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1.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 958-967, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486835

RESUMO

Dried fruit foods, including nuts and preserved fruits, are favored by consumers and are rich in protein, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. However, these food products can be contaminated by pesticide residues, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and additives during growth, processing, storage, and transportation. The presence of such pollutants in excess of a certain limit will lead to food safety problems. Therefore, it is of great economic and social significance to strengthen the quality supervision of dried fruit foods. However, these foods have a complex matrix and low concentrations of various harmful substances, which necessitates efficient and appropriate sample preparation methods as well as rapid, accurate detection methods. In the present article, the sample preparation and analytical methods for harmful substances in dried fruit foods since 2010 are reviewed. The sample preparation methods are classified as field-assisted extraction, phase separation, and derivatization and extraction methods. The field-assisted extraction method is based on the action of an external field (synergistic) such as ultrasonic or microwave fields to increase the dissolution rate of hazardous substances in dried fruits and improve the extraction efficiency. Phase separation methods such as solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction are commonly used as sample preparation methods for dried fruit samples, because of the advantages of low solvent consumption and wide analysis range. Moreover, this paper discusses the progress of various analytical methods for these hazardous substances in dried fruits, including conventional laboratory methods such as chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, inorganic mass spectrometry, and electrochemical analysis, as well as rapid detection techniques suitable for field analysis. Laboratory testing has the advantages of high accuracy, high sensitivity, and low detection limits. However, it has the disadvantages of complicated preparation, long analysis time, and difficult operation. Rapid detection technology speeds up the analytical speed, has operational simplicity, and saves analysis time. The complexity of the food matrix, which easily interferes with the sample matrix, low selectivity, and difficulty in accurate quantification, it is necessary to minimize cases of incorrect or erroneous detection. Therefore, rapid detection of harmful substances in dried fruit foods is possible by optimizing the sample pretreatment methods and detection technologies, and by seeking new (especially, on-site) detection technologies. Prospects on the development of selective and non-destructive sample preparation methods and automated, high-throughput, rapid detection methods in dried fruit food analysis are presented. The development of new, green rapid sample pretreatment methods and technical products that integrate separation, enrichment, and detection as well as the construction of accurate and sensitive rapid detection methods are expected to become the development trend in the analysis of harmful substances in dried fruit foods.


Assuntos
Frutas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 596, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are key characteristics affecting variety adoption and market value. Starch viscosity profiles tested by a rapid visco analyzer (RVA) offer a direct measure of ECQs and represent the changes in viscosity associated with starch gelatinization. RVA profiles of rice are controlled by a complex genetic system and are also affected by the environment. Although Waxy (Wx) is the major gene controlling amylose content (AC) and ECQs, there are still other unknown genetic factors that affect ECQs. RESULTS: Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for starch paste viscosity in rice were analyzed using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) developed from the two cultivars 9311 and Nipponbare, which have same Wx-b allele. Thus, the effect of the major locus Wx was eliminated and the other locus associated with the RVA profile could be identified. QTLs for seven parameters of the starch RVA profile were tested over four years in Nanjing, China. A total of 310 QTLs were identified (from 1 to 55 QTLs per trait) and 136 QTLs were identified in more than one year. Among them, 6 QTLs were stalely detected in four years and 26 QTLs were detected in at least three years including 13 pleiotropic loci, controlling 2 to 6 RVA properties simultaneously. These stable QTL hotspots were co-located with several known starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs). Sequence alignments showed that nucleotide and amino acid sequences of most SSRGs were different between the two parents. Finally, we detected stable QTLs associated with multiple starch viscosity traits near Wx itself, supporting the notion that additional QTLs near Wx control multiple characteristic values of starch viscosity. CONCLUSIONS: By eliminating the contribution from the major locus Wx, multiple QTLs associated with the RVA profile of rice were identified, several of which were stably detected over four years. The complexity of the genetic basis of rice starch viscosity traits might be due to their pleiotropic effects and the multiple QTL hot spots. Minor QTLs controlling starch viscosity traits were identified by using the chromosome segment substitution strategy. Allele polymorphism might be the reason that QTLs controlling RVA profile characteristics were detected in some known SSRG regions.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amido/química , Alelos , Cromossomos , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Viscosidade
3.
Yi Chuan ; 43(5): 442-458, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972215

