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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137410, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120099

RESUMO

Understanding the role played by autochthonous functional microbes involved in the biotransformation of pollutants would help optimize bioremediation performance at contaminated sites. However, our knowledge of the remediation potential of indigenous diazotrophs in contaminated soils remains inadequate. Using a microcosm experiment, soil nitrogen fixation activity was manipulated by molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W), and their effect on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in agricultural and industrial soils. Results showed that after 42 days of incubation, PAH dissipation efficiency was significantly enhanced by 1.06-fold in 600 µg kg-1 Mo-treated agricultural soil, compared with that in the control. For the industrial soil, 1200 µg kg-1 Mo treatment significantly promoted PAH removal by 90.76% in 21 days, whereas no significant change was observed between treatments and control at the end of the incubation period. W also exerted a similar effect on PAH dissipation. The activity and gene abundance of nitrogenase were also increased under Mo/W treatments in the two soils. Spearman's correlation analysis further indicated that removal of PAHs was positively correlated with nitrogenase activity in soil, which could be due to the elevated abundances of PAH-degrading genes (PAH-RHDα) in these treatments. Our results suggest the importance of autochthonous diazotrophs in PAH-contaminated soils, which indicates a feasible and environmentally friendly biostimulation strategy of manipulating nitrogen fixation capacity.

2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(2): 372-380, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148009

RESUMO

High expression of zearalenone (ZEN) degrading enzyme gene (zlhy-6) in Pichia pastoris strain GS115 was achieved by codon optimization and multi-copy construction in vitro. The codon-optimized zlhy-6 gene sequence was synthesized with the alpha factor signal peptide coding sequence and inserted into the pAO815 plasmid. The expression plasmid containing 1-6 expression cassettes was constructed by enzyme digestion and transferred into P. pastoris GS115 strain to obtain the ZEN degrading enzyme recombinant strain. The molecular weight of the recombinant protein was 28.9 kDa, which was consistent with the theoretical value. After 3 days of induction fermentation, the protein concentration reached the highest level and then decreased; the expression level was the highest in the induction culture at pH 5.0 and 4.5, while the expression level at other pH was very low; the expression level was the highest when 0.8% methanol was added every day and 10% inoculation was added; the expression level of four-copy transformants was the highest, and the enzyme activity reached 10 U/mL after 3 days of flask fermentation, The degradation rate of ZEN in 1 g corn ballast was 44.08%-75.51% when 0.1-0.5 mL fermentation supernatant added and hydrolyzed for 24 hours. The results of this study laid a foundation for improving the industrial fermentation level of ZEN degrading enzyme and its application in eliminating ZEN in food and feed.


Assuntos
Pichia , Códon , Fermentação , Proteínas Recombinantes , Zearalenona
3.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) and consequent percutaneous US cholangiography in managing the dilated biliary tracts of children who have undergone hepatobiliary surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Sixteen children (11 boys, five girls; age range, 3-144 months) who underwent hepatobiliary surgery from December 2016 to October 2018 and had US evidence of biliary dilatation were included. All patients had undergone US-guided PTCD because of elevated postoperative serum bilirubin levels or bile duct infection. Immediately after the PTCD procedure, diluted sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles dispersion was injected through the PTCD tube to evaluate the anastomosis and the intrahepatic bile duct tree. Laboratory results, including those of serum bilirubin measurement, liver function tests, and routine blood tests, were evaluated before and after PTCD. Nine of 16 patients also underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). The percutaneous US cholangiography findings were evaluated and compared with the PTC findings. RESULTS. Liver enzyme levels decreased after PTCD with a statistically significant difference from the values before PTCD. Percutaneous US cholangiography showed that the anastomosis in 6 of the 16 patients (37.5%) was patent and depicted the morphologic featuresof intrahepatic bile duct tree in five of these patients. In the other 10 patients, the anastomosis was completely obstructed, and percutaneous US cholangiography depicted the morphologic features of intrahepatic bile duct tree in eight patients. In the nine patients who underwent PTC, the percutaneous US cholangiographic findings were the same as the PTC findings. CONCLUSION. US-guided PTCD is helpful in relieving jaundice and inflammation in children who have undergone hepatobiliary surgery and have biliary dilatation. Findings at consequent percutaneous US cholangiography are comparable to those of PTC in depicting the anastomosis in these patients.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114310, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155559

