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2.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 25(6): 631-639, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027191

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lack of availability of donor organs is a constant challenge that patients and providers face in transplantation. To address this shortage, donors that test positive for hepatitis B, in particular those with resolved infection, have been increasingly utilized in clinical practice. We review here the potential risks for the recipient and the advances in hepatitis B management that have made use of these donors a well tolerated and advisable proposition. RECENT FINDINGS: As routine administration of antiviral prophylaxis in the posttransplant setting among those deemed high risk for transmission, outcomes for recipients of hepatitis B donors, including liver transplant recipients, have been comparable to uninfected donors. Universal hepatitis B nucleic acid testing of donors has also enhanced our ability to accurately inform recipients regarding transmission risk. Appropriate use of prophylaxis and careful monitoring for transmission posttransplant is key to ensuring no adverse outcomes occur. SUMMARY: Treatment of hepatitis B has evolved over the past two decades. Expanding the donor pool with hepatitis B donors is now well tolerated, ethical, and advantageous to the transplant community at large. A clear discussion with recipients on the substantial benefit and low harm of using hepatitis B donors will lead to greater acceptance and utilization of these organs.

3.
Clin Liver Dis ; 24(4): 665-679, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012452

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a rising indication for liver transplantation in the United States. Downstaging, defined as the reduction of tumor burden using local-regional therapy into Milan criteria, opens an avenue to access cure through transplant for patients who traditionally would not qualify. Approaching the selection of downstaging candidates through an assessment of hepatic function, staying within a modest expansion of tumor burden, and incorporation of serologic/imaging markers for tumor biology provide the best chance for successful downstaging. Following well-defined downstaging protocols with built-in failure criteria ensures excellent post-transplant outcomes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance rates are suboptimal in clinical practice. We aimed to elicit providers' opinions on the following aspects of HCC surveillance: preferred strategies, barriers and facilitators, and the impact of a patient's HCC risk on the choice of surveillance modality. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey among gastroenterology and hepatology providers (40% faculty physicians, 21% advanced practice providers, 39% fellow-trainees) from 26 U.S. medical centers in 17 states. RESULTS: Of 654 eligible providers, 305 (47%) completed the survey. Nearly all (98.4%) of the providers endorsed semi-annual HCC surveillance in patients with cirrhosis, with 84.2% recommending ultrasound ± alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and 15.4% recommending computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Barriers to surveillance included limited HCC treatment options, screening test effectiveness to reduce mortality, access to transportation, and high out-of-pocket costs. Facilitators of surveillance included professional society guidelines. Most providers (72.1%) would perform surveillance even if HCC risk was low (≤0.5% per year), while 98.7% would perform surveillance if HCC risk was ≥1% per year. As a patient's HCC risk increased from 1% to 3% to 5% per year, providers reported they would be less likely to order ultrasound ± AFP (83.6% to 68.9% to 57.4%; p<0.001) and more likely to order CT or MRI ± AFP (3.9% to 26.2% to 36.1%; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Providers recommend HCC surveillance even when HCC risk is much lower than the threshold suggested by professional societies. Many appear receptive to risk-based HCC surveillance strategies that depend on patients' estimated HCC risk, instead of our current "one-size-fits all" strategy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver disease (CLD) represents a major global health burden. We undertook this study to identify the factors associated with adverse outcomes in patients with CLD who acquire the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a multi-center, observational cohort study across 21 institutions in the United States (US) of adult patients with CLD and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and May 30, 2020. We performed survival analysis to identify independent predictors of all-cause mortality and COVID-19 related mortality, and multivariate logistic regression to determine the risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with CLD. RESULTS: Of the 978 patients in our cohort, 867 patients (mean age 56.9±14.5 years, 55% male) met inclusion criteria. The overall all-cause mortality was 14.0% (n = 121), and 61.7% (n = 535) had severe COVID-19. Patients presenting with diarrhea or nausea/vomiting were more likely to have severe COVID-19. The liver-specific factors associated with independent risk of higher overall mortality were alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-4.55), decompensated cirrhosis (HR 2.91 [1.70-5.00]) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (HR 3.31 [1.53-7.16]). Other factors were increasing age, diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and current smoker. Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] 2.33 [1.47-3.70]) and decompensated cirrhosis (OR 2.50 [1.20-5.21]) were independently associated with risk for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors which predict higher overall mortality among patients with CLD and COVID-19 are ALD, decompensated cirrhosis and HCC. Hispanic ethnicity and decompensated cirrhosis are associated with severe COVID-19. Our results will enable risk stratification and personalization of the management of patients with CLD and COVID-19. Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT04439084.

