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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105336, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704640

RESUMO

Electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) have become newly popular transportation tools with the associated growing traffic safety concerns. E2W riders and bicyclists behave similarly as vulnerable road users (VRUs), while exhibited dissimilarities in riding postures and interactions with the two-wheelers. Existing epidemiology reveals prominent differences in injury risks between E2W riders and other vulnerable road users in collisions with motor vehicles. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler rides in two-wheeler-vehicle collisions and compare between E2W-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle collisions. Via multi-body modeling of two two-wheeler types, two vehicle types, and three rider statures in MADYMO, twelve collision scenarios were developed. A simulation matrix considering a range of impact velocities and relative positions was performed for each scenario. A subsequent parametric analysis was conducted with focus on the kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler riders. Results show that the head injury risk increased with vehicle moving velocity, while the two-wheeler velocity and relative location between rider and vehicle prior to the collision exhibited highly non-linear influence on the kinematical response. The rider with larger stature had higher possibilities to miss head impact on the vehicle. In collisions with the sedan, E2W riders would sustain lower head injury risks with lower contacting velocity on the windshield than bicyclists. While in collisions with the SUV, E2W riders would sustain increasing head injury risks due to the higher structural stiffness at contact, and the risk level was about the same as bicyclists. The findings revealed the loading mechanisms behind the different head injury risks between E2W riders and bicyclists.

2.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125142, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669987

RESUMO

Rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in various fields, and their accumulation has been reported to pose environmental risks. Most studies confirmed the damage of excessive REE exposure to individual plants; however, little attention has been given to their effects on plant populations. A positive interaction indicates a mutually beneficial relationship between two populations, which is beneficial to the survival and growth of the populations. However, it remains unknown whether exogenous REEs affect the positive interactions between populations. This study investigated the effects of exogenous lanthanum(III) [La(III)] exposure on the positive interaction between soybean (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) populations by their modules. At normal nutrient level (½-strength Hoagland), the inhibition of excessive La(III) on population modules decreased with increasing population density. Decreases of 39.26 to 1.05% for soybean and 41.45 to 2.41% for wheat indicated the inhibition of La(III) on the positive interaction of both populations weakened with increasing population density. At low nutrient level (»-strength Hoagland), the inhibition of excessive La(III) on population modules increased with increasing population density. Decreases of 5.82-57.14% for soybean and 4.22-59.04% for wheat indicated the inhibition of La(III) on the positive interaction of both population was strengthened with increasing population density. In summary, the inhibitory effects of exogenous La(III) exposure on the positive interaction between populations vary with both nutrient level and population density. This is a new factor that needs to be considered when evaluating the safety risks of REEs in the environment.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121488, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699483

RESUMO

The widespread use of bisphenol A (BPA) has led to its ubiquity in the natural environment. Thus, BPA is considered as a contaminant of emerging concern. Due to its widespread use, BPA has been detected in a range of soils and surface waters. This is of concern because BPA has been shown to elicit slight to moderate toxicity to plants. Based on current research and our own work, this paper reviews the toxic effects of BPA on plant growth and development, including effects at the macroscopic (e.g. seed germination, root, stem, and leaf growth) and microscopic (photosynthesis, uptake of mineral nutrient, hormone secretion, antioxidant systems, and reproductive genetic behavior) levels. Furthermore, this paper will discuss effects of BPA exposure on metabolic reactions in exposed plant species, and explore the use of high-efficiency plants in BPA pollution control (e.g. phytoremediation). Finally, this paper proposes some ideas for the future of BPA phytotoxicity research.