RESUMO

Underwater sound plays an important role in some critical life functions of many aquatic animals. Underwater noise pollution has received relatively more attention in ocean systems. However, little attention has been paid to freshwater systems, such as the Yangtze River which is the habitat of critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis). In 2012, the underwater noise levels in 25 sites along the middle and lower sections of the Yangtze River were measured. The root mean square sound pressure level (SPL) and unweighted sound exposure level (SEL) at each site ranged between 105 ± 2.4 (median ± quartile deviation) and 150 ± 5.5 dB. Obvious spatial and temporal variations in the SPL were detected among the 25 sites. The SPL and SEL in the middle section of the Yangtze River were smaller (approximately 15 dB) and fluctuated more compared to those in the lower section. The power spectrum in the mainstem was site specific. However, all the spectra levels were higher than the audiogram of Yangtze finless porpoises. Majority of the sites had an averaged cumulative unweighted SEL (72%) and cumulative weighted SEL (68%) that surpassed the underwater acoustic thresholds for onset of hearing temporal threshold shifts for finless porpoise. Porpoise bio-sonars were detected in 89% of sonar monitoring sites indicating that noise pollution in the Yangtze River greatly threatened porpoise survival. In 8% of the sites, the averaged cumulative weighted SEL exceeded that of underwater acoustic thresholds causing non-recoverable permanent threshold shifts of finless porpoises auditory system whereas it was less than 1 dB below the underwater acoustic thresholds in other 8% of the sites. These sites urgently needed noise mitigation and management strategies. These results will facilitate the evaluation of the impacts of anthropogenic noise pollution on local finless porpoises and give further guidelines on its effective conservation.

5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 193: 112194, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203786

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death around the world. The current treatments of CRC exhibited high occurrence rate of side effects. Docetaxel (DTX), an important drug widely used in cancer chemotherapy, showed serious toxicity in CRC. Reducing toxicity of DTX could be a feasible and promising way to achieve the new indication of DTX for CRC. In this study, a series of MMP-7 activated octapeptide-DTX/4FDT prodrugs (6a-10a and 6b-10b) were designed and synthesized based on the features of MMP-7 which is highly expressed in CRC and could specially recognize octapeptides with specific sequences. Among them, 9a and 9b, both possessing an octapeptide Gly-Pro-Gln-Gly-Ile-Ala-Met-Gln moiety, were the most potent prodrugs. Compounds 9a and 9b were also tested their release rate in HCT116 cell culture fluids and tumor homogenate along with in vivo anti-CRC activity and systemic toxicity. Since 9a showed better anti-CRC activity and lower systemic toxicity than 9b in CRC tumor bearing mice, it was further evaluated for its acute toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in comparison with its parent drug DTX. These results revealed that 9a possessed good systemic stability, rapid release rate in CRC and reduced systemic toxicity, while retaining similar anti-CRC activity to its parent drug DTX. Thus, 9a, an MMP-7 polypeptide prodrug of DTX, has been identified as a promising candidate for the treatment of CRC.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(11): 3485-3494, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093471

RESUMO

To date, there has been limited information on phytoestrogen (PE) exposure and metabolism in breastfed infants. In the present work, 50 sample pairs of Chinese breastfed infants' urine and the corresponding breast milk were collected. The contents of the relevant PE metabolites in the biosamples were detected via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The correlations between the PE metabolite contents in breastfed infants' urine and those in the corresponding breast milk were analyzed. The average concentrations of total PE metabolites in breast milk and urine were 0.27 and 0.23 nmol/mL, respectively. Genistein and enterolactone levels in the infant urine were positively correlated with their concentrations in the corresponding breast milk samples, which implies that urine excretion can be utilized as a noninvasive parameter for precise genistein and enterolactone intake assessment. Additionally, the efficiency of PE urine excretion showed significant differences across infants with different ages, genders, and durations of pregnancy.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137283, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109726