6.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(2): 382-389, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B infection is an important contributor to mortality in the United States, yet impact of available and effective oral antivirals on mortality among infected individuals is unknown. AIMS: To compare risks and predictors of mortality in a recent time period between those with chronic, prior and no hepatitis B infection. METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study of National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys participants between 1999 and 2014 linked to National Death Index data. Adults aged 20 years or older with hepatitis B serologic testing were included. Outcomes of all-cause and liver-related mortality were evaluated using Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 39 206 participants, 192 (0.5%) had chronic and 2694 (6.9%) had prior hepatitis B infection. The all-cause age/sex-standardised mortality rates for chronic, prior and uninfected were 21.4, 15.1 and 11.8 per 1000 person-years respectively. Liver-related mortality occurred at respective rates of 4.1, 0.3 and 0.1 per 1000 person-years. In multivariable analyses, those with chronic infection had 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased hazard of all-cause mortality and 13.3-fold (95% CI 3.9-45.5) increased hazard of liver-related mortality compared to uninfected. Predictors of all-cause mortality among chronic infection included heavy alcohol use (HR 18.3, 95% CI 3.3-100.6) and higher alanine aminotransferase (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among adults living with chronic hepatitis B infection still exceeds that of uninfected despite availability of improved therapeutics. Identification of chronic infection, initiation of treatment among eligible and modulation of co-factors for disease progression are needed to improve survival.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/mortalidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(1): 188-195.e4, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The benefits of highly effective therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or HCV infection can only be realized if infected individuals are identified and linked to care. We sought to identify gaps in awareness of diagnosis of HBV or HCV infection in a population-based sample of adults living in the United States (US). METHODS: Using National Health and Nutrition Examinations Surveys data, we examined factors associated with HBV and HCV awareness. Participants surveyed from 2013 through 2016, age ≥20 years, with complete serologic analyses were included. HBV and HCV infections were defined by detection of serum HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. The primary outcome was awareness of infection-if participants replied "yes" to the question: "Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you have hepatitis B or C?" RESULTS: Of 14,745 participants, 68 had HBV and 211 had HCV infection, corresponding to prevalence values of 0.7% and 1.8%, respectively. Among HBV-infected persons, 32% reported awareness, and 28% of aware persons reported treatment. Among HCV-infected persons, 49% reported awareness, 45% of aware persons were treated, and 59% of treated patients achieved a sustained virologic response. Factors associated with greater awareness in multivariable models included US citizenship, higher education, and abnormal level of alanine aminotransferase for HBV-infected participants and non-Hispanic race, income above the poverty line, not married, and history of injection drug use for HCV-infected participants. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than half of US adults with HBV or HCV infection are aware of their infection. Opportunities to increase awareness include provider education on cut-off values for abnormal level of alanine aminotransferase that should prompt screening, and expansion of existing screening interventions to under-recognized at-risk groups.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 16: 64-73, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832621

RESUMO

Background: Crowdsourcing may be an effective strategy to develop test promotion materials. We conducted an online randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a crowdsourced intervention to promote hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Methods: MSM never previously tested for hepatitis were recruited through social media. Eligible men were randomized to receive an online crowdsourced intervention or no testing promotion materials. Outcomes including self-reported and confirmed HBV and HCV test uptake were assessed after four weeks. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of men achieving primary and secondary outcomes between the intervention and control arms were calculated. Findings: 556 eligible men were enrolled. Overall, 17•4% (97/556) of men self-reported HBV and HCV testing and 7•9% (44/556) confirmed HBV and HCV test uptake. The intervention was seen by 72•1% and 29•0% of men in the intervention and control arms, respectively. In intention-to-treat analysis, confirmed HBV and HCV test uptake was similar between the two arms, both when using a missing=failure approach (OR 0•98, 95% CI 0•53-1•82) or multiple imputation (OR 1•46, 95% CI 0•72-2•95). Interpretation: This RCT extends the literature by developing and evaluating an intervention to spur hepatitis testing in a middle-income country with a high burden of hepatitis. Overall test uptake among MSM in China was similar to previous interventions promoting hepatitis testing in high-income countries. We found frequent intervention sharing, complicating interpretation of the results, and the role of crowdsourcing to promote hepatitis testing remains unclear.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(11): 1753-1763, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658127

