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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2374: 27-36, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562240

RESUMO

Cholesterol modification (or cholesterylation) is a rare but important posttranslational lipid modification of proteins. So far, two proteins, namely Hedgehog and Smoothened, have been characterized to undergo cholesterylation. It is unknown whether other proteins are similarly modified. Here we present a protocol of a chemical biology method to analyze the Smoothened protein cholesterylation using an azido-conjugated cholesterol analog combined with click chemistry. This method can be applied to analyze Hedgehog cholesterylation, and be extended to identify novel cholesterylated proteins with minor changes.

2.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828928

RESUMO

In order to improve the quality of the gluten free rice bread (GFRB), pre-gelatinised rice flour (PGRF) was made and used to partially replace natural rice flour in the production of GFRB. The pre-gelatinisation parameters were optimised and the effects of PGRF on the quality of the GFRB and its batter were studied. The results showed that optimal PGRF was obtained when 50% total water was mixed with 1.0% rice flour and the mixture heated at 80 °C for 2 min. Supplementation with PGRF significantly improved the properties of GFRB by affecting its baking properties, textural properties, colour, and crumb grain features. Effects of PGRF on GFRB were mainly caused by the more closely packed gel structure of rice starch in the bread batter, the higher onset temperature during gelatinisation and the complex effect of PGRF on water-binding capacity in bread batter during the baking process. As the pre-gelatinisation parameters of flours and their effect on gluten-free baked products varied with grain variety, processing properties should be studied before using them, and emphasis should be placed on new techniques such as flour pre-gelatinisation to obtain gluten-free foods with improved quality.

3.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 176, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative identification of rectal cancer lymph node status is crucial for patient prognosis and treatment decisions. Rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer, but its ability to predict lymph node metastasis (LNM) is insufficient. This study explored the value of histogram features of primary lesions on multi-parametric MRI for predicting LNM of stage T3 rectal carcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 175 patients with stage T3 rectal cancer who underwent preoperative MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before surgery. 62 patients were included in the LNM group, and 113 patients were included in the non-LNM group. Texture features were calculated from histograms derived from T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), DWI, ADC, and T2 maps. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to screen independent predictors of LNM from clinical features, imaging features, and histogram features. Predictive performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Finally, a nomogram was established for predicting the risk of LNM. RESULTS: The clinical, imaging and histogram features were analyzed by stepwise logistic regression. Preoperative carbohydrate antigen 199 level (p = 0.009), MRN stage (p < 0.001), T2WIKurtosis (p = 0.010), DWIMode (p = 0.038), DWICV (p = 0.038), and T2-mapP5 (p = 0.007) were independent predictors of LNM. These factors were combined to form the best predictive model. The model reached an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.860, with a sensitivity of 72.8% and a specificity of 85.5%. CONCLUSION: The histogram features on multi-parametric MRI of the primary tumor in rectal cancer were related to LN status, which is helpful for improving the ability to predict LNM of stage T3 rectal cancer.

4.
Phytomedicine ; 94: 153841, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 7-Hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) as a coumarin compound is widely found in Chinese herbs and exhibits diverse biological activities. Promoting cell apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) is a meaningful strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Though the protective effect of 7-HC on RA experimental models has been reported, the specific mechanisms, especially the possible relationships of this effect to regulating FLS proliferation and apoptosis, still need clarification. PURPOSE: This study clarified the therapeutic effects of 7-HC on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In vivo, 7-HC (15, 30 or 60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally given to CIA rats, and its therapeutic effect and anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated. Ki67 immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay and synovial proteins detection were conducted. In vitro, after treating with 7-HC (20, 40 or 80 µM) in TNF-α-stimulated RA FLS (MH7A cell line), cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined. The involvement of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway was checked in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: 7-HC attenuated the severity of rat CIA, evidenced by the reduction of paw swelling, arthritis index, joint damage, collagen type II antibody serum level, and IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α production in serum and synovium. Particularly, 7-HC in vivo had anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on CIA rat synovial cells, indicated by reduced synovial Ki67 expression, raised synovial apoptosis index, decreased Bcl-2 protein level and increased level of Bax and cleaved caspase 3 protein. Further, 7-HC in vitro suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis of TNF-α-stimulated MH7A cells by regulating the mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, 7-HC treatment inhibited Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, suggested by the reduction of pathway-related proteins (e.g. Wnt1, LRP6, p-GSK-3ß (Ser9), ß-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-Myc), the recovery of GSK-3ß activity and the inhibition of ß-catenin nuclear translocation. As expected, combined use of lithium chloride, an activator of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, reversed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 7-HC in vitro. CONCLUSION: 7-HC relieved the severity of rat CIA by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis of rheumatoid FLS via inhibition of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.

