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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950526

RESUMO

Peanut southern blight, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, is a widespread and devastating epidemic. Frequently, it is laborious to effectively control by labor-intensive foliar sprays of agrochemicals due to untimely find. In the present study, seed treatment with physcion (PHY) at doses of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 g AI kg-1 seed significantly improved the growth and photosynthetic activity of peanuts. Furthermore, PHY seed treatment resulted in an elevated enzymatic activity of key enzymes in peanut roots, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, lipoxygenase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, as well as an increase in callus accumulation and lignin synthesis at the infection site, ultimately enhancing the root activity. This study revealed that PHY seed treatment could promote the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) in peanut roots, while also decreasing the content of malondialdehyde levels in response to S. rolfsii infection. The results were further confirmed by transcriptome data and metabolomics. These findings suggest that PHY seed treatment activates the plant defense pathways mediated by SA and JA/ET in peanut roots, enhancing the resistance of peanut plants to S. rolfsii. In short, PHY is expected to be developed into a new plant-derived immunostimulant or fungicide to increase the options and means for peanut disease control.

2.
J Dig Dis ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38988129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Japan NBI Expert Team (JNET) classification has good diagnostic potential for colorectal diseases. We aimed to explore the diagnostic value of the JNET classification type 2B (JNET2B) criteria for colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) based on magnifying endoscopy with blue laser imaging (ME-BLI) examination. METHODS: Between January 2017 and June 2023, 218 patients who were diagnosed as having JNET2B-type LSTs using ME-BLI were included retrospectively. Endoscopic images were reinterpreted to categorize the LSTs as JNET2B-low (n = 178) and JNET2B-high (n = 53) LSTs. The JNET2B-low and JNET2B-high LSTs were compared based on their histopathological and morphological classifications. RESULTS: Among the 178 JNET2B-low LSTs, 86 (48.3%) were histopathologically classified as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, 54 (30.3%) as high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), 37 (20.8%) as intramucosal carcinoma (IMC), and one (0.6%) as superficial invasive submucosal carcinoma (SMC1). Among the 53 JNET2B-high LSTs, five (9.4%) were classified as HGIN, 28 (52.9%) as IMC, 15 (28.3%) as SMC1, and 5 (9.4%) as deep invasive submucosal carcinoma. There were significant differences in this histopathological classification between the two groups (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between JNET2B-low and JNET2B-high LSTs based on their morphological classification (granular vs nongranular) or size (<20 mm vs ≥20 mm). Besides, the κ value for JNET2B subtyping was 0.698 (95% confidence interval 0.592-0.804) between the two endoscopists who reassessed the endoscopic images. CONCLUSION: The JNET2B subtyping of LSTs has a diagnostic potential in the preoperative setting, and may be valuable for treatment decision-making.

3.
World J Clin Cases ; 12(18): 3403-3409, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholesterol stones affect a certain subpopulation of children. Concerns have been raised on the impact of gallbladder surgery on the growth of children and adolescents. AIM: To study the population characteristics, clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of gallstones in children. METHODS: The clinical data of 44 children with gallstones admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University from August 2009 to August 2021 were collected, the children were followed up by telephone to monitor their prognoses. The follow-up ended in August 2023. The shortest follow-up time was 2 years and 6 months, whereas the longest was 13 years and 11 months. The population characteristics, general clinical characteristics, and treatments were retrospectively analyzed. The children were divided according to whether they underwent surgical gallbladder removal into an operation group (n = 28) and a non-operation group (n = 16), The effects of surgical gallbladder resection on the growth and development of children were analyzed. RESULTS: The male-female ratio in the population was 6:5 and 84.09% of the children had onset in adolescence. Furthermore, 29.55% of the children were overweight or obese. The study identified 26 cases with metabolic abnormalities, 9 with hemolytic anemia, and 4 with choledochal cyst. Of the population, 68.18% had recurrent symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Surgical treatment accounted for 63.64%, with laparoscopic cholecystectomy accounting for 71.43% of surgical treatment. No significant differences were observed in symptoms and complications between the surgery and non-surgery groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the attainment of genetic height target and the rightward shift of height curve during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The sex characteristics of gallstones in children were not observed. Most gallstones occurred in adolescents and rarely in young children. A considerable proportion of children have inborn causes, which are often concurrent with metabolic abnormalities and hemolytic anemia. Most children had recurrent symptomatic gallstones. Surgical treatment, especially laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is still the main treatment for gallstones in children. Surgical treatment did not affect the growth and development of children who underwent gallstone removal.