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and low-level viremia are a heterogeneous group. Identifying those at risk of developing active CHB requiring antiviral therapy is important. In this study, we prospectively characterize incidence rates and predictors of transitioning from inactive to active CHB in a North American adult cohort. METHODS: Participants in the multicenter National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Hepatitis B Research Network cohort who were HBeAg negative with baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA ≤ 10,000 IU/mL were included in the study. Cox regression models were used to estimate the proportion of individuals in 3 baseline HBV DNA categories (≤100, 101 to ≤2,000, and 2,001 to ≤10,000 IU/mL) who developed phase transition defined by HBV DNA > 10,000 IU/mL and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) > 2× upper limit of normal or initiated treatment during follow-up. RESULTS: Of 970 participants meeting inclusion criteria, 15% experienced phase transition or initiated treatment over a median follow-up of 4 years: 9% of those with baseline HBV DNA ≤ 100 IU/mL, 14% with HBV DNA 101 to ≤2,000 IU/mL, and 24% with HBV DNA 2,001 to ≤10,000 IU/mL (P < 0.001). The overall rate of phase transition or treatment initiation was 7.6 per 100 person-years: 4.6 in those with HBV DNA ≤ 100 IU/mL, 6.8 in those with HBV DNA 101 to ≤2,000 IU/mL, and 12.2 in those with HBV DNA 2,001 to ≤10,000 IU/mL (P < 0.001). Factors independently associated with higher rate of phase transition or treatment initiation included HBV genotype B or C, higher baseline ALT and HBV DNA levels, lower platelet count, quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen > 1,000 IU/mL, and hyperlipidemia. Only higher ALT, higher HBV DNA, and lower platelets were associated with phase transition when patients starting treatment were censored. DISCUSSION: Most adults in this North American cohort with HBeAg-negative CHB and low-level viremia remained inactive and off treatment over 4 years. Transition from inactive to active CHB is infrequent and predominantly associated with viral rather than host factors.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/análise , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Viremia , Adulto , Portador Sadio/imunologia , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/terapia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/epidemiologia , Viremia/etiologia
10.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(3): 227-238, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous loss of HBsAg (known as functional cure) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection significantly reduces liver-related complications. HBsAg loss has been suggested to be higher in non-endemic regions than in endemic regions in individual studies. We systematically determined a pooled annual rate of HBsAg loss in adults with untreated chronic HBV infection and examined the effect of regional endemicity. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed and Embase for observational cohort studies and non-treatment arms of randomised controlled trials reporting proportions of patients with chronic HBV infection that achieved spontaneous HBsAg loss, published up to Oct 1, 2018. We excluded randomised controlled trials from meta-analyses because of substantial cohort differences. Two reviewers (KZ and CC) independently extracted data from accepted full-text studies, with discrepancies discussed with a third reviewer (NT). We assessed rate of HBsAg loss, and stratified results by whether the underlying cohort arose primarily from an endemic region (defined as having prevalence of chronic HBV greater than 2%) or non-endemic region. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018074086. FINDINGS: Of 5186 studies screened, 67 (11 randomised controlled trials, 39 prospective and 17 retrospective cohort studies) met the inclusion criteria and 56 were included in meta-analyses after exclusion of randomised controlled trials. Spontaneous HBsAg loss occurred in 3837 (7·8%) of 48 972 patients, with cumulative 352 381 person-years of follow-up. The pooled annual incidence of HBsAg loss was 1·17% (95% CI 0·94-1·41, I2=97%). Rates did not differ by endemicity: 1·19% (0·88-1·54) in endemic versus 1·29% (0·99-1·62) in non-endemic cohorts. INTERPRETATION: Globally, spontaneous HBsAg loss occurs infrequently (about 1% per year) in treatment-naive adults with chronic HBV infection. The low and homogeneous rate of HBsAg loss highlights the need for new therapeutics aimed at achieving functional cure across different patient groups and geographical regions. FUNDING: NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Gastroenterology ; 156(2): 355-368.e3, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472225