RESUMO

Multiple nanoparticles (NPs) often coexist in water with contaminants, which inevitably affect the fate and transport of coexisted contaminants and other types of nanoparticles in actual water. This research was devoted to examine the adsorption of tetracycline (TC) on graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of different amounts of model engineered and natural NPs (m-NPs), including metal oxides (ZnO and Fe2O3), clays (kaolin and montmorillonite). The experimental results proved that the existence of m-NPs greatly enhanced the TC adsorption onto GO except for that at Fe2O3/GO = 10:1 and lengthened the adsorption equilibrium time. The enhanced adsorption amount of TC with increasing m-NPs/GO ratio was primarily due to the adsorption of TC onto m-NPs. In contrast, the slightly inhibitory effects by 10:1 Fe2O3/GO could be attributed to the blockage effect on GO surface by a small amount of Fe2O3. Compared with five m-NPs/adsorbents, m-NPs/GO had the greatest promoting efficiency on TC removal. Moreover, the heteroaggregation of GO with different m-NPs was studied in aqueous phase by microscopic, spectroscopic, and computational methods. Analysis showed that the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged GO and positively charged ZnO were likely to first heteroaggregate in binary systems of GO and ZnO, while GO were prone to homoaggregate owing to electrostatic repulsion with the same negatively charged montmorillonite (or kaolin). Besides, Fe2O3 tended to first homoaggregate and then heteroaggregate with GO. In summary, this report elucidated complex interactions between GO and m-NPs, which was crucial to fundamentally understand towards a predictive framework for describing the fate and migration of GO and m-NPs in actual water.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103929

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which is associated with various comorbidities including osteoporosis. Interleukin(IL)-17 has been reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of COPD and also associated with bone destruction in inflammatory diseases. However, the role of IL-17A in COPD-related osteoporosis is yet unknown. The purpose of our study was to investigate the potential contribution of IL-17A in COPD-related bone loss. Materials and Methods: We examined the bone mass and bone microarchitecture in wild-type and IL-17A-/- mice exposed to long-term cigarette smoke (CS). Osteoclast activities and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in bone tissues were assessed, and the blood levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured. Results: Less bone loss as well as attenuated emphysema were shown in IL-17A-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. CS-exposed IL-17A-/- mice had decreased TRAP+ osteoclast numbers and lower RANKL expression compared with CS-exposed wild-type mice. Inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and IL-1ß in circulation were decreased in IL-17A-/- mice exposed to CS compared with wild-type mice. Conclusion: This study indicates that IL-17A is involved in CS-induced bone loss and may be a common link between COPD and osteoporosis.

9.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066267

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of using meibomian gland (MG) dropout and distortion for dry eye disease (DED) diagnosis in a young population with long-term contact lens (CL) wear.Methods: Seventy-three CL-wearers and 68 non-CL-wearers (20-28 years old) participated in the study. The diagnosis of DED was based on an ocular surface disease index ≥ 13, and a noninvasive breakup time < 10 seconds or positive corneal fluorescein staining. The MG dropout and distortion in each subject were quantified with non-invasive meibography. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created to evaluate the effectiveness of using MG dropout and distortion to determine the presence of DED in CL-wearers and non-CL-wearers.Results: In non-CL-wearers, the MG distortion was significantly higher in DED subjects than in normal subjects (3.83 ± 1.81 versus 1.59 ± 1.04). In CL-wearers, MG distortion was not significantly different (5.12 ± 4.11 versus 5.51 ± 3.15 in normal and DED subjects respectively). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for MG distortion was 0.783 in the non-CL-wearers, but 0.507 in CL-wearers. In non-CL-wearers, MG dropout was significantly higher in DED subjects than in normal subjects (0.22 ± 0.08 versus 0.15 ± 0.06). In CL-wearers, MG dropout was also significantly higher in DED subjects than in normal subjects (0.29 ± 0.11 versus 0.22 ± 0.08). The AUC for MG dropout used to classify DED was 0.740 in the non-CL-wearers and 0.715 in CL-wearers.Conclusions: MG dropout was effective in distinguishing subjects with DED from normal subjects in both CL wearers and non-CL wearers. MG distortion can only distinguish DED subjects from normal ones in non-CL wearers, but not in CL wearers.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066245