RESUMO

In order to develop a variety of japonica rice with good eating quality suitable for planting in Jiangsu Province, the genetic basis of high quality, disease resistance and high yield japonica rice varieties in Jiangsu Province was systematically studied. The relationship among different rice qualities of cooking, nutrition, and eating was studied by association analysis. It was clear that amylose content was the key factor affecting eating quality. The semi waxy rice with amylose content of 10%~14% has bright surface, soft texture, and elasticity, combining the softness of glutinous rice and the elasticity of japonica rice. The cold rice is not hard, and the taste is excellent. It meets the taste requirements of people in Yangtze River Delta region who like to eat soft fragrant japonica rice. The semi waxy japonica rice variety "Kantou 194" with a low expression of amylose content gene Wx mp and an amylose content of about 10% was selected as the core germplasm for improving eating quality. Pyramiding breeding of japonica rice variety with good eating quality, disease resistance and high yield was carried out by examining the development of Wx mp gene molecular markers and the use of closely linked molecular markers with disease resistance and high yield genes. A series of new japonica rice varieties with good taste such as Nanjing 46, Nanjing 5055, Nanjing 9108, and Nanjing 5718, suitable for different rice areas of Jiangsu Province, have been bred and approved by Jiangsu Provincial Variety Approval Committee. The layout of japonica rice varieties with good taste covering different rice areas in Jiangsu Province has been formed. These varieties have been planted with an accumulated area of more than 5.3 million hectares, which has effectively promoted the development of high quality rice industry in Jiangsu Province and its surrounding areas, and made important contributions to the structural adjustment of the supply side of rice industry, improving quality and efficiency, and ensuring food security.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amilose , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(5): 1353-1360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867851

RESUMO

Previous studies have described that NF-κB signaling mediated by NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK) plays a critical role of the differentiation of osteoclasts. We aim to explore the role of IKKe in methylprednisolone -induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Methylprednisolone-induced ONFH mice model was successfully established, and subjected to micro computed tomography to detect the femoral head image of the mice. Bone marrow cells from experimental mice were collected and cultured. qPCR and immunoblot were performed to examine the possible signal pathways of IKKe involvement, and osteoclast-related gene expressions in IKKe+/+ and IKKe-/- cells in vitro and in vivo were examined. It was found that the levels of IKKe decreased in ONFH patients, and IKKe interacted with NIK in the NF-κB signal pathway to suppress osteoclasts via inhibiting the transcription of NIK. Furthermore, IKKe knockout promoted the osteoclastogenesis in mice model. Finally, IKKe knockout suppressed methylprednisolone-induced ONFH and pro-inflammatory responses in mice model. Our findings show a mechanism of IKKe inhibition of the progression of methylprednisolone-induced ONFH via the NIK/NF-κB pathway.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107345, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563553

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ON-FH) is a common complication of steroid use. Pro-inflammatory macrophages play a crucial role in the apoptosis of osteocytes. The objective of the study was to evaluate a plant extract astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in treating ON-FN. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), IFN-γ or IL-4 to induce M1 and M2-like phenotypes. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to examine M1 and M2 phenotypic markers. Flow cytometry was used to analyze MHC II, CD206, F4/80, and CD11b levels and cell apoptosis. Glucocorticoid was used to induce ON-FN in mice. TNF-α and IL-1ß levels in femoral head were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AS-IV repolarized macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotypes. Culture medium from AS-IV treated M1 macrophages induced less cell apoptosis osteocytes compared to that from untreated M1 macrophages. In ON-FH mice, the ratio of M1 macrophages was decreased in the femoral head by AS-IV, concomitant with a decrease in TNF-α and IL-1ß levels. AS-IV is effective in alleviating ON-FH through its effects in repolarizing macrophages from M1-like phenotype to M2-like phenotype, promoting survival of osteocytes, reducing arthritic symptoms, and decreasing inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabeça do Fêmur/imunologia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/induzido quimicamente , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/imunologia , Glucocorticoides , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
6.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(5): 889-901, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886440

