96-5p and its control were then injected into the knee joints. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, OA progression was evaluated microscopically, histologically, radiographically and immunohistochemically in these mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were performed after treating with antibody and transfecting with miRNA mimic or siRNA to determine their effects on OA-related mediators. The potential miRNAs related to OA development were identified by using miRNA microarray analysis. Whether miRNAs play a pivotal role in OA development in vivo or in vitro was also investigated. MiR-96-5p expression was upregulated by SDC-4-specific antibodies in chondrocytes and cartilage tissue, and miR-96-5p directly targeted the 3'-UTR of HIF-2α to inhibit HIF-2α signaling in murine chondrocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that anti-SDC-4-attenuated IL-1ß-induced chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage degradation by inhibiting HIF-2α signaling by a miR-96-5p-dependent mechanism. Our study revealed that the inhibition of SDC-4 exerts its effects on both cartilage homeostasis and the chondrocyte hypertrophy phenotype by inducing miR-96-5p expression, which results in targeting HIF-2α 3'-UTR sequences and inhibiting HIF-2α in murine cartilage tissue and chondrocytes.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 74, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731174

RESUMO

There are inherent structural and functional differences in the central nervous systems (CNS) of females and males. It has been gradually established that these sex-specific differences are due to a spectrum of genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal factors which actively contribute to the differential incidences, disease courses, and even outcomes of CNS diseases between sexes. Microglia, as principle resident macrophages in the CNS, play a crucial role in both CNS physiology and pathology. However, sex differences of microglia have been relatively unexplored until recently. Emerging data has convincingly demonstrated the existence of sex-dependent structural and functional differences of rodent microglia, consequently changing our current understanding of these versatile cells. In this review, we attempt to comprehensively outline the current advances revealing microglial sex differences in rodent and their potential implications for specific CNS diseases with a stark sex difference. A detailed understanding of molecular processes underlying microglial sex differences is of major importance in design of translational sex- and microglia-specific therapeutic approaches.

7.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6694392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728352

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest malignancies and is known for its high resistance and low response to treatment. Tumor immune evasion is a major stumbling block in designing effective anticancer therapeutic strategies. Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2), a member of the nuclear transporter family, is elevated in multiple human cancers and accelerates carcinogenesis. However, the specific role of KPNA2 in PDAC remains unclear. In this study, we found that expression of KPNA2 was significantly upregulated in PDAC compared to adjacent nontumor tissue and its high expression was correlated with poor survival outcome by analyzing the GEO datasets. Similar KPNA2 expression pattern was also found in both human patient samples and KPC mouse models through IHC staining. Although KPNA2 knockdown failed to impair the vitality and migration ability of PDAC cells in vitro, the in vivo tumor growth was significantly impeded and the expression of immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1 was reduced by silencing KPNA2. Furthermore, we uncovered that KPNA2 modulated the expression of PD-L1 by mediating nuclear translocation of STAT3. Collectively, our data suggested that KPNA2 has the potential to serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis in PDAC.

8.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712886

RESUMO

Neurons in the penumbra (the area surrounding ischemic tissue that consists of still viable tissue but with reduced blood flow and oxygen transport) may be rescued following stroke if adequate perfusion is restored in time. It has been speculated that post-stroke angiogenesis in the penumbra can reduce damage caused by ischemia. However, the mechanism for neovasculature formation in the brain remains unclear and vascular-targeted therapies for brain ischemia remain suboptimal. Here, we show that VEGFR1 was highly upregulated in pericytes after stroke. Knockdown of VEGFR1 in pericytes led to increased infarct area and compromised post-ischemia vessel formation. Furthermore, in vitro studies confirmed a critical role for pericyte-derived VEGFR1 in both endothelial tube formation and pericyte migration. Interestingly, our results show that pericyte-derived VEGFR1 has opposite effects on Akt activity in endothelial cells and pericytes. Collectively, these results indicate that pericyte-specific expression of VEGFR1 modulates ischemia-induced vessel formation and vascular integrity in the brain.

