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1.
Theranostics ; 11(7): 3512-3526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537101

RESUMO

Menstruation occurs in few species and involves a cyclic process of proliferation, breakdown and regeneration under the control of ovarian hormones. Knowledge of normal endometrial physiology, as it pertains to the regulation of menstruation, is essential to understand disorders of menstruation. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy in the endometrium, under the regulation of ovarian hormones, can result in the infiltration of immune cells, which plays an indispensable role in the endometrium shedding, tissue repair and prevention of infections during menstruation. In addition, abnormal autophagy levels, together with resulting dysregulated immune system function, are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Considering its potential value of autophagy as a target for the treatment of menstrual-related and endometrium-related disorders, we review the activity and function of autophagy during menstrual cycles. The role of the estrogen/progesterone-autophagy-immunity axis in endometriosis are also discussed.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523554

RESUMO

Transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a member of the Krüppel-like factors' (KLFs) family. KLF5 regulates a number of cellular functions, such as apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, KLF5 can play a role in many diseases, including, cancer, cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal disorders. An important role for KLF5 in the kidney was recently reported, such that KLF5 regulated podocyte apoptosis, renal cell proliferation, tubulointerstitial inflammation and renal fibrosis. In this review, we have summarized the available information in the literature with a brief description on how transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications of KLF5 modulate its function in a variety of organs including the kidney with a focus of its importance on the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases. Furthermore, we also have outlined the current and possible mechanisms of KLF5 activation in kidney diseases. These studies suggest a need for more systemic investigations, particularly for generation of animal models with renal cell-specific deletion or overexpression of KLF5 gene to examine direct contributions of KLF5 to various kidney diseases. This will promote further experimentation in the development of therapies to prevent or treat various kidney diseases.

3.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533739

RESUMO

Sperm morphology was once believed as one of the most predictive indicators of pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, the impact of teratozoospermia on in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and its offspring remains inconclusive. In order to evaluate the influence of teratozoospermia on pregnancy outcome and newborn status after IVF and ICSI, a retrospective study was conducted. This was a matched case-control study that included 2202 IVF cycles and 2574 ICSI cycles and was conducted at the Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya in Changsha, China, from June 2013 to June 2018. Patients were divided into two groups based on sperm morphology: teratozoospermia and normal sperm group. The pregnancy outcome and newborn outcome were analyzed. The results indicated that couples with teratozoospermia had a significantly lower optimal embryo rate compared to those with normal sperm morphology in IVF (P = 0.007), while there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the fertilization rate, cleavage rate, implantation rate, and pregnancy rate (all P > 0.05). Additionally, teratozoospermia was associated with lower infant birth weight in multiple births after IVF. With regard to ICSI, there was no significant difference in both pregnancy outcome and newborn outcome between the teratozoospermia and normal groups (both P > 0.05). Furthermore, no increase in the risk of birth defects occurred in the teratozoospermia group after IVF/ICSI. Consequently, we believe that teratozoospermia has limited predictive value for pregnancy outcomes in IVF/ICSI, and has little impact on the resulting offspring if multiple pregnancy is avoided.

4.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567911

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of Melodinus fusiformis led to a new aspidosperma-aspidosperma bisindole alkaloid (BIA), bis-19ß-hydroxyvenalstonidine (1), together with three known BIAs (2-4). The structures were established by extensive analysis of their HRESIMS, NMR data, and comparing with the reported data. BIA 1 is an almost symmetrical structure, linked by C3-C14' bond, while BIAs 2-4 are reported for the first time from the plant. The cytotoxic, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities of BIAs 1-4 were evaluated in vitro. BIAs 1, 3 and 4 showed good toxicity against MOLT-4 cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.5-17.5 -M. BIA 2 exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against MCF-7 cell lines with an IC50 value of 7.1 µM. BIA 1 significantly inhibited Con A-stimulated mice splenocytes proliferation equal to that of the positive control (DXM) in a concentration-dependent manner. BIAs 1 and 2 were able to decrease the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells at 30 µM concentration. BIA 2 showed similar inhibition of nitric oxide release, compared to that of DXM. Furthermore, BIA 2 remarkably inhibited the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α compared to the LPS induced group. Interestingly, BIA 2 displayed an inhibitory effect on TNF-α production similar to that of dexamethasone at a concentration of 20 µM.