4.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1369035, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993639

RESUMO

There are limited treatment options for recurrent advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A good response with a possible abscopal effect was observed in a patient with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-negative recurrent advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody plus stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). A 66-year-old male patient was diagnosed with recurrent advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with multiple lung metastases (13 metastatic nodules in total) four months after completing radical radiotherapy plus concurrent and consolidated chemotherapy, and PD-L1 expression in the primary esophageal tumor was negative. This patient received 25 cycles of camrelizumab (an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody) in total plus upfront SBRT for two metastatic nodules, which was administered after the first cycle of camrelizumab. After this combined treatment, for most nontarget nodules, an obvious volume decrease and fuzzy change were observed, including two nodules that completely vanished. At the end of follow-up, the progression-free survival and duration of response of this patient were 34 months and 32 months, respectively. This case report indicated that an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody combined with SBRT was a promising therapeutic strategy for recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma even in patients with negative PD-L1 expression.

5.
NPJ Digit Med ; 7(1): 182, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971937

RESUMO

Computer-aided implant surgery has undergone continuous development in recent years. In this study, active and passive systems of dynamic navigation were divided into active dynamic navigation system group and passive dynamic navigation system group (ADG and PDG), respectively. Active, passive and semi-active implant robots were divided into active robot group, passive robot group and semi-active robot group (ARG, PRG and SRG), respectively. Each group placed two implants (FDI tooth positions 31 and 36) in a model 12 times. The accuracy of 216 implants in 108 models were analysed. The coronal deviations of ADG, PDG, ARG, PRG and SRG were 0.85 ± 0.17 mm, 1.05 ± 0.42 mm, 0.29 ± 0.15 mm, 0.40 ± 0.16 mm and 0.33 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The apical deviations of the five groups were 1.11 ± 0.23 mm, 1.07 ± 0.38 mm, 0.29 ± 0.15 mm, 0.50 ± 0.19 mm and 0.36 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. The axial deviations of the five groups were 1.78 ± 0.73°, 1.99 ± 1.20°, 0.61 ± 0.25°, 1.04 ± 0.37° and 0.42 ± 0.18°, respectively. The coronal, apical and axial deviations of ADG were higher than those of ARG, PRG and SRG (all P < 0.001). Similarly, the coronal, apical and axial deviations of PDG were higher than those of ARG, PRG, and SRG (all P < 0.001). Dynamic and robotic computer-aided implant surgery may show good implant accuracy in vitro. However, the accuracy and stability of implant robots are higher than those of dynamic navigation systems.

6.
Foods ; 13(13)2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38998576

RESUMO

Cell-cultured meat holds significant environmental value as an alternative protein source. Throughout the 21st century, cell-cultured meat has progressively penetrated commercial markets. However, a systematic review encompassing the entire field needs improvement. Employing Citespace, Vosviewer, and R-Bibliometrix software, a bibliometric analysis was used to present the research progress and general development trends of 484 articles on cell-cultured meat from 2000 to 2022 based on countries, authors, institutions, and keywords. This analysis provides ideas for the future development of cell-cultured meat in different countries or regions worldwide. Research on cell-cultured meat from 2000 to 2022 has undergone two phases: fluctuating growth (2000-2013) and rapid growth (2013-2022). Noteworthy contributions to cell-cultured meat studies emerge from author groups in the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and China, with influential institutions like the University of Bath significantly impacting pertinent research. Furthermore, over the past two decades, research has leaned towards exploring topics such as "biomaterials", "cultured", "land use", "public opinion", "animal welfare", and "food safety". Furthermore, this study reveals differences in nomenclature between regions and institutions. "Cultured meat" is more popular in some countries than in other forms. Institutions in Asia use "cultured meat" more frequently; however, institutions in the Americas adopt "cultivated meat" and rarely adopt "in vitro meat", and institutions in the European region have no particularly prominent tendency towards a specific nomenclature. Future research should emphasize aligning the labeling of cell-cultured meat with effective management strategies and referencing regulatory policies across various countries. For the first time, we use three different bibliometric methods to analyze temporal and spatial variation in research on cellular meat. The results of this study have a multiplier effect. We provide a theoretical basis and a practical reference for the identification of alternatives in the dual context of "food crisis and food security" and "climate crisis". At the same time, we also provide a reference for the sustainable development of the food system.

