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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 122: 111917, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641910

RESUMO

A comprehensive study of Fe alloying influence on as-cast titanium alloys, including microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior and in-vitro cell response have been carried out to evaluate the biological application potential of Ti-Fe binary alloys. The results indicate that grain sizes of as-cast Ti-Fe alloys are remarkably refined with Fe addition and the mechanical strength is increased tremendously. For instance, Ti-2Fe alloy presents excellent mechanical properties by elevating the tensile strength to 566 MPa, or 1.5 times over pure Ti, while maintaining a relative high plasticity. All Ti-Fe alloys carried in this study show a higher corrosion resistance in Hank's solution than pure Ti due to the grain refine enhancement and higher oxide film growth kinetics. Ti-2Fe alloy presents the best corrosion resistance among them and higher Fe content could bring more Fe2O3 to the oxidation films that decrease the corrosion resistance accordingly. All Ti-Fe alloys are holding a similar osteoblast cell viability and response to pure Ti which ensure their biocompatibility. The combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and in-vitro response of Ti-2Fe promised its application as dental implants in a near future.

2.
Environ Res ; 195: 110804, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513381

RESUMO

Studies have shown that ambient air pollution is associated with obesity in adults, but epidemiological evidence is scarce for children and adolescents. This study sought to examine the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and obesity in a large population of children and adolescents in China. A cross-sectional analysis was performed from a school-based health lifestyles intervention project between September 1, 2019 and November 31, 2019, including 36,456 participants aged 9-17 years in Jiangsu province of China. Exposure to air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤10 µm (PM10), and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5)) were measured based on the nearest air monitoring station for each selected school. Data on each participant's weight and height was also recorded. Demographic and obesity-related behavioral information was collected using a self-reported questionnaire. We used the multivariate regression model to estimate the effects of three-year (2016-2018) average concentrations and the exceedance concentration days (ECD) of air pollutants on obesity after adjusting potential confounders. The ECD was defined as daily concentration exceeding the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard and World Health Organization Ambient Air Quality Guidelines. We observed that higher concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 were associated with elevated likelihood of obesity. For each 10 µg/m3 increment in concentration, odds ratio of obesity was 1.185 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.054, 1.333) for PM2.5, 1.127 (95%CI: 1.042, 1.219) for NO2, and 1.041 (95%CI: 1.001, 1.082) for O3, respectively. A significant association between the ECD and obesity was also found for PM2.5 and O3. Effects of air pollutants on obesity were stronger in males, low economic level regions, and age subgroups of 9-11 and 15-17 years. Our findings suggest that long-term exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 were associated with higher prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Continuous efforts to reduce air pollution level could help ease the increasing prevalence of obesity within a region.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141710, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891988

RESUMO

Respiratory and fecal aerosols play confirmed and suspected roles, respectively, in transmitting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). An extensive environmental sampling campaign of both toilet and non-toilet environments was performed in a dedicated hospital building for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the associated environmental factors were analyzed. In total, 107 surface samples, 46 air samples, two exhaled condensate samples, and two expired air samples were collected within and beyond four three-bed isolation rooms. The data of the COVID-19 patients were collected. The building environmental design and the cleaning routines were reviewed. Field measurements of airflow and CO2 concentrations were conducted. The 107 surface samples comprised 37 from toilets, 34 from other surfaces in isolation rooms, and 36 from other surfaces outside the isolation rooms in the hospital. Four of these samples were positive, namely two ward door handles, one bathroom toilet seat cover, and one bathroom door handle. Three were weakly positive, namely one bathroom toilet seat, one bathroom washbasin tap lever, and one bathroom ceiling exhaust louver. Of the 46 air samples, one collected from a corridor was weakly positive. The two exhaled condensate samples and the two expired air samples were negative. The fecal-derived aerosols in patients' toilets contained most of the detected SARS-CoV-2 in the hospital, highlighting the importance of surface and hand hygiene for intervention.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Betacoronavirus , Hospitais , Humanos
4.
Opt Lett ; 45(23): 6458-6461, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258836