4.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676720

RESUMO

The basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF5 is over-expressed in many tumor types and interference with its expression or function inhibits cancer cell survival. As a potential therapeutic approach to exploit these findings, we created dominant-negative (DN) ATF5 forms lacking DNA-binding ability that retain the ATF5 leucine zipper, and thus associate with and sequester ATF5's requisite leucine-zipper binding partners. Preclinical studies with DN-ATF5, including a cell-penetrating form, show in vitro and in vivo efficacy in compromising cancer cell survival. However, DN-ATF5's targets, and particularly those required for tumor cell survival have been unknown. We report that cells lacking ATF5 succumb to DN-ATF5, indicating that ATF5 itself is not DN-ATF5's obligate target. Unbiased pulldown assays coupled with mass spectrometry and immunoblotting revealed that DN-ATF5 associates in cells with the basic leucine zipper proteins CEBPB and CEBPD and coiled-coil protein CCDC6. Consistent DN-ATF5 affecting tumor cell survival by suppressing CEBPB and CEBPD function, DN-ATF5 interferes with CEBPB and CEBPD transcriptional activity, while CEBPB or CEBPD knockdown promotes apoptotic death of multiple cancer cells lines, but not of normal astrocytes. We propose a two-pronged mechanism by which DN-ATF5 kills tumor cells. One is by inhibiting heterodimer formation between ATF5 and CEBPB and CDBPD, thus suppressing ATF5-dependent transcription. The other is by blocking formation of transcriptionally active CEBPB and CEBPD homodimers as well as heterodimers with partners in addition to ATF5. Implications: This study indicates that the potential cancer therapeutic DN-ATF5 acts by associating with and blocking the transcriptional activities of CEBPB and CEBPD.

5.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742384

RESUMO

Due to exceptional electron-accepting ability, light-absorption and delocalized conjugated structure, buckminsterfullerene (C60) has attracted fascinating interests in the field of organic solar cells. However, poor delocalization and accumulation of electrons for pristine C60 in physiological aqueous solution and difficulties in conjugation with biomolecules limit its extended photovoltaic ap-plications in bioassay. Herein, we reported the non-covalent coupling of C60 to an electronically complementary porphyrin-derived metal-organic framework (PCN-224) with carboxyl-group terminals. Such assembly not only offered a friendly interface for biocon-jugation but also resulted in a long-range ordering C60@PCN-224 donor-acceptor system that demonstrated an unprecedented pho-tocurrent enhancement up to 10 times with respect to each component. As an example, by further cooperating with Nanobodies, the as-prepared C60@PCN-224 was applied to a photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor for S100 calcium-binding protein B with by far the most promising detection activities. This work may open a new venue to unlock the great potential of C60 in PEC bio-sensing with excellent performances.

6.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761722

RESUMO

Increased understanding of the functions of lactate has suggested a close relationship between lactate homeostasis and normal brain activity because of its importance as an energy source and signaling molecule. Here we show that lactate levels affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Cerebrovascular-specific deletion of PTEN causes learning and memory deficits and disrupts adult neurogenesis with accompanying lactate accumulation. Consistently, administering lactate to wild-type animals impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The endothelial PTEN/Akt pathway increases monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1) expression to enhance lactate transport across the brain endothelium. Moreover, cerebrovascular overexpression of MCT1 or deletion of Akt1 restores MCT1 expression, decreases lactate levels, and normalizes hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function in PTEN mutant mice. Together, these findings delineate how the brain endothelium maintains lactate homeostasis and contributes to adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(21): 9616-9625, 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682231

RESUMO

The cell surface adhesion receptor CD44 reportedly affects the development and progression of cancers. Moreover, CD44 gene rs187115 polymorphism appears to be genetic determinant of cancer susceptibility. We investigated whether CD44 rs187115 polymorphism is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and prognosis. We enrolled 669 CRC cases and 826 controls in this three-center case-control study in a Chinese Han population. All individuals were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Cross-over analysis, multivariate logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression analysis were used for analysis. In this study, CD44 rs187115 polymorphism was associated with increased risk for CRC. Stratified analyses revealed that CD44 rs187115 polymorphism was correlated with increased risk for CRC in females, drinkers, smokers, and those aged ≥ 60 years. In addition, rs187115 polymorphism was significantly associated with TNM III+IV stage, lymph node metastasis and tumor size in CRC patients. Combined effects of CD44 rs187115 polymorphism (GG/AG vs. AA) and environmental factors (smoking and drinking) further increased the risk of CRC. GG genotype carriers showed poorer overall survival than AA genotype carriers. Cox regression analysis showed that drinking, CD44 rs187115 polymorphism, and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors affecting CRC. These findings show that CD44 rs187115 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker predictive of CRC susceptibility and prognosis.