RESUMO

In rice (Oryza sativa), amylose content (AC) is the major factor that determines eating and cooking quality (ECQ). The diversity in AC is largely attributed to natural allelic variation at the Waxy (Wx) locus. Here we identified a rare Wx allele, Wxmw , which combines a favorable AC, improved ECQ and grain transparency. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of Wx genomic sequences from 370 rice accessions, we speculated that Wxmw may have derived from recombination between two important natural Wx alleles, Wxin and Wxb . We validated the effects of Wxmw on rice grain quality using both transgenic lines and near-isogenic lines (NILs). When introgressed into the japonica Nipponbare (NIP) background, Wxmw resulted in a moderate AC that was intermediate between that of NILs carrying the Wxb allele and NILs with the Wxmp allele. Notably, mature grains of NILs fixed for Wxmw had an improved transparent endosperm relative to soft rice. Further, we introduced Wxmw into a high-yielding japonica cultivar via molecular marker-assisted selection: the introgressed lines exhibited clear improvements in ECQ and endosperm transparency. Our results suggest that Wxmw is a promising allele to improve grain quality, especially ECQ and grain transparency of high-yielding japonica cultivars, in rice breeding programs.

7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(4): e13881, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is very common in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), long-term nursing care are needed for those patients. We aimed to evaluate the effects of hospital-community-home (HCH) nursing in those patients. METHODS: This study was a before-after study design. Patients were divided into control groups (traditional nursing care) and HCH group(HCH nursing care). Tracheostomy patients with severe TBI needing long-term care were included. All patients underwent a two-month long follow-up. Glasgow coma score (GCS), Karnofsky, Self-Anxiety Scale (SAS) from caregiver and Barthel assessment at the discharge and two months after discharge were evaluated. The tracheostomy-related complications were recorded and compared. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were included. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the GCS, Karnofsky, SAS from caregiver and Barthel index at discharge((all P > .05); the GCS, Karnofsky and Barthel index were all significantly increased after two-month follow-up for the two groups (all P < .05), and the GCS, Karnofsky and Barthel index at two-month follow-up in HCH group were significantly higher than that of the control group(all P < .05), but the SAS from caregiver at two-month follow-up in HCH group was significantly less than that of the control group(P = .009). The incidence of block of artificial tracheal cannula and readmission in HCH group were significant less than that of control group (all P < .05). CONCLUSION: HCH nursing care is feasible in tracheostomy patients with severe TBI, future studies are needed to further evaluate the role of HCH nursing care.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Traqueostomia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hospitais , Humanos , Alta do Paciente
8.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(1): 284-293, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592173

RESUMO

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be induced to process osteogenic differentiation with appropriate mechanical and/or chemical stimuli. The present study described the successful culture of murine BMSCs under mechanical strain. BMSCs were subjected to 0%, 3%, 8%, 13%, and 18% cyclic tensile strain at 0.5 Hz for 8 hr/day for 3 days. The expression of osteogenic markers and mechanosensitive ion channels was evaluated with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and matrix mineralization were evaluated with histochemical staining. To investigate the effects of mechanosensitive ion channel expression on cyclic tensile strain-induced osteogenic differentiation, the expression of osteogenic markers was evaluated with real-time RT-PCR in the cells without mechanosensitive ion channel expression. This study revealed a significant augment in osteogenic marker in BMSC strained at 8% compared to other treatments; therefore, an 8% strain was used for further investigations. The ALP expression and matrix mineralization were enhanced in osteogenic induced BMSCs subjected to 8% strain after 7 and 14 days, respectively. Under the same conditions, the osteogenic marker and mechanosensitive ion channel expression were significantly promoted. However, the loss function of mechanosensitive ion channels resulted in the inhibition of osteogenic marker expression. This study demonstrated that strain alone can successfully induce osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs and the expression of mechanosensitive ion channels was involved in the process. The current findings suggest that mechanical stretch could function as efficient stimuli to induce the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the activation of mechanosensitive ion channels.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos
9.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(20): 1300, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209880

RESUMO

Background: Autologous nerve transplantation has become the gold standard for other nerve repair methods. But conventional epineurial sutures is prone to misaligned sutures, erroneous axonal growth, and unsatisfactory repair. Finding a new, more effective nerve coaptation method to improve the efficacy of peripheral nerve repair remains an urgent clinical challenge. In this study, the repair efficacies of oblique nerve coaptations for sciatic nerve injury at various angles were observed, providing a theoretical foundation for further clinical applications. Methods: Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups of 16. The autologous nerve transplantation model was established by severing and rejoining in situ a 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve trunk at the angle of 30° (group A), 45° (group B), 60° (group C), or 90° (group D). Sciatic function index (SFI) measurement, measurement of the recovery rate of the wet weight of the triceps surae, electrophysiological examination of nerves, histological examinations, and image analysis were carried out 12 weeks after surgery. Results: The SFI, the recovery rate of the wet weight of the triceps surae, the electrophysiological function of nerves, histological examinations, and image analysis 12 weeks after surgery indicated that all indices of groups A and B were significantly better than those of groups C and D (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between groups A and B or between groups C and D (P>0.05), although group C exhibited a trend of better recovery than group D. Conclusions: Oblique nerve coaptation at 30-45° in autologous nerve transplantation may significantly enhance nerve regeneration.

