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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 386: 121662, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771885

RESUMO

The catalytic performance of Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (Fe3O4/rGO) nanocomposite makes it attractive for the removal of emerging pollutants from water, but the combination of its efficient adsorption and degradation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances has not been studied. Here we report the optimal granular Fe3O4/rGO with high thermal and acid resistance stability through controlling its self-assembly for the adsorption and degradation of sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzene sulfonate (OBS) from water. The maximum adsorption capacity for OBS was calculated to be 362.4 µmol/g according to Langmuir fitting. Electrostatic, π-π and hydrogen bonding interactions were involved in OBS adsorption, and the quaternary N in Fe3O4/rGO was a key adsorption site. The efficiency of the utilization of free radicals generated in Fenton-like and persulfate (PS) systems increased with the increase of OBS adsorbed onto the Fe3O4/rGO, while the increase of OBS amount adsorbed on Fe3O4/rGO would casue a slow OBS removal in the adsorption-degradation process due to the slow adsorption process. The Fenton-like oxidation was more efficient for OBS removal than PS oxidation. The spent Fe3O4/rGO was able to be reused in the Fenton-like system at least ten times, while the OBS removal in the PS reaction system was reduced to 47.8 % after six reuse cycles.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(20)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615085

RESUMO

Rigid polyurethane foam, foam concrete, and vacuum insulation board are common roofing insulation materials. Their weathering performance under long-term multi-field coupling determines the overall service life of the roof. The weathering properties of rigid polyurethane foam, foam concrete and vacuum insulation panels were studied under freeze thaw, humid-heat, dry-wet, high-low temperature, and multi-field coupling cycles, respectively. The heat transfer and construction process of roof panels was simulated base on upper loading and moisture transfer factors. The result indicates that the mass loss of the foam concrete and the rigid polyurethane foam in the weathering test was significant, which led to the gradual increase of thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, the thermal conductivity and mass loss of vacuum insulation panels did not change due to the lack of penetration under external pressure, therefore, it is necessary to construct composite thermal-insulation materials to alleviate the adverse effects of the service environment on a single material and realize the complementary advantages and disadvantages of the two materials. The results of the numerical simulations indicated that the roof structure must be waterproofed, and its weatherproof performance index should be the same as that of the thermal insulation material. Considering structural deformation, the overall heat transfer performance of the product was increased by around 5%.

3.
Water Environ Res ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650659

RESUMO

A p-type TiO2 with Ti vacancies (D-TiO2 ) was synthesized by a facile solvothermal treatment, and Ag/TiO2 with different Ag loading amount was prepared through a photo-reduction deposition method. The samples were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption and photocatalytic characteristics of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on D-TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 were investigated. The adsorption of TBBPA on Ag/TiO2 was significantly enhanced and was five times greater than that of pure TiO2 . The increase in pH significantly inhibited the adsorption of TBBPA. The 2%-Ag/TiO2 nearly completely degraded TBBPA in 10 min under UV-Vis light (λ > 360 nm), and the apparent reaction rate constant (kapp ) reached 0.63 min-1 . The significantly enhanced UV-Vis light catalytic properties of the Ag/TiO2 in comparison with that of TiO2 were attributed to the increased adsorption capacity and electron transfer ability of the Ag/TiO2 . Free radical trap experiments results showed that holes and superoxide radicals play a major role in the catalytic degradation of TBBPA by Ag/TiO2 . Moreover, the Ag/TiO2 catalyst exhibits high stability during TBBPA degradation even after three cycles. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Ti-defected TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 were synthesized using a solvothermal and photo-reduction deposition, respectively. Ag/TiO2 exhibited outstanding adsorption and photocatalytic activity for TBBPA removal under UV-Vis light. Holes and superoxide radicals play a major role in the photocatalytic degradation of TBBPA.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 557: 655-663, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561082

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used and co-exist in various aquatic environments, but their co-removal is not clear. In this study, the competitive adsorption behavior and mechanism of six traditional and emerging PFASs on anion-exchange resin IRA67 in the bisolute and mixed systems were studied. The adsorption equilibrium of the long-chain PFASs was at least 96 h whereas 48 h was required for the short-chain PFASs. When the PFASs were co-removed in the bisolute system, their competition was not obvious at low PFAS concentration of 0.01597 mmol/L due to the relatively adequate adsorption sites. When the concentrations of PFASs were increased to 0.07666 mmol/L, the removal of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) decreased by 77.78% and 72.09%, respectively. The competitive experiments showed that the adsorbed short-chain PFASs could be replaced by the long-chain ones, which was closely related to their hydrophobicity, backbone and functional groups. With the increase of solution pH from 3 to 7, the polyamine groups on the resin IRA67 were transferred to the base forms and the effective adsorption sites decreased, resulting in a more obvious competitive replacement behavior. This study suggested that the PFASs with long chain could be more effectively removed from the coexisting PFASs solution by the anion-exchange resins, and the short-chain PFASs in water may be removed when high dosage of anion-exchange resins is applied or the solution pH is decreased.