8.
Plant Cell ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732704

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis by recycling cytoplasmic components. The autophagy-related proteins (ATGs) ATG1 and ATG13 form a protein kinase complex that regulates autophagosome formation; however, mechanisms regulating ATG1 and ATG13 remain poorly understood. Here, we show that, under different nutrient conditions, the RING-type E3 ligases SINAT1, SINAT2, and SINAT6 control ATG1 and ATG13 stability and autophagy dynamics by modulating ATG13 ubiquitylation in Arabidopsis. During prolonged starvation and recovery, ATG1 and ATG13 were degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 1a (TRAF1a) and TRAF1b interacted in planta with ATG13a and ATG13b and required SINAT1 and SINAT2 to ubiquitylate and degrade ATG13s in vivo Moreover, lysines K607 and K609 of ATG13a protein contributed to K48-linked ubiquitylation and destabilization, and suppression of autophagy. Under starvation conditions, SINAT6 competitively interacted with ATG13 and induced autophagosome biogenesis. Furthermore, under starvation conditions, ATG1 promoted TRAF1a protein stability in vivo, suggesting feedback regulation of autophagy. Consistent with ATGs functioning in autophagy, the atg1a atg1b atg1c triple knockout mutants exhibited premature leaf senescence, hypersensitivity to nutrient starvation, and reduction in TRAF1a stability. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that SINAT family proteins facilitate ATG13 ubiquitylation and stability and thus regulate autophagy.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134958, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726306

RESUMO

Water conflicts between the economy and ecology have been severe in inland river basins. To solve this problem, this study selected the Heihe River Basin (HRB) as a typical basin in Northwest China. The water-oriented economy and the ecological area changes under the economic priority (EP) and eco-environmental sustainability (ES) scenarios were stimulated via computable general equilibrium (CGE) and ecological water demand modeling, respectively. This study improved the general production function of CGE model by using IO tables embedded in water and land resources. To guide the adjustment of water diversion scheme, an elasticity coefficient based on marginal efficiency was constructed to weigh the trade-offs between the economic and ecological water demands. The results showed that the EP scenario induced a GDP decrease of 1.04 yuan per cubic meter of water. The ES scenario caused a change in ecological area of 9.43 m2 per cubic meter of water. Based on the elasticity coefficient, the demand of 1 m2 of ecological area in the downstream area cost 0.11 yuan of the GDP of the entire basin, resulting in a total economic cost of approximately 95.92 million yuan since 2000. This study provides new insights into water reallocation in terms of sustaining both the economy and ecosystem in arid and semi-arid river basins.

11.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 892, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767832

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the selective autoimmune destruction of the islet ß cells, and macrophages play a significant role in this process. Small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) is an important posttranslational modification involved in T1D pathogenesis, but its function in macrophages remains unexplored. We presently developed and used macrophage-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (Ubc9) knockout (LyzM-Cre-Ubc9fl/fl, KO) mice to address the impact of SUMOylation on macrophage function in a T1D model. We observed that blocking Ubc9 in macrophages exacerbated multiple-low dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ)-induced diabetes. Specifically, after STZ treatment, blood glucose levels were consistently elevated in the KO mice. The KO mice exhibited a higher diabetes incidence than WT controls (85% vs. 55%, P < 0.01) along with a higher insulitis severity. The loss of Ubc9 impaired macrophage energy metabolism and attenuated macrophage M2 program, thereby enhancing T cell activation. Pancreas-resident macrophages, rather than migrant macrophages, played a predominant role in MLD-STZ-induced diabetes. Mechanistically, Ubc9-mediated SUMOylation of interferon regulator factor 4 (IRF4) enhanced its nuclear localization and stability, thereby transcribing IL-4 and arginase 1 (Arg1) to promote the macrophage M2 program. Ubc9-mediated SUMOylation modulates T1D risk at least in part by regulating macrophage function. Modulation of disturbed SUMOylation process in macrophages, either through cell adoptive transfer or targeted drug-delivery, could help to establish a tolerant pancreatic microenvironment and promote inflammation resolution in early insulitis stage, thus hindering T1D progression.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774673