RESUMO

In this Letter, we report an octave-spanning mid-infrared (MIR) comb generation with a difference frequency generation (DFG) approach optimized for aperiodically poled Mg:LiNbO3 and nonlinear spectral broadening. An Er:fiber comb is delivered to two branches and amplified in an Yb:fiber and an Er:fiber amplifier, respectively. We demonstrate that the two-branch DFG can yield the spectrum tuned over an octave in a fan-out periodically poled lithium niobate. Thus, we obtain an optimized poling period profile and design the aperiodically poled Mg:LiNbO3. The results demonstrate that broadband combs can be generated in the MIR atmospheric window.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107224, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302036

RESUMO

Previous studies reported that antibiotics inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria and alleviate ulcerative colitis (UC). But how Gram-positive bacteria are involved in the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and which component of it causes inflammation remain unclear. This work aims to demonstrate that Gram-positive bacteria may be an underlying cause of experimental colitis in mice through the muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-2 (NOD2) pathway and paeoniflorin inhibits the pathway above to alleviate experimental colitis. In this study, colitis mice were established by oral administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and paeoniflorin (25, 50,100 mg/kg per day, ig) was administered to the mice for 10 days. Results shown that the abundance and the infiltration of Gram-positive bacteria in intestinal tissues increased in UC mice. Paeoniflorin treatment significantly alleviated DSS-induced experimental colitis mice, reduced the abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in feces and the infiltration of Gram-positive bacteria in intestinal tissues. Paeoniflorin also inhibited mRNA and protein expression of MDP-NOD2 pathway components and decreased the levels of related inflammatory cytokines. In vitro experiments showed that MDP strongly stimulated RAW264.7 cells to secrete tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and induced translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65) from the cytoplasm to nucleus using immunofluorescence co-localization experiments. Overall, the results indicated that Gram-positive bacteria promote the occurrence of colitis via up-regulation of MDP-NOD2 pathway, and paeoniflorin is able to decrease the infiltration of Gram-positive bacteria in intestine and inhibit Gram-positive bacteria-dependent MDP-NOD2 pathway to alleviate mice colitis.

6.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380303

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have recently been used as a promising treatment for cancer while their toxicity and immune-related side effects can involve in any organ, including the nervous system. In contrast to other immune-related adverse events (irAEs), neurological irAEs (nAEs) are rare, with varying incidence and symptoms complexity. Although nAEs are uncommon, they can sometimes be severe and even lead to death. However, little attention has been paid to nAEs and the literatures are mostly clinical reports with only a few cases. We therefore conducted the present review with the aim of providing a comprehensive introduction of nAEs. In this review, we summarized various nAEs, including meningitis, encephalitis and hypophysitis in the central nervous system, and myositis, myasthenia gravis and peripheral neuropathies in the peripheral system. We also reviewed the current diagnosis and treatment methods for nAEs commonly used in clinical practice. In addition, we discussed about potential mechanisms regarding nAEs and proposed the possible approaches to preventing the risk of nAEs in patients treated with ICIs. There's still a lot to learn, such as whether and why patients with nAEs respond better to ICI-therapy. The mechanisms and significance of nAEs need to be fully clarified to address these issues and to optimize the treatment strategy.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(22)2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202781

RESUMO

In the present study, the unique bimodal grain size distribution microstructure with the ultrafine substrate and embedded macro grains was fabricated by a traditional hot-rolling process in a novel low-cost Ti-2Fe-0.1B titanium alloy, which possesses a good combination of strength (around 663 MPa) and ductility (around 30%) without any post heat treatment. Meanwhile, the mechanical behavior and corrosion resistance of hot-rolled Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy after equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) deformation were studied. Results indicated that the average grain size decreased to 0.24 µm after 4 passes ECAP deformation, which led to the enhancement of tensile strength to around 854 MPa and good ductility to around 15%. In addition, corrosion resistance was also improved after ECAP due to the rapid self-repairing and thicker passivation film. Our study revealed that the novel low-cost titanium alloy after hot-rolling and ECAP could be used instead of Ti-6Al-4V in some industrial applications due to similar mechanical behavior and better corrosion resistance.