5.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(7): 190351, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417737

RESUMO

In this study, natural manganese oxides (MnO x ), an environmental material with high redox potential, were used as a promising low-cost oxidant to degrade the widely used dyestuff methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. Although the surface area of MnO x was only 7.17 m2 g-1, it performed well in the degradation of MB with a removal percentage of 85.6% at pH 4. It was found that MB was chemically degraded in a low-pH reaction system and the degradation efficiency correlated negatively with the pH value (4-8) and initial concentration of MB (10-50 mg l-1), but positively with the dosage of MnO x (1-5 g l-1). The degradation of MB fitted well with the second-order kinetics. Mathematical models were also built for the correlation of the kinetic constants with the pH value, the initial concentration of MB and the dosage of MnO x . Furthermore, several transformation products of MB were identified with HPLC-MS, which was linked with the bond energy theory to reveal that the degradation was initiated with demethylation.

6.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 153002, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254740

RESUMO

Suppression of photorespiration by low O2 concentrations (Method 1) and simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence (Method 2) are often used to estimate leaf photorespiration rate (Rp) of C3 plants. However, it is largely unknown whether Method 1 and Method 2 can be used equivalently in estimating Rp. Using a field experiment on two wheat cultivars (T. aestivum JM22 and T. aestivum Z39-118) whose leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence at low and normal O2 concentrations (2% versus 21% O2) were simultaneously measured across a wide range of light intensities (I), this study assessed the impacts of the two measures on Rp and its response under changing irradiance conditions. All the above quantities increased with the increasing I until reaching the cultivar-specific maximum values and the corresponding saturation light intensities. However, there were significant differences between Rp estimated by Method 1 and Method 2 at the I range from 150 to 2000 µmol m-2 s-1 for T. aestivum JM22 and from 150 to 1000 µmol m-2 s-1 for T. aestivum Z39-118. These findings demonstrated that the two methods cannot be used equivalently under changing irradiance conditions.


Assuntos
Luz , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Transpiração Vegetal/efeitos da radiação , Triticum/fisiologia , Clorofila/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Oxigênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Triticum/efeitos da radiação
7.
Ecol Lett ; 22(3): 506-517, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609108

RESUMO

Earth system models (ESMs) use photosynthetic capacity, indexed by the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), to simulate carbon assimilation and typically rely on empirical estimates, including an assumed dependence on leaf nitrogen determined from soil fertility. In contrast, new theory, based on biochemical coordination and co-optimization of carboxylation and water costs for photosynthesis, suggests that optimal Vcmax can be predicted from climate alone, irrespective of soil fertility. Here, we develop this theory and find it captures 64% of observed variability in a global, field-measured Vcmax dataset for C3 plants. Soil fertility indices explained substantially less variation (32%). These results indicate that environmentally regulated biophysical constraints and light availability are the first-order drivers of global photosynthetic capacity. Through acclimation and adaptation, plants efficiently utilize resources at the leaf level, thus maximizing potential resource use for growth and reproduction. Our theory offers a robust strategy for dynamically predicting photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Adaptação Fisiológica , Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase
8.
Ecology ; 99(2): 500, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155446

RESUMO

Plant functional traits provide information about adaptations to climate and environmental conditions, and can be used to explore the existence of alternative plant strategies within ecosystems. Trait data are also increasingly being used to provide parameter estimates for vegetation models. Here we present a new database of plant functional traits from China. Most global climate and vegetation types can be found in China, and thus the database is relevant for global modeling. The China Plant Trait Database contains information on morphometric, physical, chemical, and photosynthetic traits from 122 sites spanning the range from boreal to tropical, and from deserts and steppes through woodlands and forests, including montane vegetation. Data collection at each site was based either on sampling the dominant species or on a stratified sampling of each ecosystem layer. The database contains information on 1,215 unique species, though many species have been sampled at multiple sites. The original field identifications have been taxonomically standardized to the Flora of China. Similarly, derived photosynthetic traits, such as electron-transport and carboxylation capacities, were calculated using a standardized method. To facilitate trait-environment analyses, the database also contains detailed climate and vegetation information for each site. The data set is released under a Creative Commons BY license. When using the data set, we kindly request that you cite this article, recognizing the hard work that went into collecting the data and the authors' willingness to make it publicly available.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1965, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697222