5.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(13): 29, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817576

RESUMO

Purpose: Detecting and managing relapses of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) is necessary for improving follow-up planning to minimize recurrences and further complications. However, reliable clinical and laboratory risk factors are lacking, as is a predictive model for use in clinical practice that is capable of identifying patients at high risk for recurrence after remission. Methods: We analyzed 38 laboratory parameters and clinical data from a large longitudinal retrospective cohort of 233 patients with AAU. Association of laboratory parameters with recurrence-free survival (RFS) was evaluated using univariate Cox proportional hazards regression. A clinically applicable predictive model was developed using a logistic regression model. Results: Of the 38 laboratory parameters studied, we identified 5 parameters (HDL, ankylosing spondylitis, HLA-B27, MO, and LDL) to be associated with RFS. We developed a clinical five-risk factor panel (5RF-panel), which was capable of effectively distinguishing recurrent patients from nonrelapsed patients (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.837), as well as between patients with high and low risks of AAU recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 45.874, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.232-402.2, P < 0.001). The robust performance of the 5RF-panel was further validated in the testing cohort (AUC = 0.725, and HR = 51.982, 95% CI = 4.438-608.9, P = 0.024). Furthermore, the 5RF-panel demonstrated superior performance in stratifying recurrence risk based on known risk factors. Conclusions: We identified and validated a novel clinical 5RF-panel to predict individualized risk of AAU recurrence and improved patient classification for clinical management. Translational Relevance: The present study identified and validated a 5RF-panel that is a promising individualized predictive tool to monitor recurrence risk and guide personalized management of patients with AAU.

6.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788780

RESUMO

The excited state dynamics of small-sized metal nanoclusters are dependent on their crystal structures, while the effect of the charge state remains largely unknown. Here, we report the influence of single electrons on the excited-state dynamics of non-superatom Au clusters by comparing the transient absorption isotropy and anisotropy dynamics of two rod-shaped Au25 nanoclusters protected by organic ligands. Two decay lifetimes (0.9 ps and 2.3 µs) can be identified in the excited state relaxation of Au252+ rods, which are assigned to the internal conversion from a higher to lower excited state and the relaxation to the ground state, respectively. With the addition of one electron, an additional 660 ps decay is observed in Au25+, which should originate from the presence of a single electron occupied molecular orbital. Transient anisotropy measurements reveal a 500 ps rotational diffusion process in both the nanoclusters, while the initial dipole moment orientation is found to be highly dependent on the charge state. These results are of importance to understanding the effect of the charge state on the optical properties of metal nanoclusters.

7.
Hematol Oncol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606093

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown excellent clinical efficacy in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, severe bleeding after this treatment is a life-threatening complication for most patients. This study evaluated the risk factors associated with bleeding in CAR T treatment and developed a predictive model for this complication. Analysis performed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University and external validation launched in Suzhou Hongci Hematology Hospital (Jiangsu, China). We conducted a real-world study incorporating data from 400 patients with hematologic malignancies treated with CAR T between 1 November 2015 and 1 September 2019. Also, 39 patients from another hospital were selected for external validation. Patients with severe bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 13.04, 95% confidence interval 5.82-29.18; p < 0.001) had a higher risk of death after CAR T. Stage III and IV cytokine release syndrome (CRS) (odds ratio [OR] 6.07, 95% CI 2.35-16.76; p < 0.001) and higher tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.53-11.35; p < 0.001) were independent factors of bleeding in patients after CAR-T treatment. The predictive model developed by Lasso regression, which selected factors such as CRS period, transfusion volume, platelet percentage, platelet count, thrombinogen time, interleukin 6, and TNF-α levels, and showed Nomogram, yielded excellent agreement (C-statistics = 0.905) with the calibration curve, which improved clinical benefit with respect to established bleeding scores such as outpatient bleeding risk index (MOBRI). External validation was performed using 39 patients from another hospital with an AUC of 0.700. Patients with severe bleeding after Car-T therapy had increased the risk of death. A cross-validated bleeding risk score based on CRS stages and TNF-α level show significant prognostic value in patients undergoing CAR-T treatment.