10.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 119, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) determine consumer acceptance and the economic value of rice varieties. The starch physicochemical properties, i.e. amylose content, gel consistency, gelatinization temperature and pasting viscosity are important indices for evaluating rice ECQs. Genetic factors are required for development of rice varieties with excellent ECQs and association mapping is one of the promising approaches for discovering such associated genetic factors. RESULTS: A genome-wide association mapping was performed on a set of 253 non-glutinous rice accessions consisting of 83 indica and 170 japonica cultivated rice varieties through phenotyping for 11 ECQ traits in two consecutive years and genotyping with 210 polymorphic SSR and candidate-gene markers. These markers amplified 747 alleles with an average of 3.57 alleles per locus. The structure, phylogenetic relationship, and principal component analysis indicated a strong population differentiation between indica and japonica accessions and association mapping was thus undertaken within indica and japonica subpopulations. All traits showed a large phenotypic variation and highly significant phenotypic correlations were present between most of traits. A total of 33 and 30 loci were located for 11 ECQs in indica and japonica subpopulations respectively. Most of associated loci were overlapped with starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs), and the Wx locus gathered 14 associated loci with the largest effects on amylose content, gel consistency and pasting viscosities. Eight subpopulation specific markers, RM588, Wx-(CT)n, SSI and SBE1 for indica subpopulation and RM550, Wxmp, SSIIa and SBE4 for japonica subpopulation, were identified, suggesting alleles of SSRGs showed the subspecific tendency. Nevertheless, allelic variation in SSIIa showed no tendency towards subspecies. One associated maker RM550 detected in japonica subpopulation for amylose content and pasting viscosity was verified a potential novel and stably expressed locus and could be selected for further fine mapping. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated the potential for dissecting genetic factors of complex traits in domesticated rice subspecies and provided highly associated markers to facilitate marker-assisted selection for breeding high-quality indica or japonica rice varieties.


Assuntos
Amilose/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Amido/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) often result in osteomyelitis, which is the acute or chronic infections of the bone marrow or bones. TNF-α is long recognized as a key factor contributing to the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Expression levels of TNF-α, and several candidate genes, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), known to be downregulated by TNF-α were analysed in MC3T3-E1 cells with S. aureus infection and osteomyelitis patient blood. MicroRNA(miR)-129-5p was predicted and experimentally verified to target eNOS. Alizarin red sulfate (ARS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining assays were conducted on MC3T3-E1 cells with S. aureus infection to assess the role of TNF-α/miR-129-5p/eNOS on mineralization defect. RESULTS: TNF-α and miR-129-5p were upregulated while eNOS was downregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells with S. aureus infection and osteomyelitis patients, showing inversely correlated expression profiles. MiR-129-5p directly binds to the 3'-UTR of eNOS mRNA to suppress eNOS expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. TNF-α blocker inhibited miR-129-5p and elevated eNOS expression, likely contributing to rescued mineralization defect in S. aureus-infected MC3T3-E1 cells. During S. aureus infection, upregulated TNF-α increases endogenous miR-129-5p expression, which in turn inhibits eNOS, contributing to osteomyelitis. CONCLUSION: Our study thereby proposes a novel signalling cascade involving TNF-α/miR-129-5p/eNOS in the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, which may also serve as therapeutic targets.