8.
Food Chem ; 458: 140306, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968710

RESUMO

This study focused on detecting streptomycin (STR) residues using a luminescent aptasensor encapsulated with aptamer. Utilizing MOF-74-Co with peroxidase-like activity, luminol was enclosed in its pores. The specific STR aptamer acted as a gatekeeper, ensuring excellent performance. Upon exposure to STR, the aptamers detached, releasing luminol and amplifying the luminescent signal through MOF-74-Co catalytic activity. A linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and STR concentration (50 nM âˆ¼ 5 × 106 nM) was established, with a limit of detection of 0.065 nM. The sensor exhibited high selectivity for STR even in the presence of other aminoglycoside antibiotics. Applied to tea, egg, and honey samples, the sensor showed recovery rates of 91.38-100.2%, meeting safety standards. This MOF-based aptasensor shows promise for detecting harmful residues.

9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15877, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982267

RESUMO

Develop a radiomics nomogram that integrates deep learning, radiomics, and clinical variables to predict epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively included 438 patients who underwent curative surgery and completed driver-gene mutation tests for stage I NSCLC from four academic medical centers. Predictive models were established by extracting and analyzing radiomic features in intratumoral, peritumoral, and habitat regions of CT images to identify EGFR mutation status in stage I NSCLC. Additionally, three deep learning models based on the intratumoral region were constructed. A nomogram was developed by integrating representative radiomic signatures, deep learning, and clinical features. Model performance was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The established habitat radiomics features demonstrated encouraging performance in discriminating between EGFR mutant and wild-type, with predictive ability superior to other single models (AUC 0.886, 0.812, and 0.790 for the training, validation, and external test sets, respectively). The radiomics-based nomogram exhibited excellent performance, achieving the highest AUC values of 0.917, 0.837, and 0.809 in the training, validation, and external test sets, respectively. Decision curve analysis (DCA) indicated that the nomogram provided a higher net benefit than other radiomics models, offering valuable information for treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Aprendizado Profundo , Receptores ErbB , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mutação , Nomogramas , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Adulto , Curva ROC , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Radiômica
10.
Med ; 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) provide modest but unsatisfactory benefits for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Developing strategies for treating ES-SCLC is critical. METHODS: We preliminarily explored the outcomes of salvage low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) plus ICI on refractory SCLC patients. Next, we evaluated the combinational efficacy in murine SCLC. The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) was analyzed for mechanistic study. Subsequently, we conducted a multicenter, prospective phase II trial that administered concurrent thoracic LDRT plus chemoimmunotherapy to treatment-naive ES-SCLC patients (MATCH trial, NCT04622228). The primary endpoint was confirmed objective response rate (ORR), and the key secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. FINDINGS: Fifteen refractory SCLC patients treated with LDRT plus ICI were retrospectively reviewed. The ORR was 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.9-92.2). We identified a specific dose of LDRT (15 Gy/5 fractions) that exhibited growth retardation and improved survival in murine SCLC when combined with ICIs. This combination recruited a special T cell population, TCF1+ PD-1+ CD8+ stem-like T cells, from tumor-draining lymph nodes into the TIME. The MATCH trial showed a confirmed ORR of 87.5% (95% CI, 75.9-94.8). The median PFS was 6.9 months (95% CI, 5.4-9.3). CONCLUSIONS: These findings verified that LDRT plus chemoimmunotherapy was safe, feasible, and effective for ES-SCLC, warranting further investigation. FUNDING: This research was funded by West China Hospital (no. ZYJC21003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 82073336), and the MATCH trial was fully funded by Roche (China) Holding Ltd. (RCHL) and Shanghai Roche Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (SRPL).

11.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-18, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979968

RESUMO

In this study, based on Walker 256 in vitro experiments, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, wound healing assay, and flow cytometry were used to detect cell apoptosis and cell cycle. It was found that schisandrin may have significant anti-tumor effects in vitro by inhibiting TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. In addition, in vivo experiments, immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF and VEGFR-2 in tumor tissues. It was found that schisandrin could significantly improve the immunosuppression induced by 5-Fu and enhance the antitumor effect of 5-Fu. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of Wnt-1/ß-catenin signaling pathway.