8.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 2): 132541, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648782

RESUMO

The spatiotemporal presence of overall disinfection by-products (DBPs) in two full-scale drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) were investigated using quantification of total organic halogen (TOX). The relationships of TOX with water quality parameters (especially the most regulated DBPs, trihalomethanes (THMs)) were also evaluated. The TOX levels ranged between 2.6 and 70.3 µg Cl/L and between 46.6 and 205.9 µg Cl/L in raw water and distribution water, respectively. The TOX concentration in water increased by an average of nine times after water treatment and varied slightly during distribution, suggesting that TOX in drinking water was mainly formed during chlorination disinfection rather than distribution. No clear seasonality in TOX level was observed. Positive correlations were found between raw water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with an increase in TOX in treated water and between DOC level with TOX content in distributed water, emphasizing a key role of organics in TOX formation. Chloroform (TCM) was the dominant THM, followed by bromodichloromethane (BDCM) in the drinking water, and the levels of the other two measured THMs (dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were negligible. THM2 (sum of TCM and BDCM) made up average of 18% of the TOX, and was weakly correlated with TOX content (rs = 0.321; P < 0.05), implying that THM is not a suitable surrogate measure for TOX in drinking water. This study provides basic data on the occurrence and variation of TOX within conventional DWSSs and highlights the importance of using TOX measurements to obtain more accurate information about DBP occurrence, for exposure assessment and regulatory determination.

9.
J Gene Med ; : e3395, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to verify whether enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) affects intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) development through regulation of microRNA (miR)-129-5p/MAPK1. METHODS: Initially, we collected lumbar nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue samples from patients with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis (n = 14) and IVDD (n = 34). We measured the expression of related genes in clinical IVDD tissues and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NP cell model. After loss- and gain- function assays, NP cell proliferation and senescence were examined. The targeting relationship between miR-129-5p and MAPK1 was explored by dual luciferase reporter gene and RIP assays. The enrichment of EZH2 and H3K27me3 in miR-129-5p promoter was verified by ChIP. Finally, an IVDD rat model was established to test the effects of transduction with lentiviral vector carrying miR-129-5p agomir and/or oe-EZH2 in vivo. RESULTS: miR-129-5p was underexpressed, and EZH2 and MAPK1 levels are overexpressed in lumbar nucleus pulposus from human IVDD patients and in LPS-induced NP cells. miR-129-5p overexpression or silencing of MAPK1 promoted proliferation of NP cells, while inhibiting their senescence. EZH2 inhibited miR-129-5p through H3K27me3 modification in the miR-129-5p promoter. miR-129-5p could targeted the downregulation of MAPK1 expression. EZH2 overexpression increased the release of inflammatory factors and cell senescence factors, which was reversed by miR-129-5p agomir in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, EZH2 inhibits miR-129-5p through H3K27me3 modification, which upregulates MAPK1, thereby promoting the development of IVDD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690091

RESUMO

TP53 gene mutations are common in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Previous studies have reported their detrimental effects on patient survival. However, current treatment strategies mainly based on hypomethylating agent therapy (HMA) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) still leave a lot to be desired. And there is also a lack of studies on large sample with a view to the refinement of specific characteristics and disease progression. So we performed a meta-analysis including 20 studies compromising 5067 patients to assess the prognostic impact and clinical characteristics of TP53 mutations in MDS patients. The overall hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) was 2.14 (95% confidence interval 1.94-2.37, P < .00001) compared with patients with MDS without TP53 mutations. Lower progression-free survival and leukemia-free survival were associated with TP53 mutations. Subgroup analysis revealed that TP53 mutations were significantly associated with high levels of blast cells and karyotypic aberrations. And among Asian population, the adverse impact on OS of TP53 mutations seemed worse than those in Western countries. (HR 2.87 vs. 2.02, P = .01). In addition, TP53 mutations had no effect on response to HMA therapy, and HSCT improved OS in patients carrying TP53 mutations.