8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 192: 113661, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053507

RESUMO

Paclitaxel (PTX) is a powerful anticancer natural product, with its separation and purification having been widely studied. In this work, new molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with different molar ratios were prepared as functional monomers. These were then used as adsorbents in solid phase extraction (SPE) for the separation of PTX from its structural analogs. The polymers were characterized by energy disperive X-rays (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results suggested that the formative regular DES-MIPs had an even pore-size distribution and a large specific surface area. The dynamic adsorption and static adsorption showed that the DES-MIPs had excellent adsorption performance, with a maximum adsorption capacity and optimum adsorption time of 87.08 mg/g and 180 min, respectively. The selective adsorption experiments showed that the material had outstanding selectivity, and the maximum selectivity factor was 6.20. For stability, after six consecutive adsorption and desorption cycles, the DES-MIPs maintained the perfect stability and reusability. Furthermore, the fabricated SPE column was successfully utilized for extracting and eluting PTX. This study provides a reliable protocol for the separation and purification PTX from its structural analogs and the DES-MIPs materials have excellent potential application value in pharmaceutical industry.

9.
Rice (N Y) ; 13(1): 74, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct seeding is an efficient cultivation technique in rice. However, poor low temperature germinability (LTG) of modern rice cultivars limits its application. Identifying the genes associated with LTG and performing molecular breeding is the fundamental way to address this issue. However, few LTG QTLs have been fine mapped and cloned so far. RESULTS: In the present study, the LTG evaluation of 375 rice accessions selected from the Rice Diversity Panel 2 showed that there were large LTG variations within the population, and the LTG of Indica group was significantly higher than that of Japonica and Aus groups (p < 0.01). In total, eleven QTLs for LTG were identified through genome-wide association study (GWAS). Among them, qLTG_sRDP2-3/qLTG_JAP-3, qLTG_AUS-3 and qLTG_sRDP2-12 are first reported in the present study. The QTL on chromosome 10, qLTG_sRDP2-10a had the largest contribution to LTG variations in 375 rice accessions, and was further validated using single segment substitution line (SSSL). The presence of qLTG_sRDP2-10a could result in 59.8% increase in LTG under 15 °C low temperature. The expression analysis of the genes within qLTG_sRDP2-10a region indicated that LOC_Os10g22520 and LOC_Os10g22484 exhibited differential expression between the high and low LTG lines. Further sequence comparisons revealed that there were insertion and deletion sequence differences in the promoter and intron region of LOC_Os10g22520, and an about 6 kb variation at the 3' end of LOC_Os10g22484 between the high and low LTG lines, suggesting that the sequence variations of the two genes could be the cause for their differential expression in high and low LTG lines. CONCLUSION: Among the 11 QTLs identified in this study, qLTG_sRDP2-10a could also be detected in other three studies using different germplasm under different cold environments. Its large effect and stable expression make qLTG_sRDP2-10a particularly valuable in rice breeding. The two genes, LOC_Os10g22484 and LOC_Os10g22520, were considered as the candidate genes underlying qLTG_sRDP2-10a. Our results suggest that integrating GWAS and SSSL can facilitate identification of QTL for complex traits in rice. The identification of qLTG_sRDP2-10a and its candidate genes provide a promising source for gene cloning of LTG and molecular breeding for LTG in rice.

10.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 5918587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082710

RESUMO

As one of the ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), baicalein, isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been proved to exert potential therapeutic effects on ulcerative colitis (UC), but its therapeutic mechanism remains obscure. Authentically, ulcerative colitis can be alleviated by regulating the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells via AhR activation. So, our study planned to prove the hypothesis that baicalein protected mice against UC by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg cells via AhR activation. Immunofluorescence and western blot results showed that baicalein could promote AhR activation and induce it to transfer to the nucleus. We further determined the effect of baicalein on naïve CD4+ T cell differentiation in vitro by magnetic cell separation and drug intervention. The results showed that baicalein could promote Treg cell differentiation by activating AhR. In vivo study, UC mice were established by free drinking of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days and then were orally administrated by baicalein (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), TCDD (AhR agonist), and CH223191 (antagonist). The results demonstrated that baicalein improved the symptoms of UC mice, regulated the balance of Th17/Treg cells, and restored the balance of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IL-6, and TNF-α; anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-ß; and epithelial protective cytokine IL-22 in UC mice, and these effects were related to AhR. Taken together, our research found that baicalein might be a potential drug for UC via regulating Treg cell differentiation and maintaining immune homeostasis and attempted to shed a light on the pivotal role of AhR in these effects.