5.
Microb Pathog ; 152: 104767, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524565

RESUMO

Enterobacter hormaechei is a foodborne pathogen responsible for neonatal sepsis in humans and respiratory disease in animals. In this work, a new virulent phage (P.A-5) infecting E. hormaechei was isolated from domestic sewage samples and characterized. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that P.A-5 belonged to the family Myoviridae having a head size of 77.53 nm and a tail length of 72.24 nm. The burst size was 262 PFU/cell after a latent period of 20 min. Phage P.A-5 was able to survive in a pH range of 4-9 and resist temperatures up to 55 °C for 60 min. The genome sequence of P.A-5 had homology most similar to that of Shigellae phage MK-13 (GenBank: MK509462.1). Pork artificially contaminated with E. hormaechei was used as a model to evaluate the potential of P.A-5. The results clearly showed that P.A-5 treatment can completely inhibit E. hormaechei growth in pork within 8 h, indicating the potential use of P.A-5 as a biocontrol agent for E. hormaechei.

6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(2): e23338, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise has been recommended as a cornerstone for diabetes management. Supervised exercise is more efficient than unsupervised exercise but is less convenient and accessible. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the efficiency of exercise using a fitness app and heart rate band to remotely monitor patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with that of traditional exercise. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes without severe complications or comorbidities were recruited to participate in this multicenter randomized controlled trial and were allocated to either the intervention or control group (1:1 ratio). Participants in both groups were asked to engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week; each participant was prescribed individualized exercises. Participants in the intervention group were asked to follow exercise videos on the app and to wear a chest band; heart rate, exercise duration, and exercise intensity were recorded by the app. Participants in the control group self-reported exercise intensity and duration. Cardiopulmonary endurance, body composition, blood glucose level, and insulin level were assessed before and after a 3-month exercise program. RESULTS: Of the 101 participants who were enrolled, the majority of them (85/101, 84.2%) completed the study. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics, with the exception that participants in the intervention group were slightly younger and less likely to have hypertension. Self-reported exercise duration was longer than app-recorded exercise duration (control: mean 214 minutes/week; intervention: mean 193 minutes/week); in addition, a higher proportion of participants in the control group (29/41, 71%) than in the intervention group (18/44, 41%) met the 150-minute target for moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, compared with the control group, the intervention group had a larger increase in cardiopulmonary endurance (mean difference -2.0 bpm [beats per minute] vs 1.0 bpm; P=.02) and a larger decrease in body fat percentage (mean difference -1.8% vs -0.8%; P=.01). There was no difference in hemoglobin A1c level reduction between the two groups, yet more participants in the intervention group stopped taking their antidiabetic drugs or had their dosages lowered by an endocrinologist, compared with those in the control group. There were no serious adverse events in either group. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first randomized controlled trial in China, to our knowledge, to test the efficiency of exercise using a fitness app and heart rate band to remotely monitor prescribed exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. The findings of our study suggest that exercise programs may be more efficient if participants are remotely monitored with an app and heart rate band than if participants are not monitored. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR1800015963; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=27080.

7.
Mol Ecol ; 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522041

RESUMO

How underlying mechanisms bias evolution toward predictable outcomes remains an area of active debate. In this study, we leveraged phenotypic plasticity and parallel adaptation across independent lineages of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to assess the predictability of gene expression evolution during parallel adaptation. Trinidadian guppies have repeatedly and independently adapted to high- and low-predation environments in the wild. We combined this natural experiment with a laboratory breeding design to attribute transcriptional variation to the genetic influences of population of origin and developmental plasticity in response to rearing with or without predators. We observed substantial gene expression plasticity as well as the evolution of expression plasticity itself across populations. Genes exhibiting expression plasticity within populations were more likely to also differ in expression between populations, with the direction of population differences more likely to be opposite those of plasticity. While we found more overlap than expected by chance in genes differentially expressed between high- and low-predation populations from distinct evolutionary lineages, the majority of differentially expressed genes were not shared between lineages. Our data suggest alternative transcriptional configurations associated with shared phenotypes, highlighting a role for transcriptional flexibility in the parallel phenotypic evolution of a species known for rapid adaptation.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 179, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of unresectable locally advanced colon cancer (LACC) remains controversial, as resection is not feasible. The goal of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with unresectable radically LACC. METHODS: We included patients who were diagnosed at our institution, 2010-2018. The neoadjuvant regimen consisted of radiotherapy and capecitabine/ 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred patients were identified. The median follow-up time was 32 months. The R0 resection rate, adjusted nonmultivisceral resection rate and bladder preservation rate were 83.0, 43.0 and 83.3%, respectively. The pCR and clinical-downstaging rates were 18, and 81.0%%, respectively. The 3-year PFS and OS rates for all patients were 68.6 and 82.1%, respectively. Seventeen patients developed grade 3-4 myelosuppression, which was the most common adverse event observed after NACRT. Tumor perforation occurred in 3 patients during NACRT. The incidence of grade 3-4 surgery-related complications was 7.0%. Postoperative anastomotic leakage was observed in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: NACRT followed by surgery was feasible and safe for selected patients with LACC, and can be used as a conversion treatment to achieve satisfactory downstaging, long-term survival and quality of life, with acceptable toxicities.