13.
Steroids ; 163: 108709, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical treatment with high-dose of steroid hormone causes steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH), whereas the internal regulation mechanism remains elusive. Numerous studies have reported that microRNAs participated in the development of SONFH through modulating gene expression. The aim of the current study was to clarify the function of microRNA-23b-3p (miR-23b-3p) and ZNF667 in SONFH. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase reporter system were utilized to confirm the target relation between miR-23b-3p and ZNF667. To examine the function of miR-23b-3p in vivo, rat SONFH models were established by specific inducers. The morphological changes, plasma viscosity, blood lipid, and inflammatory cytokines were measure by corresponding experiments. RESULTS: MiR-23b-3p and ZNF667 was negatively correlated in SONFH patient tissues, miR-23b-3p was down-regulated, while ZNF667 was up-regulated. MiR-23b-3p targeted ZNF667, the expression level of ZNF667 was suppressed by miR-23b-3p activation whereas strengthened by miR-23b-3p inhibition. SONHF rats with overexpressed miR-23b-3p displayed alleviated symptoms, including reduced plasma viscosity, declined blood lipids, decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improved bone integrality. Moreover, elevation of ZNF667 reversed the repression of SONFH induced by miR-23b-3p overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: We found that miR-23b-3p played a protective role in SONFH by targeting ZNF667, which provided a novel reference for SONFH prevention and therapy.

14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104959, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of socioeconomic developments on stroke incidence and mortality must be understood to target prevention strategies appropriately. We assessed the secular trends in stroke incidence and mortality in China based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. METHODS: Trends of stroke incidence and mortality of China was described in different categories of age, sex and stroke type using the GBD study database. Also a comparative study was conducted between China and Japan, U.S. to find reasonable references for development. Secular trends in incidence and mortality (per 100,000 population) were assessed for stroke, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke from 1990 to 2016. Population pyramid was used to illustrate changes in age- and sex-specific incidence and mortality rates. RESULTS: During the study period, stroke incidence in China increased from 204.52 to 403.08 and mortality increased from 122.09 to 130.94; the corresponding age-standardized rates changed from 335.63 to 353.70 and from 231.28 to 132.84, respectively. Among those aged 15-49 and 50-69 years, the incidence rates of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke both tended to increase, whereas the mortality rates tended to decline in all age groups. The incidence and mortality were highest among those aged ≥70 years. Compared with the U.S. and Japan, age-standardized rates of incidence and mortality were higher in China. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of stroke has increased in China, overall mortality has decreased. A priority of stroke prevention and control strategies will transition from reducing mortality to controlling the incidence in at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Immun Ageing ; 17: 19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536957

RESUMO

Background: Whether IL-15 is involved in the development of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is investigated. Methods: C57BL/6 J and l15-/-mice were injected with methylprednisolone to induce wide type osteonecrosis (WT ON) and IL-15 deficiency osteonecrosis (IL-15-/- ON). Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning was used to detect the microstructure. The differentiation and formation of osteoclasts were determined with colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophages (CFU-GM), colony-forming unit-macrophage/mononuclear (CFU-M) per tibia, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP or TRAP) positive cells. Serum interleukin (IL)-15, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), bone Gla protein (BGP), and TRACP were assayed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the femoral heads were detected by Western blot. CD34 staining was performed to detect microvascular density. Results: IL-15 secretion was increased in the femoral heads and the serum of steroid-induced ONFH mice. IL-15 deficiency may lead to up-regulated vessel remodeling, improved microstructure, and up-regulated serum osteocalcin, BAP, and BGP secretion. Both the expression of RANKL/RANK/OPG and osteoclast differentiation and formation can be down-regulated by IL-15 deficiency. Conclusion: IL-15 deficiency alleviates steroid-induced ONFH by impact osteoclasts via RANKL-RANK-OPG system.

16.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 20: 459-467, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278305

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease result in several complications, including bone problems. Previous studies have shown that microRNA (miR)-26a regulates glucose metabolism and plays a protective role in diabetes. However, whether miR-26a also affects bone quality in diabetes remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the potential effects of miR-26a on bone in diabetic mice. We administrated miR-26a in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The metabolic parameters, bone quality, osteoblast and osteoclast markers, and insulin signaling activation were measured. miR-26a ameliorated insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, improved bone microarchitecture and quality, increased osteoblasts and bone formation, decreased osteoclasts, and promoted the insulin signaling pathway in diabetic mice. These effects were abolished in insulin receptor-compromised Col1a1-Insr+/- mice. In conclusion, miR-26a could ameliorate bone-specific insulin resistance and bone quality in diabetic mice, which depended on the insulin receptors on osteoblasts. Our findings highlight the potential of miR-26a as a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus-related bone metabolism and diseases.