11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 197, 2021 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a significant DNA epigenetic modification. However, the 5hmC modification alterations in genomic regions encoding long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and their clinical significance remain poorly characterized. RESULTS: A three-phase discovery-modeling-validation study was conducted to explore the potential of the plasma-derived 5hmC modification level in genomic regions encoding lncRNAs as a superior alternative biomarker for cancer diagnosis and surveillance. Genome-wide 5hmC profiles in the plasma circulating cell-free DNA of 1632 cancer and 1379 non-cancerous control samples from different cancer types and multiple centers were repurposed and characterized. A large number of altered 5hmC modifications were distributed at genomic regions encoding lncRNAs in cancerous compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, most 5hmC-modified lncRNA genes were cancer-specific, with only a relatively small number of 5hmC-modified lncRNA genes shared by various cancer types. A 5hmC-LncRNA diagnostic score (5hLD-score) comprising 39 tissue-shared 5hmC-modified lncRNA gene markers was developed using elastic net regularization. The 5hLD-score was able to accurately distinguish tumors from healthy controls with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.963 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.940-0.985] and 0.912 (95% CI 0.837-0.987) in the training and internal validation cohorts, respectively. Results from three independent validations confirmed the robustness and stability of the 5hLD-score with an AUC of 0.851 (95% CI 0.786-0.916) in Zhang's non-small cell lung cancer cohort, AUC of 0.887 (95% CI 0.852-0.922) in Tian's esophageal cancer cohort, and AUC of 0.768 (95% CI 0.746-0.790) in Cai's hepatocellular carcinoma cohort. In addition, a significant association was identified between the 5hLD-score and the progression from hepatitis to liver cancer. Finally, lncRNA genes modified by tissue-specific 5hmC alteration were again found to be capable of identifying the origin and location of tumors. CONCLUSION: The present study will contribute to the ongoing effort to understand the transcriptional programs of lncRNA genes, as well as facilitate the development of novel invasive genomic tools for early cancer detection and surveillance.

12.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(11): 1337-1346, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643214

RESUMO

Genetic alterations in the cell cycle pathway are common in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We identified four novel HNSCC susceptibility loci (CDKN1C rs452338, CDK4 rs2072052, E2F2 rs3820028 and E2F2 rs2075993) through a two-stage matched case-control study. There was a combined effect among the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as the number of risk genotypes increased, the risk of HNSCC displayed an increasing trend (Ptrend < 0.001). And there were multiplicative interactions between rs452338 and rs2072052, rs2072052 and rs3820028, rs2072052 and rs2075993. Functional bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that E2F2 rs2075993 T>C reduced the stability of E2F2 3'-UTR secondary structure and affected the binding of E2F2 to miR-940, which was up-regulated in HNSCC tumor tissues (P = 2.9e-8) and was correlated with poor overall survival of HNSCC (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02-1.90). In vitro assays, we discovered that the expression of miR-940 was regulated by METTL3, and miR-940 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion, and inhibited the senescence and autophagy of tumor cells. In terms of mechanism, compared with rs2075993 allele T, we found that the protective variant rs2075993 allele C interfered with the translational inhibition of E2F2 by miR-940, resulting in increased expression of E2F2 protein, which further reduced the proliferation, migration, invasion, and increased the senescence of tumor cells.

13.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 79-89, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626998

RESUMO

Transition metal phosphides hold great promise for high performance battery-type electrode materials due to their superb electrical conductivity and high theoretical capacity. Unfortunately, the electrochemical properties of single metal or bimetallic phosphides are unsatisfactory owing to their low energy density and poor cyclic stability, and one feasible approach is to introduce heteroatoms to form trimetallic phosphides. Here, novel Fe-Co-Ni-P nanosheet arrays are in situ synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate via an electrodeposition method followed by a phosphorization treatment. Due to the presence of abundant redox active sites, large specific surface area with mesoporous channels, desirable electrical conductivity, modified electronic structure, and synergistic effect of Fe, Co, and Ni ions, the as-prepared Fe-Co-Ni-P electrode displays significantly enhanced electrochemical performance when compared to bimetallic phosphides Fe-Co-P and Fe-Ni-P. Remarkably, the Fe-Co-Ni-P electrode exhibits a large specific capacity of 593.0 C g-1 at 1 A g-1, exceptional rate performance (80.3% capacity retention at 20 A g-1), and good cycling stability (84.2% capacity retention after 5000cycles). Besides, an asymmetric supercapacitor device with Fe-Co-Ni-P electrode as a positive electrode and a hierarchical porous carbon as a negative electrode shows a high energy density of 57.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 768.5 W kg-1 as well as excellent cyclability with 88.4% of initial capacity after 10,000cycles. This work manifests that the construction of trimetallic phosphides is an effective strategy to solve the shortcomings of single or bimetallic phosphides for high-performance supercapacitors.