9.
Opt Lett ; 46(4): 884-887, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577539

RESUMO

Photonic integrated circuits for wideband and multi-band optical communications will need waveguide crossings that operate at all the wavelengths required by the system. In this Letter, we use the modified gradient decedent method to optimize the dual-wavelength band (DWB) crossings on both single- and double-level platforms. On the single-level platform, the simulation results show insertion losses (ILs) less than 0.07 and 0.11 dB for a crossing working at a DWB of 1.5-1.6 and 1.95-2.05 µm. ILs are less than 0.1 and 0.2 dB for a crossing operating in the DWB of 1.5-1.6 and 2.2-2.3 µm. On the double-layer platform, the simulated results show IL less than 0.08 dB across the wavelength range of 1.25-2.25 µm. We experimentally demonstrate the DWB crossing operating at 1.5-1.6 and 2.2-2.3 µm to have IL less than 0.3 and 0.4 dB and crosstalk of -28 and -26dB in the two bands, respectively.

10.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; : 111219, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610642

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a principal lipid mediator mediating various biological processes including immune responses and fluid secretion. As the first line of host defense against infection, vaginal epithelium plays orchestrated roles in vaginal innate immunity. However, the effect of PGE2 triggered by pro-inflammatory stimuli on vaginal epithelium remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the regulatory role of PGE2 on vaginal epithelium after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that E-prostanoid (EP) receptors EP2 and EP4 were expressed in rat vagina. Basolateral application of PGE2 induced anion secretion mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) via EP-adenylate cyclase-cAMP signaling pathway in rat vaginal epithelial cells. The in vivo study showed that PGE2 promoted fluid secretion in rat vagina. Moreover, LPS stimulation facilitated cyclooxygenase-dependent PGE2 synthesis and vaginal fluid secretion in vivo. Conclusively, LPS stimulation triggered epithelium-derived PGE2 production in vaginal epithelium, leading to CFTR-mediated anion secretion and luminal flushing. This study might provide valuable insight into the physiological role of PGE2 during vaginal bacterial infection.

11.
Mol Cell ; 81(4): 739-755.e7, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606975

RESUMO

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) recognition of cytosolic DNA is critical for the immune response to cancer and pathogen infection. Here, we discover that cGAS-DNA phase separation is required to resist negative regulation and allow efficient sensing of immunostimulatory DNA. We map the molecular determinants of cGAS condensate formation and demonstrate that phase separation functions to limit activity of the cytosolic exonuclease TREX1. Mechanistically, phase separation forms a selective environment that suppresses TREX1 catalytic function and restricts DNA degradation to an outer shell at the droplet periphery. We identify a TREX1 mutation associated with the severe autoimmune disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome that increases penetration of TREX1 into the repressive droplet interior and specifically impairs degradation of phase-separated DNA. Our results define a critical function of cGAS-DNA phase separation and reveal a molecular mechanism that balances cytosolic DNA degradation and innate immune activation.