RESUMO

Global climate change is expected to increase drought duration and intensity in certain regions while increasing rainfall in others. The quantitative consequences of increased drought for ecosystems are not easy to predict. Process-based models must be informed by experiments to determine the resilience of plants and ecosystems from different climates. Here, we demonstrate what and how experimentally derived quantitative information can improve the representation of stomatal and non-stomatal photosynthetic responses to drought in large-scale vegetation models. In particular, we review literature on the answers to four key questions: (1) Which photosynthetic processes are affected under short-term drought? (2) How do the stomatal and non-stomatal responses to short-term drought vary among species originating from different hydro-climates? (3) Do plants acclimate to prolonged water stress, and do mesic and xeric species differ in their degree of acclimation? (4) Does inclusion of experimentally based plant functional type specific stomatal and non-stomatal response functions to drought help Land Surface Models to reproduce key features of ecosystem responses to drought? We highlighted the need for evaluating model representations of the fundamental eco-physiological processes under drought. Taking differential drought sensitivity of different vegetation into account is necessary for Land Surface Models to accurately model drought responses, or the drought impacts on vegetation in drier environments may be over-estimated.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(12)2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232901

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel approach for concrete chloride ion concentration measuring based on passive and wireless sensor tag is proposed. The chloride ion sensor based on RFID communication protocol is consisting of an energy harvesting and management circuit, a low dropout voltage regulator, a MCU, a RFID tag chip and a pair of electrodes. The proposed sensor harvests energy radiated by the RFID reader to power its circuitry. To improve the stability of power supply, a three-stage boost rectifier is customized to rectify the harvested power into dc power and step-up the voltage. Since the measured data is wirelessly transmitted, it contains miscellaneous noises which would decrease the accuracy of measuring. Thus, in this paper, the wavelet denoising method is adopted to denoise the raw data. Besides, a monitoring software is developed to display the measurement results in real-time. The measurement results indicate that the proposed passive sensor tag can achieve a reliable communication distance of 16.3 m and can reliably measure the chloride ion concentration in concrete.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(7)2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640188

RESUMO

This paper firstly introduces the importance of temperature control in concrete measurement, then a passive radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor tag embedded for concrete temperature monitoring is presented. In order to reduce the influences of concrete electromagnetic parameters during the drying process, a T-type antenna is proposed to measure the concrete temperature at the required depth. The proposed RFID sensor tag is based on the EPC generation-2 ultra-high frequency (UHF) communication protocol and operates in passive mode. The temperature sensor can convert the sensor signals to corresponding digital signals without an external reference clock due to the adoption of phase-locked loop (PLL)-based architecture. Laboratory experimentation and on-site testing demonstrate that our sensor tag embedded in concrete can provide reliable communication performance in passive mode. The maximum communicating distance between reader and tag is 7 m at the operating frequency of 915 MHz and the tested results show high consistency with the results tested by a thermocouple.

12.
AoB Plants ; 2016 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011455

RESUMO

Heat waves in combination with drought are predicted to occur more frequently with climate warming, yet their interactive effects on crop carbon and water balance are still poorly understood. Hence, research on the capacity of crops to withstand and recover from the combined stress is urgently needed. This study investigated the effects of drought and heat wave on a crop species as well as the recovery from the combined stress. Seedlings were grown in growth chambers under two soil water conditions (i.e. well watered and drought stress) at ambient temperature (26°C) for 10 days. Afterwards, half of the seedlings were exposed to a 7-day 42°C heat wave. All the drought-stressed seedlings were then rehydrated upon relief of the heat wave. Leaf gas exchange, the maximum carboxylation capacity (V cmax), plant growth, relative chlorophyll content and leaf water potential were examined during the experimental period. The heat wave reduced leaf gas exchange rates, V cmax and relative chlorophyll content, while it had no impacts on leaf water potential. In contrast, drought stress led to greater reductions in leaf gas exchange rates, growth and water potential than heat wave alone. Seedlings underwent a greater degree of stress in the combination of drought and heat wave than under the single drought treatment. The recovery of leaf gas exchange from drought stress lagged behind the water potential recovery and was delayed by heat wave. Our results show that drought stress had a predominant role in determining plant physiological responses and the negative impacts of drought stress were exacerbated by heat wave. The greater stress in the combination of drought and heat wave translated into the slower recovery of leaf gas exchange. Therefore, drought combined with heat wave may induce greater risks on crops under future climates.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(9)2016 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657070

RESUMO

This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods.