RESUMO

Four-dimensional (4D) printing of swellable materials have been viewed as an ideal approach to build shape morphing architectures. However, there is less variety in high-performance swellable materials, limiting its development. To address this challenge, we proposed a new strategy for designing high-performance thermal-responsive swellable materials. The reversible liquid-vapor phase change of embedded low boiling point liquid chambers and functional liquid metal fillers endows the designed elastomer with the reversible thermal-responsive swellable property with high stability, fast response speed, and large equilibrium deformation. Notably, liquid metal fillers play a crucial role in improving the thermal-responsive property via improving the thermal conductivity and fracture toughness and decreasing the stiffness. To demonstrate the feasibility of constructing shape morphing architectures with proposed thermal-responsive liquid metal elastomers, typical bilayer structures were printed and investigated. By altering the key design parameters, the response speed and equilibrium deformation can be adjusted as needed. Therefore, complex shape morphing architectures can be printed. This study could provide a new avenue to design swellable material systems for 4D printing of shape morphing architectures.

11.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094495

RESUMO

Developing a precise and reproducible bandgap tuning method that enables tailored design of materials is of crucial importance for optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, we report a sphere diameter engineering (SDE) technique to manipulate the bandgap of two-dimensional (2D) materials. A one-to-one correspondence with an ideal linear working curve is established between the bandgap of MoS2 and the sphere diameter in a continuous range as large as 360 meV. Fully uniform bandgap tuning of all the as-grown MoS2 crystals is realized due to the isotropic characteristic of the sphere. More intriguingly, both a decrease and an increase of the bandgap can be achieved by constructing a positive or negative curvature. By fusing individual spheres in the melted state, post-synthesis bandgap adjustment of the supported 2D materials can be realized. This SDE technique, showing good precision, uniformity and reproducibility with high efficiency, may further accelerate the potential applications of 2D materials.

12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073234

RESUMO

Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an autosomal recessive thrombosis disorder, caused by loss-of-function mutations in ADAMTS13. Mutations in the CUB domains of ADAMTS13 are rare, and the exact mechanisms through which these mutations result in the development of TTP have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified two novel mutations in the CUB domains in a TTP family with an acceptor splice-site mutation (c.3569-1, G>A, intron 25) and a point missense mutation (c.3923, G>A, exon 28), resulting in a glycine to aspartic acid substitution (p.G1308D). In vitro splicing analysis revealed that the intronic mutation resulted in abnormal pre-mRNA splicing, and an in vitro expression assay revealed that the missense mutation significantly impaired ADAMTS13 secretion. Although both the patient and her brother displayed significantly reduced ADAMTS13 activity and increased levels of ultra-large VWF (ULVWF) multimers in plasma, only the female developed acute episodes of TTP. Our findings indicate the importance of the CUB domains for the protein stability and extracellular secretion of ADAMTS13.

13.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(3): 632-639, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069008

RESUMO

Post-translational modifications play vital roles in fine-tuning a myriad of physiological processes, and one of the most important modifications is acetylation. Here, we report a ligand-directed site-selective acetylation using KHAc, a derivative of a phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) inhibitor. KHAc binds to PGAM1 and transfers its acetyl group to the ε-NH2 of Lys100 to inactivate the enzyme. The acetyl transfer process was visualized by time-resolved crystallography, demonstrating that the transfer is driven by proximity effects. KHAc was capable of selectively and effectively acetylating Lys100 of PGAM1 in cultured human cells, accompanied by inhibited F-actin formation. Similar strategies could be used for exogenous control of other lysine post-translational modifications.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081467

RESUMO

Recently, the (GGC)n repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene has been identified to be associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). Given the clinical overlap of dementia-dominant NIID with neurodegenerative dementia, we therefore hypothesized that the NOTCH2NLC repeat expansion might also contribute to these diseases. In the present study, repeat primed polymerase chain reaction (RP-PCR) and GC-rich PCR were conducted to detect the repeats of NOTCH2NLC in a cohort of 1004 patients with neurodegenerative dementias from mainland China. As a result, 4 sporadic patients were found to carry the NOTCH2NLC repeats expansion, totally accounting for 0.4% of all dementia individuals, and the accurate repeated sizes were 110, 133,120 and 76 respectively. Of 4 mutation carriers, three and one were clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) respectively. In addition, 3 out of them revealed leukoencephalopathy in T2-Flair imaging. This study revealed that although rare, the NOTCH2NLC repeat expansions may be associated with AD or FTD-like phenotype as well as leukoencephalopathy.