RESUMO

A novel simple 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carbohydrazides was reported to discover low-cost and versatile antifungal agents. Bioassay results suggested that a majority of the designed compounds were extremely bioactive against four types of fungi and two kinds of oomycetes. This extreme bioactivity was highlighted by the applausive inhibitory effects of compounds 4b, 4h, 5c, 5g, 5h, 5i, 5m, 5p, 5t, and 5v against Gibberella zeae, affording EC50 values ranging from 0.486 µg/mL to 0.799 µg/mL, which were superior to that of fluopyram (2.96 µg/mL) and comparable to those of carbendazim (0.947 µg/mL) and prochloraz (0.570 µg/mL). Meanwhile, compounds 4g, 5f, 5i, and 5t showed significant actions against Fusarium oxysporum with EC50 values of 0.652, 0.706, 0.813, and 0.925 µg/mL, respectively. Pharmacophore exploration suggested that the N'-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carbohydrazide pattern is necessary for the bioactivity. Molecular docking of 5h with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) indicated that it can completely locate the inside of the binding pocket via hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions, revealing that this novel framework might target SDH. This result was further verified by the significant inhibitory effect on SDH activity. In addition, SEM patterns were performed to elucidate the anti-G. zeae mechanism. Given these features, this type of frameworks is a suitable template for future exploration of alternative SDH inhibitors against plant microbial infections.

13.
Heart Surg Forum ; 22(5): E366-E371, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate single center's clinical experiences of aortic valve surgery for aortitis patients. METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2018, 15 patients with aortitis disease were treated in our center. Among them, there were 7 males and 8 females with an average age of 48.5 ± 13.9 (29-76) years. Six patients were diagnosed as giant cell arteritis, 2 as Takayasu arteritis (Arteritis Group, N = 8) and 7 as Behcet's disease (BD Group, N = 7). Aortic valve surgery includes valvuloplasty, valve replacement, and root replacement (Bentall procedure). RESULTS: There were 15 cases with 19 operations, 8 cases in the Arteritis Group received 8 operations while 7 cases in the BD Group received 11 operations, including 4 redo operations. Preoperative patients' aortic valve regurgitation degree, diameter of ascending aorta and left ventricular ejection fraction were similar between the two groups. The type of aortic valve surgery also was no different. Cardiopulmonary bypass time of the BD Group seemed longer than the Arteritis Group but no different, the same as clamp time. Mechanical ventilation time is longer in the BD Group. The morbidity and mortality were similar, but the BD Group had significantly higher incidence of redo operations because of postoperative paravalvular leak or valve insufficiency (Arteritis Group versus BD Group, 0% versus 57.1%, P = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical diagnosis and management of aortic valve patients with arteritis require comprehensive considerations. For aortitis patients with aortic valve surgery, special surgical techniques can be used to reduce the risk of prosthetic valve detachment.

14.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(5): 1943-1951, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573046

RESUMO

S­allyl­cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) is the main organosulfur component of garlic and its preparations. The present study aimed to examine the protective effect of alliin on cardiac function and the underlying mechanism in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). Notably, alliin treatment preserved heart function, attenuated the area of infarction in the myocardium of mice and reduced lesions in the myocardium, including cardiomyocyte fibrosis and death. Further mechanistic experiments revealed that alliin inhibited necroptosis but promoted autophagy in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability assays showed that alliin dose­dependently reduced the necroptotic index and inhibited the expression of necroptosis­related receptor­interacting protein 1, receptor­interacting protein 3 and tumor necrosis factor receptor­associated factor 2, whereas the levels of Beclin 1 and microtubule­associated protein 1 light chain 3, which are associated with autophagy, exhibited an opposite trend upon treatment with alliin. In addition, the level of peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor γ was increased by alliin. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that alliin has the potential to protect cardiomyocytes from necroptosis following MI and that this protective effect occurs via the enhancement of autophagy.

15.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(43): 6789-6795, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596302

RESUMO

Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) as a p-type semiconductor material has recently attracted extensive attention for its excellent photoelectric properties in applications of thin film solar cells. However, applying Sb2Se3 as a photoelectrochemically (PEC) active material for constructing biosensors has never been reported. In this work, by using Sb2Se3/graphene oxide (Sb2Se3-GO) as both the PEC probe and substrate for biomolecule conjugation, a "signal-off" sandwich-type PEC biosensor was proposed for DNA methyltransferase (Dam MTase) activity detection based on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as quenchers. In the presence of Dam MTase and Dpn I, hairpin probe DNA (hDNA) was cleaved into single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which could be hybridized with Au NP-functionalized DNA (S1) to form a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) complex. The formation of dsDNA shortened the distance between Au NPs and Sb2Se3 on the electrode and induced competitive absorption and exciton energy transfer (EET) between Sb2Se3 and the Au NPs, thus significantly reducing the photocurrent. The constructed PEC biosensor exhibited a superior performance compared to most reports with a wide detection range from 1 mU mL-1 to 100 U mL-1 and a low detection limit of 0.6 mU mL-1 for the detection of Dam MTase. This work opens a new avenue for Sb2Se3 in biosensing applications and provides a new technology for the early warning and early diagnosis of diseases.