RESUMO

Tests to detect the presence and activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the cornerstones of diagnosis and management. Assays that detect or measure serum levels of HB surface antigen, HB surface antibody, and HB core antibody are used to identify patients with exposure to HBV, whereas other tests provide information on the level of virus replication, presence of specific variants, and presence of virus reservoirs. Newer diagnostic tests, used only in research settings so far, aim to quantify levels of intrahepatic HBV replication. Other tests have been developed to detect HBV infection in resource-limited settings. We review point-of-care tests (essential in global screening efforts), standard diagnostic tests used in routine clinical management, and newer tests that might be used in clinical trials of agents designed to cure HBV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/metabolismo , Antígenos da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos , Testes Imediatos , RNA Viral/metabolismo
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 489, 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends all men who have sex with men (MSM) receive Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) testing. MSM in China are a high-risk group for HBV and HCV infection, but test uptake is low. Crowdsourcing invites a large group to solve a problem and then shares the solution with the public. This nationwide online randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a crowdsourced intervention to increase HBV and HCV testing among MSM in China. METHODS: Seven hundred MSM will be recruited through social media operated by MSM organizations in China. Eligible participants will be born biologically male, age 16 years or older, report previous anal sex with another man, and reside in China. After completing a baseline online survey, participants will be randomly assigned to intervention or control arms with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention will include two components: (1) a multimedia component will deliver two videos and two images promoting HBV and HCV testing developed through a crowdsourcing contest in China; (2) a participatory component will invite men to submit suggestions for how to improve crowdsourced videos and images. The control arm will not view any images or videos and will not be invited to submit suggestions. All participants will be offered reimbursement for HBV and HCV testing costs. The primary outcome is HBV and HCV test uptake confirmed through electronic submission of test report photos within four weeks of enrolment. Secondary outcomes include self-reported HBV and HCV test uptake, HBV vaccination uptake, and change in stigma toward people living with HBV after four weeks. Primary and secondary outcomes will be calculated using intention to treat and as-exposed analyses and compared using two-sided 95% confidence intervals. DISCUSSION: Few previous studies have evaluated interventions to increase HBV and HCV testing in middle-income countries with a high burden of hepatitis. Delivering a crowdsourced intervention using social media is a novel approach to increasing hepatitis testing rates. HBV and HCV test uptake will be confirmed through test report photos, avoiding the limitations of self-reported testing outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03482388 (29 March 2018).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Crowdsourcing , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol ; 31(3): 311-320, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774413