14.
Cell Reprogram ; 23(5): 290-303, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648385

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is mainly characterized by rapid decline of renal function. Currently, the strategy of stem cells might be a therapy to treat AKI. The objective of this study was to obtain human urine-derived cells (HUCs) from patients with AKI, followed by establishing induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell line. We isolated urine cells from patients with AKI and found that the cells could survive long term with epithelioid morphology and maintain a normal karyotype. The cell line had expression of renal-specific markers and renal development-related genes. After induction, the urine cells cotransfecting with TET-ON vectors were converted into iPS cells. The HUC-derived iPS (HUC-iPS) was positive for alkaline phosphatase staining, and had expression of pluripotency markers, consistent with human embryonic fibroblast-derived iPS cell. Notably, HUC-iPS could be induced to undergo directional kidney precursor cells (KPCs) differentiation under defined conditions, and transplantation of KPCs resulted in reducing kidney damage from ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Therefore, we successfully established HUC-iPS cell from patients with AKI and provided a novel stem cell resource for cell therapy in AKI.

15.
Hepatology ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become a worldwide epidemic, which is a common clinical condition predisposing to advanced liver diseases. A large and growing unmet therapeutic need for this condition reflects incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. In current study, we identified a transcription factor Zinc Fingers and Homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) in hepatocytes as a protective factor against steatohepatitis. APPROACH & RESULTS: We found that hepatic ZHX2 was significantly suppressed in NASH models and steatotic hepatic cells. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of ZHX2 exacerbated NASH-related phenotypes in mice, including lipid accumulation, enhanced inflammation, and hepatic fibrosis. Conversely, hepatocyte-specific overexpression of ZHX2 significantly alleviated the progression of NASH in an experimental setting. Integrated analysis of transcriptomic profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data demonstrated that the Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue (PTEN) was a target gene of ZHX2 in hepatocyte. ZHX2 bound to the promoter of PTEN gene and subsequently promoted the transcription of PTEN, which mediated the beneficial role of ZHX2 against NASH. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, current findings unfolded a protective role of ZHX2 against NASH progression by transcriptionally activating PTEN. These findings shed light on the therapeutic potential of targeting ZHX2 for treating NASH and related metabolic disorders.

16.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 13980-13992, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490772

RESUMO

Probing the transition from a metallic state to a molecular state in gold nanoparticles is fundamentally important for understanding the origin of surface plasmon resonance and the nature of the metallic bond. Atomically precise gold nanoclusters are desired for probing such a transition based upon a series of precise sizes with X-ray structures. While the definition of the metallic state in nanoclusters is simple, that is, when the HOMO-LUMO gap (Eg) becomes negligibly small (Eg < kBT, where kB is the Boltzmann constant and T the temperature), the experimental determination of ultrasmall Eg (e.g., of kBT level) is difficult, and the thermal excitation of valence electrons apparently comes into play in ultrasmall Eg nanoclusters. Although a sharp transition from nonmetallic Au246(SR)80 to metallic Au279(SR)84 (SR: thiolate) has been observed, there is still uncertainty about the transition region. Here, we summarize several criteria on determining the metallic state versus the molecular (or nonmetallic) state in gold nanoclusters, including (1) Eg determined by optical and electrochemical methods, (2) steady-state absorption spectra, (3) cryogenic optical spectra, (4) transient absorption spectra, (5) excited-state lifetime and power dependence, and (6) coherent oscillations in ultrafast electron dynamics. We emphasize that multiple analyses should be performed and cross-checked in practice because no single criterion is definitive. We also review the photophysics of several gold nanoclusters with nascent surface plasmon resonance. These criteria are expected to deepen the understanding of the metallic to molecular state transition of gold and other metal nanoclusters and also promote the design of functional nanomaterials and their applications.