12.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5003, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063880

RESUMO

Dahuang-Mudan decoction (DMD) is a formula that has been widely used as a complementary treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of action of DMD in IBD has not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, we developed a metabolomics-based method to evaluate the effects and potential mechanisms of DMD in a 2,4,6-trinitobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. The ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) method combined with multiple analysis approaches including principal component analysis, partial least square discriminant analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis were used to investigate the different urinary metabolites. We identified 29 potential biomarkers of TNBS-induced colitis that returned to normal conditions after DMD administration. Pathway analysis indicated that changes in these metabolites were associated with cysteine and methionine metabolism, citric acid cycle, glycolysis and glycolic regeneration, pyruvate metabolism, biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, biosynthesis of primary bile acids, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, caffeine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism. It is worth noting that DMD has potential therapeutic effects on TNBS-induced colitis, which functions by restoring the balance of multiple disturbed pathways to a normal condition. This study suggests the reliability of metabolomics-based approaches to identifying biomarkers and pathways, which facilitate further investigation of the potential mechanisms of DMD.

13.
J Aerosol Sci ; : 105693, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078030

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector. When discharging COVID-19 patients in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using RT-PCR, the potential risk of reintroducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved. Here, 14 patients including 10 COVID-19 subjects were recruited; exhaled breath condensate (EBC), air samples and surface swabs were collected and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four hospitals with applied natural ventilation and disinfection practices in Wuhan. Here we discovered that 22.2% of COVID-19 patients (n = 9), who were ready for hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath (~105 RNA copies/m3). Although fewer surface swabs (3.1%, n = 318) tested positive, medical equipment such as face shield frequently contacted/used by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 (3-8 viruses/cm2). Three of the air samples (n = 44) including those collected using a robot-assisted sampler were detected positive by a digital PCR with a concentration level of 9-219 viruses/m3. RT-PCR diagnosis using throat swab specimens had a failure rate of more than 22% in safely discharging COVID-19 patients who were otherwise still exhaling the SARS-CoV-2 by a rate of estimated ~1400 RNA copies per minute into the air. Direct surface contact might not represent a major transmission route, and lower positive rate of air sample (6.8%) was likely due to natural ventilation (1.6-3.3 m/s) and regular disinfection practices. While there is a critical need for strengthening hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread, use of breath sample as a supplement specimen could further guard the hospital discharge to ensure the safety of the public and minimize the pandemic re-emergence risk.

14.
Talanta ; 219: 121350, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887078

RESUMO

In this work, efficient, sensitive bifunctional-monomer chitosan magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (BCMMIPs) were fabricated and successfully applied to concentrate the metabolites of Epimedium flavonoids in rat testis and bone that were later analyzed using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Using chitosan and methacrylic acid as co-functional monomers, BCMMIPs exhibited a large adsorption capacity (7.60 mg/g), fast kinetics (60 min), and good selectivity. Chitosan is bio-compatible and non-toxic, and methacrylic acid provides multiple hydrogen bond donors. The BCMMIPs were injected into rat testis to specifically enrich the total flavonoid metabolites in vivo and were used to extract metabolites from bone in vitro. The results showed that the BCMMIPs coupled with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS successfully identified 28 compounds from testis and 18 compounds from bone, including 19 new compounds. This study provided a reliable protocol for the concentration of metabolites from complex biological samples, and several new metabolites of Epimedium flavonoids were found in vivo and in vitro.