12.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 109, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38907332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hyperuricaemia (HUA), a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of uric acid, is on the rise and is frequently associated with renal injury. Gut microbiota and gut-derived uremic toxins are critical mediators in the gut-kidney axis that can cause damage to kidney function. Gut dysbiosis has been implicated in various kidney diseases. However, the role and underlying mechanism of the gut microbiota in HUA-induced renal injury remain unknown. RESULTS: A HUA rat model was first established by knocking out the uricase (UOX). HUA rats exhibited apparent renal dysfunction, renal tubular injury, fibrosis, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and impaired intestinal barrier functions. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequencing and functional prediction data revealed an abnormal gut microbiota profile and activation of pathways associated with uremic toxin production. A metabolomic analysis showed evident accumulation of gut-derived uremic toxins in the kidneys of HUA rats. Furthermore, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to confirm the effects of HUA-induced gut dysbiosis on renal injury. Mice recolonized with HUA microbiota exhibited severe renal injury and impaired intestinal barrier functions following renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) surgery. Notably, in NLRP3-knockout (NLRP3-/-) I/R mice, the deleterious effects of the HUA microbiota on renal injury and the intestinal barrier were eliminated. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that HUA-induced gut dysbiosis contributes to the development of renal injury, possibly by promoting the production of gut-derived uremic toxins and subsequently activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our data suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of renal diseases by targeting the gut microbiota and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperuricemia , Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ratos , Masculino , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Urato Oxidase/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
J Inorg Biochem ; 259: 112652, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945112

RESUMO

Anticancer activity has been extensively studies. In this article, three ligands 2-(6-bromobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (BDIP), 2-(7-methoxybenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (MDIP), 2-(6-nitrobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (NDIP) and their iridium(III) complexes: [Ir(ppy)2(BDIP)](PF6) (ppy = deprotonated 2-phenylpyridine, 3a), [Ir(ppy)2(MDIP)](PF6) (3b) and [Ir(ppy)2(NDIP)](PF6) (3c) were synthesized. The cytotoxicity of 3a, 3b, 3c against Huh7, A549, BEL-7402, HepG2, HeLa, and non-cancer NIH3T3 was tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The results obtained from the MTT test stated clearly that these complexes demonstrated moderate or non-cytotoxicity toward Huh7, BEL-7402, HepG2 and HeLa except A549 cells. To improve the anticancer efficacy, we used white light to irradiate the mixture of cells and complexes for 30 min, the anticancer activity of the complexes was greatly enhanced. Particularly, 3a and 3b exhibited heightened capability to inhibit A549 cells proliferation with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 0.7 ± 0.3 µM and 1.8 ± 0.1 µM, respectively. Cellular uptake has shown that 3a and 3b can be accumulated in the cytoplasm. Wound healing and colony forming showed that 3a and 3b significantly hinder the cell migration and growth in the S phase. The complexes open mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) channel and cause the decrease of membrane potential, release of cytochrome C, activation of caspase 3, and finally lead to apoptosis. In addition, 3a and 3b cause autophagy, increase the lipid peroxidation and lead to ferroptosis. Also, 3a and 3b increase the expression of calreticulin (CRT), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), thereby inducing immunogenic cell death.

14.
MedComm (2020) ; 5(6): e588, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868330

RESUMO

To identify the mechanism underlying macrosteatosis (MaS)-related graft failure (GF) in liver transplantation (LT) by multi-omics network analysis. The transcriptome and metabolome were assayed in graft and recipient plasma in discovery (n = 68) and validation (n = 89) cohorts. Differentially expressed molecules were identified by MaS and GF status. Transcriptional regulatory networks were generated to explore the mechanism for MaS-related inferior post-transplant prognosis. The differentially expressed molecules associated with MaS and GF were enriched in ferroptosis and peroxisome-related pathways. Core features of MaS-related GF were presented on decreased transferrin and impaired anti-oxidative capacity dependent upon dysregulation of transcription factors hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A). Furthermore, miR-362-3p and miR-299-5p inhibited transferrin and HIF1A expression, respectively. Lower M2 macrophages but higher memory CD4 T cells were observed in MaS-related GF cases. These results were validated in clinical specimens and cellular models. Systemic analysis of multi-omics data depicted a panorama of biological pathways deregulated in MaS-related GF. Transcriptional regulatory networks centered on transferrin and anti-oxidant responses were associated with poor MaS graft quality, qualifying as potential targets to improve prognosis of patients after LT.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1374458, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827153