9.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 25: 132-136, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterise a novel tet(X6)-carrying plasmid detected in a livestock-associated Acinetobacter towneri isolate. METHODS: PCR screening was performed to detect tet(X) variants in livestock-associated Acinetobacter spp. isolates. The tet(X6)-positive isolate was analysed by whole-genome sequencing. Functional cloning was performed to detect the activity of Tet(X6). Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by broth dilution and microbiological degradation assays. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to identify the role of 23-Ala residue of Tet(X6) in tigecycline resistance. RESULTS: The tet(X6) gene was detected on a 159-kb plasmid (pAT205) carried by a tigecycline-susceptible A. towneri isolate recovered from a swine faecal sample. The genetic context of tet(X6) [ΔISVsa3-tet(X6)-abh-guaA-ISVsa3] is highly similar to that of the reported plasmid-borne tet(X) variants, suggesting that it may represent a common structure mediating the dissemination of plasmid-borne tet(X) genes. Additional resistance genes detected on pAT205 were carried by a Tn6205-like region and a disrupted class 2 integron. Gene expression and microbiological degradation assays consistently suggested that the activity of tet(X6) is weaker than that of tet(X3) and tet(X4). The 23-Ala residue of the first FAD-binding site conferred higher activity to Tet(X6) than the Gly reside conserved in the other plasmid-borne tet(X) variants, indicating that the site might be under selection. CONCLUSION: This study alerts to the silent dissemination possibility of tigecycline resistance mediated by a novel plasmid. Continuous monitoring of plasmid-borne tet(X) is imperative for tackling its dissemination.

10.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(3): 384-392, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654221

RESUMO

Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) has allowed the observation of various molecular structures in cells beyond the diffraction limit using organic dyes. In principle, the SMLM resolution depends on the precision of photoswitching fluorophore localization, which is inversely correlated with the square root of the number of photons released from the individual fluorophores. Thus, increasing the photon number by using highly bright fluorophores, such as quantum dots (QDs), can theoretically fundamentally overcome the current resolution limit of SMLM. However, the use of QDs in SMLM has been challenging because QDs have no photoswitching property, which is essential for SMLM, and they exhibit nonspecificity and multivalency, which complicate their use in fluorescence imaging. Here, we present a method to utilize QDs in SMLM to surpass the resolution limit of the current SMLM utilizing organic dyes. We confer monovalency, specificity, and photoswitchability on QDs by steric exclusion via passivation and ligand exchange with ptDNA, PEG, and casein as well as by DNA point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT) via automatic thermally driven hybridization between target-bound docking and dye-bound complementary imager strands. QDs are made monovalent and photoswitchable to enable SMLM and show substantially better photophysical properties than Cy3, with higher fluorescence intensity and an improved resolution factor. QD-PAINT displays improved spatial resolution with a narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM) than DNA-PAINT with Cy3. In summary, QD-PAINT shows great promise as a next-generation SMLM method for overcoming the limited resolution of the current SMLM.

11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-22, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569994

RESUMO

Leguminous proteins are important nutritional components in leguminous plants, and they have different structures and functions depending on their sources. Due to their specific structures and physicochemical properties, leguminous proteins have received much attention in food and nutritional applications, and they can be applied as various carriers for binding/encapsulation and delivery of food bioactive compounds. In this review, we systematically summarize the different structures and functional properties of several leguminous proteins which can be classified as ferritin, trypsin inhibitor, ß-conglycinin, glycinin, and various leguminous proteins isolates. Moreover, we review the development of leguminous proteins as carriers of food bioactive compounds, and emphasize the functions of leguminous protein-based binding/encapsulation and delivery in overcoming the low bioavailability, instability and low absorption efficiency of food bioactive compounds. The limitations and challenges of the utilization of leguminous proteins as carriers of food bioactive compounds are also discussed. Possible approaches to resolve the limitations of applying leguminous proteins such as instability of proteins and poor absorption of bioactive compounds are recommended.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630901

RESUMO

The poor dynamic performance problem of a Full-Bridge converter under a traditional control strategy is investigated in this study. A new parameter adaptive terminal sliding mode control policy is developed for a Full-Bridge DC-DC converter, by combining the integral part with the power function and differential function in the design of the sliding surface. In theory, the steady-state error of the system can approach zero within a short time. To manage the un-ideal situation after using a fixed value of power γ, an improved γ adaptive algorithm is proposed. The system output is tracked and γ is adjusted in real time. The effect of the system can be guaranteed always in an optimal state. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the performance of the proposed design method under different conditions.