15.
Theranostics ; 10(2): 553-566, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903137

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders. Although mitochondrial dynamics, including changes in mitochondrial fission and fusion, have been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. Here, we show that NFATc3, miR-153-3p, and mitofusion-1 (Mfn1) constitute a signaling axis that mediates mitochondrial fragmentation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods: Isoprenaline (ISO) was used to stimulate the hypertrophic response and mitochondrial fragmentation in cultured cardiomyocytes and in vivo. We performed immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR to validate the function of Mfn1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Bioinformatic analyses, a luciferase reporter assay, and gain- and loss-of-function studies were used to demonstrate the biological function of miR-153-3p, which regulates mitochondrial fragmentation and hypertrophy by targeting Mfn1. Moreover, ChIP-qPCR and a luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify transcription factor NFATc3 as an upstream regulator to control the expression of miR-153-3p. Results: Our results show that ISO promoted mitochondrial fission and enhanced the expression of miR-153-3p in cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of miR-153-3p attenuated ISO-induced mitochondrial fission and hypertrophy in cultured primary cardiomyocytes. miR-153-3p suppression inhibited mitochondrial fragmentation in ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model. We identified direct targeting of Mfn1, a key protein of the mitochondrial fusion process, by miR-153-3p. Also, miR-153-3p promoted ISO-induced mitochondrial fission by suppressing the translation of Mfn1. We further found that NFATc3 activated miR-153-3p expression. Knockdown of NFATc3 inhibited miR-153-3p expression and blocked mitochondrial fission and hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: Our data revealed a novel signaling pathway, involving NFATc3, miR-153-3p, and Mfn1, which could be a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

16.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 1, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934549

RESUMO

Background: Economic development and social environment changes influence disease patterns ranging from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases, and diabetes is one of the seven causes leading to death and disability in Vietnam. Objectives: The purpose of this research is to present an overview of the challenges related to diabetes prevention in Vietnam and to find effective ways for the prevention and control of diabetes, as well as to improve the quality of life among diabetes patients. Methods: The literature review was conducted using a variety of databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Vietnamese data sources, and papers published in the Vietnamese language. For the searches, we used keywords such as "Diabetes," "Prevention," and "Prevalence of Diabetes." Findings and Conclusions: With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, there are approximately 5.76 million people with diabetes currently living in Vietnam. The age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes in the population of Vietnam was approximately 6% in 2017. This review suggests that the government needs to establish social security and policy programs aimed at reducing social risk factors and the burden of healthcare costs for diabetes treatment in older people. In addition, attention should be paid to the management and control of diabetes-related diseases, with an emphasis on new techniques for early diagnosis and treatment. Simultaneously, the health system should ensure that diabetes patients living in rural areas and belonging to ethnic minorities can access better healthcare services to improve their health and decrease their risk for chronic disease and death.

17.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 61(2): 416-426, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725150

RESUMO

Eggplant is rich in anthocyanins. R2R3-MYB transcription factors play a key role in the anthocyanin pathway. Low temperature is vital abiotic stress that affects the anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) act as central regulators in cold response. In this study, we found that SmCBF1, SmCBF2 and SmCBF3, via their C-terminal, physically interacted with SmMYB113, a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant. SmCBF2 and SmCBF3 upregulated the expression of SmCHS and SmDFR via a SmMYB113-dependent pathway. In addition, the transient expression assays demonstrated that co-infiltrating SmCBFs and SmMYB113 significantly improved the contents of anthocyanin and the expression levels of anthocyanin structural genes in tobacco. When SmTT8, a bHLH partner of SmMYB113, coexpressed with SmCBFs and SmMYB113, the anthocyanin contents were significantly enhanced compared with SmCBFs and SmMYB113. Furthermore, overexpression of SmCBF2 and SmCBF3 could facilitate the anthocyanin accumulation under cold conditions in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results shed light on the functions of SmCBFs and potential mechanisms of low-temperature-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(2): 1319-1331, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769590