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB) and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, disease spectrum, outcome, and prognostic factors of patients treated for TBM in China. Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted from 2009 to 2019 enrolling all presumptive TBM patients referred to Xijing tertiary Hospital from 27 referral centers in and around Shaanxi province, China. Patients with clinical features suggestive of TBM (abnormal CSF parameters) were included in the study if they had adequate baseline information to be classified as "confirmed," "probable," or "possible" TBM according to international consensus TBM criteria and remained in follow-up. Patients with a confirmed alternative diagnosis or severe immune compromise were excluded. Clinical presentation, central nervous system imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results, TBM score, and outcome-assessed using the modified Barthel disability index-were recorded and compared. Findings: A total of 341 presumptive TBM patients met selection criteria; 63 confirmed TBM (25 culture positive, 42 Xpert-MTB/RIF positive), 66 probable TBM, 163 possible TBM, and 49 "not TBM." Death was associated with BMRC grade III (OR = 5.172; 95%CI: 2.298-11.641), TBM score ≥ 15 (OR = 3.843; 95%CI: 1.372-10.761), age > 60 years (OR = 3.566; 95%CI: 1.022-12.442), and CSF neutrophil ratio ≥ 25% (OR = 2.298; 95%CI: 1.027-5.139). Among those with confirmed TBM, nearly one-third (17/63, 27.0%) had a TBM score < 12; these patients exhibited less classic meningitis symptoms and signs and had better outcomes compared with those with a TBM score ≥ 12. In this group, signs of disseminated/miliary TB (OR = 12.427; 95%CI: 1.138-135.758) and a higher TBM score (≥15, OR = 8.437; 95%CI: 1.328-53.585) were most strongly associated with death. Conclusion: TBM patients who are older (>60 years) have higher TBM scores or CSF neutrophil ratios, have signs of disseminated/miliary TB, and are at greatest risk of death. In general, more effort needs to be done to improve early diagnosis and treatment outcome in TBM patients.

16.
Opt Express ; 32(10): 18293-18300, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858989

RESUMO

Accurate measurement of the dielectric functions of emerging optical materials is of great importance for advancements in solid-state physics. However, it is rather challenging since most materials are highly active in ambient conditions, which makes in-situ measurements tough. Here, we report an analytical ellipsometry method (AEM) accessible in ambient conditions for measuring the dielectric functions of chemically reactive materials under bulk encapsulation. Taking the highly pursued low-loss plasmonic materials, such as sodium films, as an example, the effectiveness and measuring errors of the proposed AEM have been systematically demonstrated. This verifies AEM's superiority in overcoming the limitations of traditional spectroscopic ellipsometry methodologies, which include complex multi-parameter fitting procedures and the issue of potentially unphysical results, especially in newly developed low-loss materials. Our results will provide a generalized and convenient ellipsometric measurement strategy for sensitive materials under bulk encapsulation.

17.
Opt Express ; 32(12): 21696-21707, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859518

RESUMO

Edge-enhanced imaging by spiral phase contrast has proven instrumental in revealing phase or amplitude gradients of an object, with notable applications spanning feature extraction, target recognition, and biomedical fields. However, systems deploying spiral phase plates encounter limitations in phase mask modulation, hindering the characterization of the modulation function during image reconstruction. To address this need, we propose and demonstrate an innovative nonlinear reconstruction method using a Laguerre-Gaussian composite vortex filter, which modulates the spectrum of the target. The involved nonlinear process spectrally transforms the incident short-wavelength-infrared (SWIR) signal from 1550 to 864 nm, subsequently captured by a silicon charge-coupled device. Compared with conventional schemes, our novel filtering method effectively suppresses the diffraction noise, significantly enhancing image contrast and resolution. By loading specific phase holograms on the spatial light modulator, bright-field imaging, isotropic, amplitude-controlled anisotropic, and directional second-order edge-enhanced imaging are realized. Anticipated applications for the proposed SWIR edge-enhanced imaging system encompass domains such as artificial intelligence recognition, deep tissue medical diagnostics, and non-destructive defect inspection. These applications underscore the valuable potential of our cutting-edge methodology in furthering both scientific exploration and practical implementations.