12.
Macromol Biosci ; : e2000398, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624936

RESUMO

In this work, a 3D printed double-network (DN) hydrogel scaffold is designed with chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the framework matrix. The addition of PVA into the CS-based hydrogel clearly enhances the mechanical properties and lowers the swelling behaviors of the hydrogels. The crosslinking of CS with genipin can perform the pre-crosslinking to improve the viscosity and 3D printability of the hydrogel precursor, while increasing the PVA content results in lowering the viscosity and 3D printability of the pre-crosslinked hydrogel. The antibacterial property results of the DN hydrogel display that the hydrogel have favorable long-lasting antibacterial ability. The appropriate pre-crosslinked hydrogel with the CS/PVA mass ratio of 3:10 and pre-crosslinking time of 7 h is used for 3D printing to prepare the 3D printed porous DN hydrogels. Moreover, the anti-tumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) is loaded into the 3D printed porous DN hydrogels and the in vitro release study displays the sustainable drug release behavior. And the DOX release from hydrogel scaffold can be adjusted by the pH value of release environment. All of the results indicate that the porous DN CS/PVA hydrogel scaffolds have great application potential for tissue regeneration.

13.
Elife ; 102021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439831

RESUMO

There has been accumulating evidence of human social chemo-signaling, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Considering the evolutionarily conserved roles of oxytocin and vasopressin in reproductive and social behaviors, we examined whether the two neuropeptides are involved in the subconscious processing of androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one and estra-1,3,5 (10),16-tetraen-3-ol, two human chemosignals that convey masculinity and femininity to the targeted recipients, respectively. Psychophysical data collected from 216 heterosexual and homosexual men across five experiments totaling 1056 testing sessions consistently showed that such chemosensory communications of masculinity and femininity were blocked by a competitive antagonist of both oxytocin and vasopressin receptors called atosiban, administered nasally. On the other hand, intranasal oxytocin, but not vasopressin, modulated the decoding of androstadienone and estratetraenol in manners that were dose-dependent, nonmonotonic, and contingent upon the recipients' social proficiency. Taken together, these findings establish a causal link between neuroendocrine factors and subconscious chemosensory communications of sex-specific information in humans.

14.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 55, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sarcopenia have attracted extensive attention in public health. However, the relationship between NAFLD and sarcopenia remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the sex-specific association between sarcopenia and NAFLD according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). METHODS: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and hepatic ultrasonography were measured in 578 participants (92 men and 486 women) during their annual health examinations. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the association between NAFLD and sarcopenia with its two components. RESULTS: A total of 154 participants (30 men and 124 women) had NAFLD. The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher among the participants with NAFLD than among those without NAFLD (men: 20.0% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.295, women: 15.3% vs. 8.0%, P = 0.019). Low muscle mass (LMM) was independently associated with NAFLD in both men and women (men: odds ratio [OR], 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-5.46; women: OR, 2.08; 95% CI 1.63-2.67). However, low muscle strength (LMS) was independently associated with NAFLD only in male participants, with an OR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.28). CONCLUSION: The occurrence of sarcopenia was associated with a higher risk of NAFLD, especially in men, as demonstrated by lower muscle mass and lower muscle strength.

15.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 111-124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469264

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death across the globe. Its repeated exacerbation will seriously worsen the quality of life, aggravate the patients' symptoms, and bring a heavy burden on the patients and the society. Understanding the current status of drug therapy and the role of pharmaceutical care is essential for the management of COPD. In addition to the drugs already on the market, recent clinical trials also show that emerging novel drugs for treating COPD are being developed to prevent the symptoms, reduce the frequency of acute exacerbation, and improve the quality of life. Recent progress in new drug research should lead to novel treatment options for COPD patients in future clinical practice. The pharmaceutical care has shown significantly favourable impacts on addressing drug-related problems, supporting its vital role in the management of COPD, especially when there are a wide range of therapeutic agents. This review not only provides an overview of current treatment strategies but also further underlines the importance of new drug development and pharmaceutical care for patients with COPD.

16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474773

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Chinese Luzhou-flavor baijiu (LFB) was fermented in an underground cellar, and the bottom and side of the cellar were covered with pit muds (PMs), where the metabolic activity of the microorganisms had a significant effect on the LFB quality. PMs can be divided into aged pit mud (AP) and degenerated pit mud (DP), thus, the qualities of LFB generated from AP and DP were different. In this essay, metatranscriptomics method was applied to illustrate the differences of the two PMs, as well as to search out the pivotal microorganisms and genes influencing the quality of LFB. RESULTS: Archaea, Clostridium and some thermophilic microorganisms might bring significant effect in AP, while the active eukaryota and Anaeromyxobacter would cause degeneration in PM. Also, the metabolism of carbohydrate and amino acid were more active in AP. What is more, carbohydrate, amino acid and their derivant can produce important organic acids via the activity of the microorganisms in PMs. There were eight critical enzymes noticed in the organic acids metabolic pathway, which were more actively expressed in AP, demonstrating active expression of the critical genes related to organic acid metabolism could have a positive effect on LFB quality. CONCLUSION: This study identified specific differences in active microorganisms, active expressed genes and the expression levels of key genes in vital metabolic pathway between AP and DP. Which may be the actual reason for the differences in the quality of LFB made from different PMs. Mastering these results will provide assistance to improve the quality of LFB. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511869