14.
Sci Adv ; 7(5)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571116

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is now a major threat to human health, and one approach to combating this threat is to develop resistance-resistant antibiotics. Synthetic antimicrobial polymers are generally resistance resistant, having good activity with low resistance rates but usually with low therapeutic indices. Here, we report our solution to this problem by introducing dual-selective mechanisms of action to a short amidine-rich polymer, which can simultaneously disrupt bacterial membranes and bind to bacterial DNA. The oligoamidine shows unobservable resistance generation but high therapeutic indices against many bacterial types, such as ESKAPE strains and clinical isolates resistant to multiple drugs, including colistin. The oligomer exhibited excellent effectiveness in various model systems, killing extracellular or intracellular bacteria in the presence of mammalian cells, removing all bacteria from Caenorhabditis elegans, and rescuing mice with severe infections. This "dual mechanisms of action" approach may be a general strategy for future development of antimicrobial polymers.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571219

RESUMO

In the age of network, network culture is gestated, and the emergence of security issues makes the governance of network culture put on the agenda. In order to explore ways to protect and inherit folk art and culture, This article mainly uses the mathematical model established by the principal component analysis method and the multiple regression method to analyze the current folk arts such as the lack of professional talents and other problems faced by the current folk arts. From the perspective of network cultural governance Analyze the number of audiences, etc., and reflect the inadequacy of the inheritance and protection of folk art and culture through the model, Therefore, it is proposed to cultivate compound talents, build cultural brands, and build a "gatekeeper" defense line. While creating a clear cyberspace, it can achieve better protection and inheritance of folk art and culture.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 188, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a late complication of advanced gastric cancer, and it is controversial how to select the therapeutic strategies: gastrojejunostomy and palliative gastrectomy? Therefore, this study was to compare the surgical and survival outcomes of gastrojejunostomy and palliative gastrectomy. METHODS: In total, 199 gastric cancer patients with outlet obstruction treated by surgery between January 2000 and December 2015 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into gastrojejunostomy group and palliative gastrectomy group. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance the selection bias. RESULTS: After 1:1 PSM, a total of 104 patients were included for final analysis. The median overall survival (OS) times in the gastrojejunostomy group and palliative gastrectomy group were 8.50 and 11.87 months, respectively (P = 0.243). The postoperative complication rates in the gastrojejunostomy group and palliative gastrectomy group were 19.23% (10/52) and 17.31% (9/52), respectively (P = 0.800), and no treatment-related death was observed. Multivariate analysis showed that periton0eal seeding (P = 0.014) and chemotherapy (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors. Among them, peritoneal seeding was a risk factor and postoperative chemotherapy was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that although the surgical complications of palliative gastrectomy were manageable, it showed no survival benefit. Therefore, relieving obstruction symptom, improving patients' quality of life and creating better conditions for chemotherapy appear to be the main therapeutic strategies for advanced gastric cancer with GOO.

17.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(2): 291-299, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603128

RESUMO

Various repertoires of membrane protein interactions determine cellular responses to diverse environments around cells dynamically in space and time. Current assays, however, have limitations in unraveling these interactions in the physiological states in a living cell due to the lack of capability to probe the transient nature of these interactions on the crowded membrane. Here, we present a simple and robust assay that enables the investigation of transient protein interactions in living cells by using the single-molecule diffusional mobility shift assay (smDIMSA). Utilizing smDIMSA, we uncovered the interaction profile of EGFR with various membrane proteins and demonstrated the promiscuity of these interactions depending on the cancer cell line. The transient interaction profile obtained by smDIMSA will provide critical information to comprehend the crosstalk among various receptors on the plasma membrane.