14.
Ann Bot ; 117(1): 133-44, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26493470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Experimental drought is well documented to induce a decline in photosynthetic capacity. However, if given time to acclimate to low water availability, the photosynthetic responses of plants to low soil moisture content may differ from those found in short-term experiments. This study aims to test whether plants acclimate to long-term water stress by modifying the functional relationships between photosynthetic traits and water stress, and whether species of contrasting habitat differ in their degree of acclimation. METHODS: Three Eucalyptus taxa from xeric and riparian habitats were compared with regard to their gas exchange responses under short- and long-term drought. Photosynthetic parameters were measured after 2 and 4 months of watering treatments, namely field capacity or partial drought. At 4 months, all plants were watered to field capacity, then watering was stopped. Further measurements were made during the subsequent 'drying-down', continuing until stomata were closed. KEY RESULTS: Two months of partial drought consistently reduced assimilation rate, stomatal sensitivity parameters (g1), apparent maximum Rubisco activity (V'(cmax)) and maximum electron transport rate (J'(max)). Eucalyptus occidentalis from the xeric habitat showed the smallest decline in V'(cmax) and J'(max); however, after 4 months, V'(cmax) and J'(max) had recovered. Species differed in their degree of V'(cmax) acclimation. Eucalyptus occidentalis showed significant acclimation of the pre-dawn leaf water potential at which the V'(cmax) and 'true' V(cmax) (accounting for mesophyll conductance) declined most steeply during drying-down. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate carbon loss under prolonged drought could be over-estimated without accounting for acclimation. In particular, (1) species from contrasting habitats differed in the magnitude of V'(cmax) reduction in short-term drought; (2) long-term drought allowed the possibility of acclimation, such that V'(cmax) reduction was mitigated; (3) xeric species showed a greater degree of V'(cmax) acclimation; and (4) photosynthetic acclimation involves hydraulic adjustments to reduce water loss while maintaining photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Secas , Ecossistema , Eucalyptus/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Aclimatação/efeitos da radiação , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Desidratação , Eucalyptus/anatomia & histologia , Eucalyptus/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie , Água/metabolismo
15.
Tree Physiol ; 34(10): 1035-46, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25192884

RESUMO

Predicting the large-scale consequences of drought in contrasting environments requires that we understand how drought effects differ among species originating from those environments. A previous meta-analysis of published experiments suggested that the effects of drought on both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis may vary consistently among species from different hydroclimates. Here, we explicitly tested this hypothesis with two short-term water stress experiments on congeneric mesic and xeric species. One experiment was run in Australia using Eucalyptus species and the second was run in Spain using Quercus species as well as two more mesic species. In each experiment, plants were grown under moist conditions in a glasshouse, then deprived of water, and gas exchange was monitored. The stomatal response was analysed with a recently developed stomatal model, whose single parameter g1 represents the slope of the relationship between stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. The non-stomatal response was partitioned into effects on mesophyll conductance (gm), the maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax). We found consistency among the drought responses of g1, gm, Vcmax and Jmax, suggesting that drought imposes limitations on Rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity concurrently with declines in stomatal and mesophyll conductance. Within each experiment, the more xeric species showed relatively high g1 under moist conditions, low drought sensitivity of g1, gm, Vcmax and Jmax, and more negative values of the critical pre-dawn water potential at which Vcmax declines most steeply, compared with the more mesic species. These results indicate adaptive interspecific differences in drought responses that allow xeric tree species to continue transpiration and photosynthesis for longer during periods without rain.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Alnus/fisiologia , Clima , Desidratação , Eucalyptus/fisiologia , Fraxinus/fisiologia , Células do Mesofilo/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal , Quercus/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 6(10): e26842, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22046376

RESUMO

It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO(2) and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C(2)H(2) reduction method. Elevated CO(2) enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO(2). Elevated CO(2) had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO(2), N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO(2) levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO(2) and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO(2) than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO(2) or N addition is not associated with changes in N(2)-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO(2) and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Biomassa , China , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Environ Qual ; 39(1): 251-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20048313

RESUMO

The impact of elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration on plant communities is varied and strongly dependent on the dominant species response, as well as nutrient conditions. Responses of a dominant species (Leymus chinensis) to elevated CO(2) and N application were examined with open-top chambers in a typical temperate grassland in northern China for 3 yr. The significant effect of elevated CO(2) on L. chinensis growth was mainly reflected in the higher photosynthetic rates, increased leaf number, larger shoot and root biomass, and higher root/shoot (R/S) ratio. Enhancement of root biomass induced by elevated CO(2) was larger (40%) than that of shoot biomass (9%). In contrast, N application had a significant impact on most growth indices examined in this study, which was reflected in the enhanced aboveground growth and depressed belowground growth. Nitrogen application significantly reduced the R/S ratio by an average of 40%. Nitrogen addition significantly enhanced the proportion of senescent biomass and decreased the proportion of green leaf biomass under elevated CO(2). There were no CO(2) x N interactions on most of the measured variables, except on photosynthetic rate and the proportion of aboveground biomass. Plant growth variables showed high interannual variation. These results indicate that belowground growth of L. chinensis is more sensitive to elevated CO(2) than is the aboveground. Aboveground growth of L. chinensis is much more sensitive to N application than to CO(2) enrichment. Therefore, the effect of elevated CO(2) on L. chinensis steppe is more likely to be underestimated if only aboveground parts are considered.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/química , China , Nitrogênio/química , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta , Transpiração Vegetal , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
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