RESUMO

Two new sesquiterpene aryl esters, armimelleolides A and B (1 and 2), and four known ones, were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Armillaria gallica 012 m by column chromatography on silica gel, reversed-phase C18 silica gel and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1 D NMR, 2 D NMR and MS. All these compounds showed potential antitumor activities against at least one of the human cancer cell lines (A549, HCT-116, M231 and W256), with IC50 ranging from 2.57 to 19.94 µM.

18.
Nanotheranostics ; 5(1): 73-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391976

RESUMO

Microfluidic chip is not a chip in the traditional sense. It is technologies that control fluids at the micro level. As a burgeoning biochip, microfluidic chips integrate multiple disciplines, including physiology, pathology, cell biology, biophysics, engineering mechanics, mechanical design, materials science, and so on. The application of microfluidic chip has shown tremendous promise in the field of cancer therapy in the past three decades. Various types of cell and tissue cultures, including 2D cell culture, 3D cell culture and tissue organoid culture could be performed on microfluidic chips. Patient-derived cancer cells and tissues can be cultured on microfluidic chips in a visible, controllable, and high-throughput manner, which greatly advances the process of personalized medicine. Moreover, the functionality of microfluidic chip is greatly expanding due to the customizable nature. In this review, we introduce its application in developing cancer preclinical models, detecting cancer biomarkers, screening anti-cancer drugs, exploring tumor heterogeneity and producing nano-drugs. We highlight the functions and recent development of microfluidic chip to provide references for advancing cancer diagnosis and treatment.

19.
Cell Rep ; 34(2): 108622, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440162

RESUMO

Intrathymic development of committed progenitor (pro)-T cells from multipotent hematopoietic precursors offers an opportunity to dissect the molecular circuitry establishing cell identity in response to environmental signals. This transition encompasses programmed shutoff of stem/progenitor genes, upregulation of T cell specification genes, proliferation, and ultimately commitment. To explain these features in light of reported cis-acting chromatin effects and experimental kinetic data, we develop a three-level dynamic model of commitment based upon regulation of the commitment-linked gene Bcl11b. The levels are (1) a core gene regulatory network (GRN) architecture from transcription factor (TF) perturbation data, (2) a stochastically controlled chromatin-state gate, and (3) a single-cell proliferation model validated by experimental clonal growth and commitment kinetic assays. Using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) measurements of genes encoding key TFs and measured bulk population dynamics, this single-cell model predicts state-switching kinetics validated by measured clonal proliferation and commitment times. The resulting multi-scale model provides a mechanistic framework for dissecting commitment dynamics.

20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(1): 241-250, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400074

RESUMO

Akebia trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae) is an important medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological effects. However, the lack of genomic information had limited the further excavation and utilization of this plant. An initial survey of the genome A. trifoliata was performed by next-generation sequencing, and then the genome size was inferred by flow cytometry. The whole genome survey of A. trifoliata generated 61.90 Gb of sequence data with approximately 95.51 × coverage. The genome size, heterozygosity and GC content obtained by k-mer analysis were almost 648.07 Mb, 0.72% and 36.11%, respectively. The genome size calculated by flow cytometry was 685.77 Mb, which was consistent with the results of genome survey. A total of 851,957 simple sequence repeats (SSR) were identified in the A. trifoliata genome. Twenty-eight phenotypic traits and thirty pairs of SSR primers were selected for the analysis of the genetic diversity of 43 accessions of cultivated A. trifoliata. The results showed that 216 bands were generated by 30 pairs of SSR primers, of which 189 (87.5%) were polymorphic. In addition, the phenotypes and SSR markers were used for cluster analysis of 43 cultivated accessions. The results of the two clustering methods were partially consistent. The genome survey of A. trifoliata demonstrated that the genome size of this plant was about 648.07 Mb. In the present study, the size and characteristics of the genome of A. trifoliata were reported for the first time, which greatly enriched the genomic resources of A. trifoliata for the further research and utilization.

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