18.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464912

RESUMO

Daytime radiative cooling presents an exciting new strategy for combating global warming, because it can passively cool buildings by reflecting sunlight and utilizing the infrared atmospheric window to eject heat into outer space. Recent progress with novel material designs showed promising subambient cooling performance under direct sunlight. However, large-scale implementation of radiative cooling technologies is still limited by the high-cost and complex fabrication. Here, we develop a nanoporous polymer matrix composite (PMC) to enable rapid production and cost reduction using commercially available polymer processing techniques, such as molding, extrusion, and 3D printing. With a high solar reflectance of 96.2% and infrared emissivity > 90%, the nanoporous PMC achieved a subambient temperature drop of 6.1 °C and cooling power of 85 W/m2 under direct sunlight, which are comparable to the state-of-the-art. This work offers great promise to make radiative cooling technologies more viable for saving energy and reducing emissions in building cooling applications.

19.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported a beneficial role of trastuzumab in neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) among resectable gastric cancer (GC) patients; however, the effect of adjuvant treatment (AT) combined with trastuzumab is understudied. We performed a retrospective cohort study to compare chemotherapies with or without trastuzumab among human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2 +) locally advanced GC patients in the AT and NAT settings, respectively. METHODS: We enrolled 208 HER2 + resected GC patients who underwent perioperative/postoperative treatment in 2010-2019 in a single-centered hospital, including 135 AT patients and 73 NAT patients. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to balance potential confounding factors between the treatment groups, and estimated the treatment effect of trastuzumab. Pathological and survival outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: The number of trastuzumab-exposed patients in the AT and NAT cohorts was 31 (23.0%) and 34 (46.6%), respectively. After IPTW adjustment, AT combined with trastuzumab showed a better overall survival (OS) over chemotherapy alone (p = 0.023). In IPTW-adjusted NAT analysis, trastuzumab-exposed patients had an improvement in tumor pathological regression and downstaging, with lower tumor regression grade scores (p = 0.002), ypTNM stages (p < 0.001), ypN stages (p = 0.035), and ypT stages (p < 0.001). Loss of HER2 positivity following trastuzumab treatment was observed in NAT patients; however, we did not observe any significant effect of trastuzumab on OS (p = 0.126). CONCLUSIONS: Given the improvement in tumor regression and downstaging among NAT patients, and the OS benefit in AT patients, trastuzumab could be considered a promising treatment for locally advanced HER2 + GC patients. In particular, re-evaluation of HER2 status should be considered following NAT combined with trastuzumab.

20.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(2): 219-230, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464450

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Airway tree segmentation plays a pivotal role in chest computed tomography (CT) analysis tasks such as lesion localization, surgical planning, and intra-operative guidance. The remaining challenge is to identify small bronchi correctly, which facilitates further segmentation of the pulmonary anatomies. METHODS: A three-dimensional (3D) multi-scale feature aggregation network (MFA-Net) is proposed against the scale difference of substructures in airway tree segmentation. In this model, the multi-scale feature aggregation (MFA) block is used to capture the multi-scale context information, which improves the sensitivity of the small bronchi segmentation and addresses the local discontinuities. Meanwhile, the concept of airway tree partition is introduced to evaluate the segmentation performance at a more granular level. RESULTS: Experiments were conducted on a dataset of 250 CT scans, which were annotated by experienced clinical radiologists. Through the airway partition, we evaluated the segmentation results of the small bronchi compared with the state-of-the-art methods. Experiments show that MFA-Net achieves the best performance in the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) in the intra-lobar airway and improves the true positive rate (TPR) by 7.59% on average. Besides, in the entire airway, the proposed method achieves the best results in DSC and TPR scores of 86.18% and 79.31%, respectively, with the consequence of higher false positives. CONCLUSION: The MFA-Net is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods. The experiment results indicate that the MFA block improves the performance of the network by utilizing multi-scale context information. More accurate segmentation results will be more helpful in further clinical analysis.

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