18.
Diagn Pathol ; 19(1): 74, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare plasma cell (PC) neoplasm with associated paraneoplastic syndrome. According to the current diagnostic criteria, peripheral polyneuropathy and monoclonal PC proliferative disorder represent two mandatory criteria. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 54-year-old male with peripheral neuropathy of bilateral lower limbs, sclerotic bone lesions, elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, splenomegaly, extravascular volume overload, endocrinopathy, and skin hemangiomas. Of note, serum and urine protein electrophoresis (PEP) and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) of this patient indicated undetectable M-protein and the normal ratio of free light chains κ and λ (FLC-R (κ/λ)). No monoclonal PCs were found in bone marrow examinations or biopsy of diseased bones. However, his clinical manifestations matched most of the diagnostic criteria. After excluding other diseases that are easily confused with POEMS syndrome, the diagnosis of variant POEMS syndrome with undetectable M-protein was proposed. The patient obtained clinically significant improvement and elevated VEGF returned to normal after 6 months of treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS: Monoclonal PC dyscrasia (M-protein) while being a mandatory criterion for POEMS syndrome is undetectable in a considerable amount of patients that otherwise demonstrate typical symptoms. Here, we reported a case of variant POEMS syndrome with featured clinical manifestations, elevated VEGF levels, and good response to therapies targeting PCs but no evidence of M-protein. Therefore, negative results in M-protein and monoclonal PCs aren't enough to reject the diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. It is imperative to recognize the variant form of POEMS syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome POEMS , Humanos , Síndrome POEMS/diagnóstico , Síndrome POEMS/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas do Mieloma/análise
19.
Fundam Res ; 4(3): 575-588, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38933207

RESUMO

Induction of beige fat for thermogenesis is a potential therapy to improve homeostasis against obesity. ß3-adrenoceptor (ß3-AR), a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is believed to mediate the thermogenesis of brown fat in mice. However, ß3-AR has low expression in human adipose tissue, precluding its activation as a standalone clinical modality. This study aimed at identifying a potential GPCR target to induce beige fat. We found that chemerin chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), one of the novel GPCRs, mediated the development of beige fat via its two ligands, chemerin and resolvin E1 (RvE1). The RvE1 levels were decreased in the obese mice, and RvE1 treatment led to a substantial improvement in obese features and augmented beige fat markers. Inversely, despite sharing the same receptor as RvE1, the chemerin levels were increased in obesogenic conditions, and chemerin treatment led to an augmented obese phenotype and a decline of beige fat markers. Moreover, RvE1 and chemerin induced or restrained the development of beige fat, respectively, via the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. We further showed that RvE1 and chemerin regulated mTORC1 signaling differentially by forming hydrogen bonds with different binding sites of CMKLR1. In conclusion, our study showed that RvE1 and chemerin affected metabolic homeostasis differentially, suggesting that selectively modulating CMKLR1 may be a potential therapeutic target for restoring metabolic homeostasis.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 333: 118492, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38936642

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Simiao Pills, a classical traditional Chinese medicine prescription recorded in Cheng Fang Bian Du, has been traditionally used to treat hyperuricemia due to its heat-clearing and diuretic properties. Studies have shown that Simiao Pills effectively reduce uric acid levels. However, further research is needed to elucidate the precise composition of Simiao Pills for treating hyperuricemia and their potential pharmacological mechanism. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Simiao Pills on hyperuricemia, with a particular focus on evaluating their protective role against hyperuricemia-induced renal injury and elucidating the underlying mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UPLC-MS/MS was used to identify the components of Simiao Pills. The hyperuricemia model mice were established by intraperitoneal injecting potassium oxonate (PO) and oral administrating hypoxanthine (HX). Network pharmacology, transcriptome, and metabolomics analyses were integrated to explore the mechanism of Simiao Pills in reducing uric acid and protecting the kidney. Mechanistic and functional studies were conducted to validate the potential mechanisms. RESULTS: Simiao Pills were found to contain 12 characteristic components. Treatment with Simiao Pills significantly reduced serum uric acid levels and ameliorated hyperuricemia-induced renal injury. Simiao Pills inhibited the enzymatic activities of XOD and XDH, and regulated the uric acid transporters in the kidney and ileum. Transcriptome and network pharmacology analyses highlighted quercetin, berberine, kaempferol, and baicalein as the principal active components of Simiao Pills acting on the kidney during hyperuricemia treatment, primarily impacting fibrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation-related signaling pathways. Metabolomic analysis unveiled 21 differential metabolites and 5 metabolic pathways associated with Simiao Pills against renal injury associated with hyperuricemia. Further experimental results validated that Simiao Pills reduced renal fibrosis, apoptotic renal cells, serum inflammation levels, and inhibited the NF-κB/NLRP3/IL-1ß signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that Simiao Pills significantly reduced serum uric acid levels and improved renal injury by regulating inflammation, apoptosis, and renal fibrosis. These findings have provided a robust scientific pharmacological basis for the use of Simiao Pills in treating hyperuricemia patients.

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