15.
Talanta ; 219: 121283, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887173

RESUMO

In this report, a non-toxic Dual Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (DMIPs) was synthesized with quercetin and schisandrin b as template molecules, using deep-eutectic solvents as functional monomers for the first time. The DMIPs were used to efficiently and simultaneously enrich quercetin and schisandrin b from the mixed crude extracts of penthorum and schisandra. The results indicated that the DMIPs exhibited rapid adsorption kinetics (80 min for adsorption equilibrium) and high selectivity. The largest adsorbing capacities to quercetin and schisandrin b were 23.58 mg/g and 41.64 mg/g, respectively. After presaturation with quercetin and schisandrin b, the nontoxic saturated DMIPs were fed to the mice. Blood samples of the mice were taken and both quercetin and schisandrin b were successfully detected. The pharmacokinetics of quercetin and schisandrin b were similar to reports in the literature where mice were directly fed with botanicals. Our study provides a reliable protocol such that DMIPs can be used to separate and enrich several target molecules simultaneously from complex biological systems. Our findings suggested that the DMIPs have potential application as a drug delivery system of compound herbal formulas.

16.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(8): 673-679, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958122

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of paeoniflorin on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. Methods C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, 600 mg/(kg.d) mesalazine treatment group, (12.5, 25, 50) mg/(kg.d) paeoniflorin treatment group, with 10 mice in each. All mice were treated with 30 g/L DSS for 5 days except the control group. Meanwhile, the mice in the other groups were orally administrated corresponding drugs for 10 days, while the mice in the control and model groups were given equivalent volumes of distilled water. Body mass, fecal characteristics and hematochezia of the mice were observed and recorded daily, and then disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated and calculated. Pathological changes in the colon were observed by HE staining. The levels of anti-flagellin antibody, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the serum were measured by ELISA. The expression levels of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa-Bp65 (NF-κBp65) in the colon tissues were evaluated by Western blot analysis and the activation of lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) was detected by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the control group, DAI scores in the model group were significantly raised, the colon length was significantly shortened, and the epithelium and intestinal gland disappeared. In addition, the serum levels of anti-flagellin antibody, IL-6, TNF-α and the protein levels of TLR5, MyD88, NF-κBp65 in the colon significantly increased, and the activation of T lymphocytes in MLN went up in the model group. All symptoms above were alleviated in the mesalazine and paeoniflorin groups compared with the model group. Conclusion Paeoniflorin can attenuate UC in mice by inhibiting the expression of flagellin and TLR5, and the activation of T cells.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Glucosídeos , Ativação Linfocitária , Monoterpenos , Linfócitos T , Receptor 5 Toll-Like , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética
17.
Environ Res ; 191: 110187, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919970

RESUMO

The fractionation of natural organic matter (NOM) and its impact on the binding of quinolones to mineral surfaces and transport behavior under flow-through conditions have been scarcely investigated. In this study, the sorption and transport of a widely used quinolone antibiotic, Nalidixic acid (NA), were investigated in goethite-coated sand (GCS) columns over a wide concentration range (5-50 mg/L) of Leonardite humic acid (LHA), a representative NOM. Simultaneous injection of NA and LHA in GCS columns mutually alter transport of each other, i.e. NA mobility and LHA molecular fractionation. Preloading of GCS column with LHA dramatically facilitated the transport behavior of NA, where nonspecific interactions with LHA-covered goethite surfaces controlled NA mobility. Simulations using a two-site nonequilibrium model showed that a modified sorption rate constant was required to accurately describe the breakthrough curves of NA under these conditions. This altered rate constant suggests that nonspecific interactions of NA on bound LHA may take place as an additional binding mechanism affecting adsorption kinetics. NOM fractionation alters sorption mechanisms and kinetics of quinolone antibiotics, which in turn affect their fractionation. These results may have important implications for an accurate assessment of the fate of these types of antibiotics in aquatic environments.