RESUMO

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) shows pro-inflammatory activity in various inflammatory diseases and has been found up-regulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung macrophages play an important role in airway inflammation and lung destruction in COPD, yet whether HMGB1 is involved in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung macrophage dysfunction is unknown. We sought to evaluate the intracellular localization and release of HMGB1 in lung macrophages from COPD patients and CS-exposed mice, and to investigate the role of HMGB1 in regulating autophagy in CS extract (CSE)-treated lung macrophages (MH-S cells). Our results showed that HMGB1 was highly expressed in lung tissues and sera of COPD patients and CS-exposed mice, along with predominantly cytoplasmic exporting from nuclei in lung macrophages. In vitro experiments revealed that CSE promoted the expression, nucleocytoplasmic translocation and release of HMGB1 partly via the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Blockade of HMGB1 with chicken anti-HMGB1 polyclonal antibody (anti-HMGB1) or glycyrrhizin (Gly) attenuated the increase of LC3B-II and Beclin1, migration and p65 phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of HMGB1 in autophagy, migration and NF-κB activation of lung macrophages. Hydroxychloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, enhanced the increase of LC3B-II but not Beclin1 in CSE or rHMGB1-treated MH-S cells, and inhibition of autophagy by CQ and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) abrogated the migration and p65 phosphorylation of CSE-treated cells. These results indicate that CS-induced HMGB1 translocation and release contribute to migration and NF-κB activation through inducing autophagy in lung macrophages, providing novel evidence for HMGB1 as a potential target of intervention in COPD.

19.
J Neural Eng ; 17(1): 016048, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and implement a novel approach which combines the technique of scout EEG source imaging (ESI) with convolutional neural network (CNN) for the classification of motor imagery (MI) tasks. APPROACH: The technique of ESI uses a boundary element method (BEM) and weighted minimum norm estimation (WMNE) to solve the EEG forward and inverse problems, respectively. Ten scouts are then created within the motor cortex to select the region of interest (ROI). We extract features from the time series of scouts using a Morlet wavelet approach. Lastly, CNN is employed for classifying MI tasks. MAIN RESULTS: The overall mean accuracy on the Physionet database reaches 94.5% and the individual accuracy of each task reaches 95.3%, 93.3%, 93.6%, 96% for the left fist, right fist, both fists and both feet, correspondingly, validated using ten-fold cross validation. We report an increase of up to 14.4% for overall classification compared with the competitive results from the state-of-the-art MI classification methods. Then, we add four new subjects to verify the validity of the method and the overall mean accuracy is 92.5%. Furthermore, the global classifier was adapted to single subjects improving the overall mean accuracy to 94.54%. SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of scout ESI and CNN enhances BCI performance of decoding EEG four-class MI tasks.

20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(2): 354-363, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254436

RESUMO

Trichomes are storage compartments for specialized metabolites in many plant species. In trichome, plant primary metabolism is significantly changed, providing substrates for downstream secondary metabolism. However, little is known of how plants coordinate trichome formation and primary metabolism regulation. In this report, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) trichome regulator SlMIXTA-like is indicated as a metabolic regulation gene by mGWAS analysis. Overexpression of SlMIXTA-like in tomato fruit enhances trichome formation. In addition, SlMIXTA-like can directly bind to the promoter region of gene encoding 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase (SlDAHPS) to activate its expression. Induction of SlDAHPS expression enhances shikimate pathway activities and provides substrates for downstream secondary metabolism. Our data provide direct evidence that trichome regulator can directly manipulate primary metabolism, in which way plants can coordinate metabolic regulation and the formation of storage compartments for specialized metabolites. The newly identified SlMIXTA-like can be used for future metabolic engineering.

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