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1.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984583

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by aggregation of pathological alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and loss of dopaminergic neuron in the substantia nigra. Inhibition of phosphorylation of the α-syn has been shown to mediate alleviation of PD-related pathology. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an important serine/threonine phosphatase, plays an essential role in catalyzing dephosphorylation of the α-syn. Here, we identified and validated cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), as a potential diagnostic biomarker for PD. Our data showed that plasma CIP2A concentrations in PD patients were significantly lower compared to age- and sex-matched controls, 1.721 (1.435-2.428) ng/ml vs 3.051(2.36-5.475) ng/ml, p < 0.0001. The area under the curve of the plasma CIP2A in distinguishing PD from the age- and sex-matched controls was 0.776. In addition, we evaluated the role of CIP2A in PD-related pathogenesis in PD cellular and MPTP-induced mouse model. The results demonstrated that CIP2A is upregulated in PD cellular and MPTP-induced mouse models. Besides, suppression of the CIP2A expression alleviates rotenone induced aggregation of the α-syn as well as phosphorylation of the α-syn in SH-SY5Y cells, which is associated with increased PP2A activity. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CIP2A plays an essential role in the mechanisms related to PD development and might be a novel PD biomarker.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 719807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691027

RESUMO

According to emerging studies, the excessive activation of microglia and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact mechanisms governing chronic neuroinflammation remain elusive. Findings demonstrate an elevated level of NLRP3 inflammasome in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of PD patients. Activated NLRP3 inflammasome aggravates the pathology and accelerates the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal protein aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn), a pathologically relevant protein of PD, were reported to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome of microglia through interaction with toll-like receptors (TLRs). This eventually releases pro-inflammatory cytokines through the translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and causes an impairment of mitochondria, thus damaging the dopaminergic neurons. Currently, therapeutic drugs for PD are primarily aimed at providing relief from its clinical symptoms, and there are no well-established strategies to halt or reverse this disease. In this review, we aimed to update existing knowledge on the role of the α-syn/TLRs/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome axis and microglial activation in PD. In addition, this review summarizes recent progress on the α-syn/TLRs/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome axis of microglia as a potential target for PD treatment by inhibiting microglial activation.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 657095, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393753

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently unclear. Recent studies have suggested a correlation between vitamin D and PD. Vitamin D and its analogs have protective effects in animal models of PD, but these studies have not clarified the mechanism. Parthanatos is a distinct type of cell death caused by excessive activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), and the activation of PARP1 in PD models suggests that parthanatos may exist in PD pathophysiology. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) is a potential inhibitor of PARP1 in macrophages. This study aimed to investigate whether calcitriol treatment improves PD models and its effects on the parthanatos pathway. A 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cell model and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) subacute animal model were selected as the in vitro and in vivo PD models, and calcitriol was applied in these models. Results showed that parthanatos existed in the MPP+-induced cell model and pretreatment with calcitriol improved cell viability, reduced the excessive activation of PARP1, and relieved parthanatos. The application of calcitriol in the MPTP subacute animal model also improved behavioral tests, restored the damage to dopamine neurons, and reduced the activation of PARP1-related signaling pathways. To verify whether calcitriol interacts with PARP1 through its vitamin D receptor (VDR), siRNA, and overexpression plasmids were used to downregulate or overexpress VDR. Following the downregulation of VDR, the expression and activation of PARP1 increased and PARP1 was inhibited when VDR was overexpressed. Coimmunoprecipitation verified the combination of VDR and PARP1. In short, calcitriol can substantially improve parthanatos in the MPP+-induced cell model and MPTP model, and the protective effect might be partly through the VDR/PARP1 pathway, which provides a new possibility for the treatment of PD.

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