16.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125023, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606573

RESUMO

Zwitterionic pharmaceuticals and personal care products can interact with adsorbents in different ways due to their various properties. In this work, the effects of hydrophobicity and electrostatic potential were explored through the adsorption of ciprofloxacin (CPX) and tetracycline (TC) onto multifunctional resins. Nonionic surface interaction was dominant for the adsorption on high-surface-area resin GMA10. Thereinto, hydrophobic and π-π interaction dominant for hydrophobic CPX and hydrophilic TC, respectively. Electrostatic interaction played an important role for high-anion-exchange-capacity resin GMA90. Upon their adsorption onto GMA50 resin, the relatively separated positive and negative electrostatic potentials of CPX+- due to the greater distance (∼12.33 Å) between the anionic and cationic groups led to electrostatic attraction and interaction (Ea = 8.64 ±â€¯0.31 kJ/mol) and the vertical orientation of molecule on the surface. However, TC+-0 displayed nonionic surface interaction (Ea = 7.96 ±â€¯0.14 kJ/mol) due to its relatively neutral electrostatic potential arising from the adjacent functional groups. Hence, the surface of GMA50 was covered with TC+-0 molecules adsorbed parallel to the surface, thereby restricting TC+-0 adsorption. Coexisted with monovalent salts, CPX adsorption was facilitated due to the salting-out effect. By contrast, the salting-out effect for TC was extremely weak, and TC adsorption was restrained due to the competitive adsorption of salts.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3312-3315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602888

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Hosta plantaginea led to isolate of one new flavonoid glycoside,plantanone C( 1) by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,and RP-HPLC column chromatographies. Its structure was extensively determined on basis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antioxidant activity against DPPH radical scavenging activity,with an IC50 value of 240. 2 µmol·L~(-1).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Hosta/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Glicosídeos/análise
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4666, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604930

RESUMO

Deregulation of transcription factors (TFs) is an important driver of tumorigenesis, but non-invasive assays for assessing transcription factor activity are lacking. Here we develop and validate a minimally invasive method for assessing TF activity based on cell-free DNA sequencing and nucleosome footprint analysis. We analyze whole genome sequencing data for >1,000 cell-free DNA samples from cancer patients and healthy controls using a bioinformatics pipeline developed by us that infers accessibility of TF binding sites from cell-free DNA fragmentation patterns. We observe patient-specific as well as tumor-specific patterns, including accurate prediction of tumor subtypes in prostate cancer, with important clinical implications for the management of patients. Furthermore, we show that cell-free DNA TF profiling is capable of detection of early-stage colorectal carcinomas. Our approach for mapping tumor-specific transcription factor binding in vivo based on blood samples makes a key part of the noncoding genome amenable to clinical analysis.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657884

RESUMO

Semiconducting polymeric carbon nitride (CN) has drawn wide attention ranging from photocatalysis to more recent biosensing owing to unique defect-tolerated optoelectronic properties and being metal-free, cheap, and highly stable. However, at the core of electrical-optical interconversion, the preparation of the CN photoelectrode is still challenging. Now, the growth of CN on electrodes is achieved simply by microwave-assisted condensation in seconds. The ultrafast heating not only addressed the thermodynamic contradiction of precursor volatilization during polymerization but also led to strongly adhesive CN layer on electrodes with gradient carbon-rich texture, greatly accelerating the electron-hole separation and mobility. Consequently, the CN photoelectrode exhibited a remarkable photocurrent and a record cathodic efficiency of electrochemiluminescence up to 7 times that of benchmark Ru(bpy)3 Cl2 in aqueous solution.

20.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 226: 117592, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654904

RESUMO

A simple chemosensor, 6-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline (1), was synthesized via simple nucleophilic addition reaction coupled with Schiff base condensation. The probe 1 is aggregation-induced emission-active and could be used as an on-off fluorescence sensor toward Cu2+ in H2O/CH3CN (99.5%, v/v) solution. Furthermore, the resultant Cu2+ complex selectively responded to pyrophosphate (PPi) among various anions based on fluorescent on-off signal. In addition, the probe could be used for detecting Cu2+ and PPi in HeLa cells.

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