RESUMO

Special populations infected with chronic HBV include those with decompensated cirrhosis, coinfections (HIV, HCV, HDV), hemodialysis and renal failure, immunosuppressed including transplant patients, children and women in pregnancy. These populations differ in their natural history and risk for liver-related complications, the indications for anti-HBV therapy as well as the recommendations regarding the HBV drugs used, duration of therapy and anticipated endpoints. Reflecting the special populations with substantive changes in management in recent years, this review focuses on HBV-HIV coinfected patients, immunosuppressed patients at risk for reactivation, liver transplant recipients and pregnant women. Management of women in the context of pregnancy and post-partum requires consideration of risks to mother and fetus/infant, including the risk of mother-to-child transmission. HBV-HIV coinfected patients require initiation of treatment concurrent with their HIV therapy and the HBV drugs used must by selected to minimize HIV and HBV resistance long-term. Increasing recognition of the risk for HBV reactivation with immunosuppressive therapy has led to recommendations to use prophylactic HBV therapy in patients with moderate to high risk of reactivation. Liver transplant recipients with HBV require life-long therapy to prevent or treat HBV infection but with current therapies, graft and patient survival are excellent.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B/virologia , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/patologia , Humanos , Gravidez
15.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 994, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27645935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the public health benefits of new HCV treatments depend on treatment adherence, particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID), several social and medical factors can jeopardize treatment adherence. The aim of this study is to examine the qualitative literature on facilitators to HCV treatment adherence among PWID. METHODS: We searched six databases to identify qualitative research studies on HCV treatment adherence facilitators among PWID. Two reviewers independently extracted and analyzed data using PRISMA guidelines and the CASP tool to evaluate study quality. RESULTS: From ten studies representing data from 525 participants, three major themes emerged across studies: logistical facilitators within health systems enhanced HCV treatment adherence, positive social interactions between PWID and staff provided positive feedback during treatment, and HCV treatment may complicate the addiction recovery process. CONCLUSIONS: Although PWID face several barriers to adherence, we identified treatment adherence facilitators that could be incorporated into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Facilitação Social
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 16(12): 1409-1422, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have ushered in a new era in chronic hepatitis treatment. To maximise the effectiveness of these medicines, individuals must be engaged and retained in care. We analysed operational interventions to enhance chronic viral hepatitis testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, adherence, and viral suppression or cure. METHODS: We did a systematic review of operational interventions, and did meta-analyses for sufficiently comparable data. We searched PubMed, Embase, WHO library, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, PsycINFO, and CINAHL for randomised controlled trials and controlled non-randomised studies that examined operational interventions along the chronic viral hepatitis care continuum, published in English up to Dec 31, 2014. We included non-pharmaceutical intervention studies with primary or secondary outcomes of testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, treatment adherence, treatment completion, treatment outcome, or viral endpoints. We excluded dissertations and studies of children only. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers, with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer. Studies were assessed for bias. Data from similar interventions were pooled and quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. This study was registered in PROSPERO (42014015094). FINDINGS: We identified 7583 unduplicated studies, and included 56 studies that reported outcomes along the care continuum (41 for HCV and 18 for HBV). All studies except one were from high-income countries. Lay health worker HBV test promotion interventions increased HBV testing rates (relative risk [RR] 2·68, 95% CI 1·82-3·93). Clinician reminders to prompt HCV testing during clinical visits increased HCV testing rates (3·70, 1·81-7·57). Nurse-led educational interventions improved HCV treatment completion (1·14, 1·05-1·23) and cure (odds ratio [OR] 1·93, 95% CI 1·44-2·59). Coordinated mental health, substance misuse, and hepatitis treatment services increased HCV treatment uptake (OR 3·03, 1·24-7·37), adherence (RR 1·22, 1·05-1·41), and cure (RR 1·21, 1·07-1·38) compared with usual care. INTERPRETATION: Several simple, inexpensive operational interventions can substantially improve engagement and retention along the chronic viral hepatitis care continuum. Further operational research to inform scale-up of hepatitis services is needed in low-income and middle-income countries. FUNDING: World Health Organization and US Fulbright Program.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Hepatite Viral Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação , Promoção da Saúde , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Humanos
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 3(2): ofw065, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27419150

RESUMO

Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results. Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions. Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access.

18.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157438, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27341031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs) has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China. METHODS: Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1-6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance. RESULTS: Overall, 72.8% (566/778) of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193) of genotype 1, 100% (23/23) of genotype 2, 100% (237/237) of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325) of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69) patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Coinfecção , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , China , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 401, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26424404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection are increasingly common causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. However, there are few clinical investigations of HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from low and middle-income nations. Here, we compare the epidemiology of HCV-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in Southern China and examine hepatic fibrosis scores in co-infected individuals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected subjects. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to examine the association between demographics and HCV genotype. Among co-infected individuals, we also studied the relationship between fibrosis scores derived from non-invasive studies and HCV genotype. RESULTS: Data were collected from 175 HCV-infected individuals, including 89 (51 %) HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. HIV/HCV co-infection was correlated with intravenous drug use (AOR 46.25, p < 0.001) and not completing high school (AOR 17.39, p < 0.001) in a multivariate model. HIV/HCV co-infected individuals were more likely to be infected with HCV genotype 6a (p < 0.0001) or 3a (p < 0.023), whereas increased fibrosis (FIB-4 score) was associated with HCV genotype 3a infection (ß 2.18, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that intravenous drug use is driving HIV/HCV co-infection in Southern China. While additional studies are needed, HCV genotype 6a is more common and genotype 3a appears to be associated with more severe hepatic fibrosis in co-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Future HIV/HCV co-infection research in China should focus on at risk populations, HCV testing uptake, and genotype-specific treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Viral/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas do Core Viral/química , Proteínas do Core Viral/classificação , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética
20.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 3(4): 284-7, 2015 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807385

RESUMO

Liver transplantation is the definitive therapy for patients with advanced liver disease and its complications. Patients who are transplanted with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are at risk of recurrent cancer, and these patients are monitored on a regular basis for recurrence. In contrast, de novo HCC following liver transplantation is a very rare complication, and recipients without HCC at the time of transplantation are not screened. We describe the clinical features of de novo HCC over a decade after achieving a sustained viral response with treatment of hepatitis C and two decades after liver transplantation. Our case highlights the necessity of screening for HCC in the post-transplant patient with advanced liver disease even after viral clearance.

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