18.
Environ Int ; 144: 105994, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745780

RESUMO

Previous epidemiological studies primarily examined the temperature-related mortality burden of all-cause or cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and respiratory diseases. However, evidence on the heat- and cold-attributable mortality burden from other specific causes is limited. This paper aimed to systematically examine the association of heat and cold with a comprehensive spectrum of plausible temperature-related diseases, and to estimate the mortality burdens attributable to heat and cold. In the time-series study of 11 cities in Jiangsu, China, distributed lag non-linear models were applied to estimate city-specific temperature-mortality associations, and then meta-analysis was conducted to pool the estimates. A total of 1,368,648 cases of death were included in this study. Both extreme heat and cold were associated with increased mortality risks from all-cause, CVD, respiratory diseases, nervous diseases, and external causes. Short-term exposures to heat and cold were associated with excess burden of mortality for several specific diseases, accounting for 16.38% (95% eCI, 7.27-22.31%) for myocardial infarction (MI), 12.41% (95% eCI, 8.81-15.07%) for stroke, 27.97% (95% eCI, 18.42-33.35%) for hypertensive heart disease, 25.18% (95% eCI, 18.42-29.63%) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 28.46% (95% eCI: 4.93-33.57%) for Alzheimer's and dementia. Diabetes was only associated with extreme heat, with 4.61% (95% eCI, 0.13-7.13%) of diabetes mortality attributable to heat. In total, 11.98% (95% eCI, 10.46-13.08%) of mortality was attributable to heat and cold, with 3.49% (95% eCI, 2.87-4.00%) attributable to heat and 8.48% (95% eCI, 7.31-9.49%) attributable to cold, and about 64% of this overall temperature-related mortality burden was found in 6 aforementioned specific causes and about 10% of mortality burden in external causes. Extreme heat and/or cold are associated with increased risks of mortality from a wide range of causes, including previously identified causes in cardiorespiratory diseases and under-studied causes such as diabetes and Alzheimer's and dementia. Future research is needed to confirm the substantial mortality burden of heat and cold.

19.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 4729019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832561

RESUMO

Background: Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 is closely related to diabetes and kidney diseases and is expected to be a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Objective: This study aimed to explore the circulating expression level and significance of lncRNA Malat1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was conducted to assess the expression of lncRNA Malat1 in 20 T2DM patients, 27 DKD patients, and 14 healthy controls, and then, the clinical significance was analyzed. Results: LncRNA MALAT1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was significantly upregulated in T2DM and DKD groups when compared to control. Pearson's correlation analysis showed correlation of lncRNA MALAT1 levels with ACR, urine ß2-microglobulin (ß2-MG), urine α1-microglobulin (α1-MG), creatinine (Cr), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), while negative with superoxide dismutase (SOD) (r = -0.388, P < 0.05). Binary regression analysis showed that ACR, creatinine, α1-MG, and LncRNA Malat1 were the risk factors for diabetic nephropathy with OR value of 1.166, 1.031, 1.031, and 2.019 (P < 0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of DKD identified by the above indicators was 0.914, 0.643, 0.807, and 0.797, respectively. The AUC of Joint prediction probability of DKD recognition was 0.914, and the sensitivity and specificity of DKD diagnosis were 1.0 and 0.806, respectively. (Take ≥0.251 as the diagnostic cutoff point). Conclusion: LncRNA Malat1 is highly expressed in DKD patients, and the combined detection of ACR, creatinine, α1-MG, and LncRNA Malat1 with diabetes mellitus may be the best way to diagnose diabetic nephropathy.

20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785090

RESUMO

Adhesion between coatings and substrates is an important parameter determining the integrity and reliability of film/substrate systems. In this paper, a new and more refined theory for characterizing adhesion between elastic coatings and rigid substrates is developed based on a previously proposed pressurized blister method. A compressed air driven by liquid potential energy is applied to the suspended circular coating film through a circular hole in the substrate, forcing the suspended film to bulge, and then to debond slowly from the edge of the hole as the air pressure intensifies, and finally to form a blister with a certain circular delamination area. The problem from the initially flat coating to the stable blistering film under a prescribed pressure is simplified as a problem of axisymmetric deformation of peripherally fixed and transversely uniformly loaded circular membranes. The adhesion strength depends on the delamination area and is quantified in terms of the energy released on per unit delamination area, the so-called energy release rate. In the present work, the problem of axisymmetric deformation is reformulated with out-of-plane and in-plane equilibrium equations and geometric equations, simultaneously improved, and a new closed-form solution is presented, resulting in the new and more refined adhesion characterization theory.

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