17.
Cell Mol Bioeng ; 13(2): 155-163, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175028

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia which displays insufficiency or resistance to insulin. One of the complications of diabetes is the increased risk of fracture and the impairment of bone repair and regulation. There have been evidences from previous studies that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow promote cartilage and callous formation. In addition, IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been observed to relieve inflammation-related complications in diabetes. Methods: In this study, the role of IL-10-overexpressing bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) was examined in the diabetic mice model with femur fracture. MSCs were isolated from the BALB/c mice and IL-10 over expression was conducted with lentivirus transduction. The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model with femoral fracture was established. BM-MSCs with IL-10 over expression were transplanted into the fracture area. The expressions of inflammatory factors IL-6, TNF-α and INF-γ were examined by qPCR and immunoblot; the biomechanical strength of the fracture site of the mice was examined and evaluated. Results: Data showed that IL-10 overexpressed BM-MSCs transplantation decreased inflammatory response, promoted bone formation, and increased the strength of the fracture site in STZ-induced diabetic mice with femoral fracture. Conclusion: IL-10 overexpressed BM-MSCs transplantation accelerated fracture repair in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn provides potential clinical application prospects.

18.
Circ J ; 84(4): 662-669, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke has become the leading cause of death in China. This study aimed to assess the age-period-cohort (APC) effects on the long-term trends of type-specific stroke morbidity and mortality in China between 1993 and 2017.Methods and Results:The data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 (GBD 2017) and were analyzed with the age-period-cohort framework. The net drifts of mortality were below 0 (hemorrhagic stroke [HS]: males: -1.620%, females: -3.531%; ischemic stroke [IS]: males: -1.041%, females: -3.002%), and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups and for both genders. The net drifts of HS incidence were below 0 (males: -1.412%, females: -2.688%), while those of IS were above 0 (males: 1.425%, females: 1.117%). Period effect of mortality showed similar monotonic downward patterns for both genders, with a faster decrease for females than for males. Period effect of incidence showed a declined trend of incidence for HS, but an elevated trend for IS in both genders. After controlling for age and period effects, cohort effects on incidence found a monotonic decline trend for HS, while for IS, an elevated trend was found at first to peak during the 1950-1970 s, then declined steadily afterwards. Cohort effects on mortality showed a monotonic declined trend. CONCLUSIONS: By using Age-Period-Cohort (APC) analysis, a disparity between HS and IS was identified. Different prevention and control strategies should be used depending on the subtypes of stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 234: 115893, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070513

RESUMO

In rice production, pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of late ripening seeds is one of the most serious quality defects in rice grain quality. In the present study, PHS impact was investigated by examining the physicochemical properties, eating and cooking quality (ECQ) of rice grain. Four rice cultivars suffering from PHS had impaired ECQ, reduced apparent amylose content, and decreased total starch content, with an increase in total protein content. The viscosity of flours and starches prepared from the PHS grains was significantly reduced. Starch molecular structure analysis also showed remarkable decreases in the short chains of amylopectin, long amylose chains and reduced starch crystallinity of the PHS grains. Moreover, the PHS native starch tended to have low starch digestibility. This provides useful information for understanding the effects of PHS on white rice grain quality as well as on starch fine structure and its physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Oryza/química , Sementes/química , Amido/química , Amilose/análise , Configuração de Carboidratos , Físico-Química , Géis/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(1-2): 199-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813113

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The kinase-associated protein phosphatase, KAPP, is negatively involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. KAPP interacts physically with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6, and functionally acts upstream of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3. The kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of many developmental and signaling events, but it remains unknown whether KAPP is involved in ABA signaling. Here, we report that KAPP is negatively involved in ABA-mediated seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. The two loss-of-function mutants of KAPP, kapp-1 and kapp-2, exhibit increased ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced seed germination inhibition and post-germination growth arrest. The three closely-related protein kinase, (SNF1)-related protein kinase SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6, which play critical roles in ABA signaling, interact and co-localize with KAPP. Genetic evidence showed that the ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes caused by KAPP mutation were suppressed by the double mutation of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3, indicating that KAPP functions upstream of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3 in ABA signaling. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that KAPP mutation affects expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes. These results demonstrated that KAPP is negatively involved in plant response to ABA, which help to understand the complicated ABA signaling mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética
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