17.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482518

RESUMO

Engineered nanocarriers have been widely developed for tumor theranostics. However, the delivery of imaging probes or therapeutic drugs to the tumor pre-formation site for early and accurate detection and therapy remains a major challenge. Here, by using tailor-functionalized human H-ferritin (HFn), we developed a triple-modality nanoprobe IRdye800-M-HFn and achieved the early imaging of tumor cells before the formation of solid tumor tissues. Then, we developed an HFn-doxorubicin (Dox) drug delivery system by loading Dox into the HFn protein cage and achieved early-stage tumor therapy. The intravenous injection of HFn nanoprobes enabled the imaging of tumor cells as early as two days after tumor implantation, and the triple-modality imaging techniques, namely, near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging (NIR-FMI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), ensured the accuracy of detection. Further exploration indicated that HFn could specifically penetrate into pre-solid tumor sites by tumor-associated inflammation-mediated blood vessel leakage, followed by effective accumulation in tumor cells by the specific targeting property of HFn to transferrin receptor 1. Thus, the HFn-Dox drug delivery system delivered Dox into the tumor pre-formation site and effectively killed tumor cells at early stage. IRDye800-M-HFn nanoprobes and HFn-Dox provide promising strategies for early-stage tumor diagnosis and constructive implications for early-stage tumor treatment.

18.
MycoKeys ; 82: 173-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475802

RESUMO

Brown-rot fungi are types of fungi that selectively degrade cellulose and hemicellulose from wood and are perhaps the most important agents involved in the degradation of wood products and dead wood in forest ecosystem. Two new brown-rot species, collected from southern China, are nested within the clades of Fomitopsis sensu stricto and Oligoporus sensu stricto, respectively. Their positions are strongly supported in the Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree of the concatenated the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nuSSU), the small subunit of mitochondrial rRNA gene (mtSSU), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1) sequences. Fomitopsisbambusae, only found on bamboo, is characterised by its resupinate to effused-reflexed or pileate basidiocarps, small pores (6-9 per mm), the absence of cystidia, short cylindrical to oblong-ellipsoid basidiospores measuring 4.2-6.1 × 2-2.3 µm. Oligoporuspodocarpi is characterised by white to pale cream pore surface, round or sometimes angular pores (5-6 per mm), broadly ellipsoid to reniform basidiospores measuring 3.8-4.2 × 2-2.3 µm and growing on Podocarpus. Illustrated descriptions of these two novel species, Fomitopsisbambusae and Oligoporuspodocarpi, are provided.

19.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 374-387, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552819

RESUMO

Endothelial cell senescence is one of the most important causes of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous RNA molecules with covalently closed-loop structures, which have been reported to be abnormally expressed in many human diseases. However, the potential role of circRNAs in endothelial cell senescence and atherosclerosis remains largely unknown. Here, we compared the expression patterns of circRNAs in young and senescent human endothelial cells with RNA sequencing. Among the differentially expressed circRNAs, circGNAQ, a circRNA enriched in vascular endothelium, was significantly downregulated in senescent endothelial cells. circGNAQ silencing triggered endothelial cell senescence, as determined by a rise in senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity, reduced cell proliferation, and suppressed angiogenesis; circGNAQ overexpression showed the opposite effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that circGNAQ acted as an endogenous miR-146a-5p sponge to increase the expression of its target gene PLK2 by decoying the miR-146a-5p, thereby delaying endothelial cell senescence. In vivo studies showed that circGNAQ overexpression in the endothelium inhibited endothelial cell senescence and atherosclerosis progression. These results suggest that circGNAQ plays critical roles in endothelial cell senescence and consequently the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, implying that the management of circGNAQ provides a potential therapeutic approach for limiting the progression of atherosclerosis.

20.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562173

RESUMO

Glutaminase 1 (GLS) is a therapeutic target for breast cancer; although GLS inhibitors have been developed, only a few subjects responded well to the therapy. Considering that the expression of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and menopausal status was closely linked to GLS, we examined the effects of H3K27me3 and menopausal status on GLS to breast cancer prognosis. Data for 962 women diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer were analyzed. H3K27me3 and GLS expression in tumors were evaluated with tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival and progression-free survival were estimated using Cox regression models. Statistical interaction was assessed on multiplicative scale. There was a beneficial prognostic effect of GLS expression on overall survival for those with low H3K27me3 level (HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.20-1.28) but an adverse prognostic effect for those with high H3K27me3 level (HR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.29-11.78) among premenopausal women, and the statistical interaction was significant (Pinteraction = 0.003). Similar pattern was further observed for progression-free survival (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.20-0.95 for low H3K27me3 level, HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.74-2.48 for high H3K27me3 level, Pinteraction = 0.024). The statistical interaction did not occur among postmenopausal women. Our study showed that the prognostic effects of GLS on breast cancer correlated to the expression level of H3K27me3 and menopausal status, which would help optimize the medication strategies of GLS inhibitors.

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