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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 312, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635104

RESUMO

The inherent heterogeneity of individual cells in cell populations plays significant roles in disease development and progression, which is critical for disease diagnosis and treatment. Substantial evidences show that the majority of traditional gene profiling methods mask the difference of individual cells. Single cell sequencing can provide data to characterize the inherent heterogeneity of individual cells, and reveal complex and rare cell populations. Different microfluidic technologies have emerged for single cell researches and become the frontiers and hot topics over the past decade. In this review article, we introduce the processes of single cell sequencing, and review the principles of microfluidics for single cell analysis. Also, we discuss the common high-throughput single cell sequencing technologies along with their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly, microfluidics applications in single cell sequencing technology for the diagnosis of cancers and immune system diseases are briefly illustrated.

2.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 699929, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368228

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection has become an urgent public health concern worldwide, severely affecting our society and economy due to the long incubation time and high prevalence. People spare no effort on the rapid development of vaccine and treatment all over the world. Amongst the numerous ways of tackling this pandemic, some approaches using extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging. In this review, we summarize current prevalence and pathogenesis of COVID-19, involving the combination of SARS-CoV-2 and virus receptor ACE2, endothelial dysfunction and micro thrombosis, together with cytokine storm. We also discuss the ongoing EVs-based strategies for the treatment of COVID-19, including mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-EVs, drug-EVs, vaccine-EVs, platelet-EVs, and others. This manuscript provides the foundation for the development of targeted drugs and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 infections.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 690057, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149432

RESUMO

Cancer is a major global health challenge for our health system, despite the important pharmacological and therapeutic discoveries we have seen since past 5 decades. The increasing prevalence and mortality of cancer may be closely related to smoking, exposure to environmental pollution, dietary and genetic factors. Despite significant promising discoveries and developments such as cell and biotechnological therapies a new breakthrough in the medical field is needed to develop specific and effective drugs for cancer treatment. On the development of cell therapies, anti-tumor vaccines, and new biotechnological drugs that have already shown promising effects in preclinical studies. With the continuous enrichment and development of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and its derivative technologies, epigenetic modification has gradually become a research hotspot. As key ingredients of epigenetic modification, Writers, Readers, Erasers have been gradually unveiled. Cancer has been associated with epigenetic modification especially methylation and therefore different epigenetic drugs have been developed and some of those are already undergoing clinical phase I or phase II trials, and it is believed that these drugs will certainly assist the treatment in the near future. With respect to this, an overview of anti-tumor drugs targeting modified enzymes and de-modified enzymes will be performed in order to contribute to future research.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 639233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693004

RESUMO

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is easily accessible in peripheral blood and can be used as biomarkers for cancer diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics. The applications of cfDNA in various areas of cancer management are attracting attention. In this review article, we discuss the potential relevance of using cfDNA analysis in clinical oncology, particularly in cancer screening, early diagnosis, therapeutic evaluation, monitoring disease progression; and determining disease prognosis.

5.
Nanotheranostics ; 5(1): 73-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391976

RESUMO

Microfluidic chip is not a chip in the traditional sense. It is technologies that control fluids at the micro level. As a burgeoning biochip, microfluidic chips integrate multiple disciplines, including physiology, pathology, cell biology, biophysics, engineering mechanics, mechanical design, materials science, and so on. The application of microfluidic chip has shown tremendous promise in the field of cancer therapy in the past three decades. Various types of cell and tissue cultures, including 2D cell culture, 3D cell culture and tissue organoid culture could be performed on microfluidic chips. Patient-derived cancer cells and tissues can be cultured on microfluidic chips in a visible, controllable, and high-throughput manner, which greatly advances the process of personalized medicine. Moreover, the functionality of microfluidic chip is greatly expanding due to the customizable nature. In this review, we introduce its application in developing cancer preclinical models, detecting cancer biomarkers, screening anti-cancer drugs, exploring tumor heterogeneity and producing nano-drugs. We highlight the functions and recent development of microfluidic chip to provide references for advancing cancer diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 615824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519482

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) has been a major issue for effective cancer chemotherapy as well as targeted therapy. One prominent factor that causes MDR is the overexpression of ABCB1 transporter. In the present study, we revealed that the Aurora kinase inhibitor GSK-1070916 is a substrate of ABCB1. GSK-1070916 is a newly developed inhibitor that is currently under clinical investigation. The cytotoxicity assay showed that overexpression of ABCB1 significantly hindered the anticancer effect of GSK-1070916 and the drug resistance can be abolished by the addition of an ABCB1 inhibitor. GSK-1070916 concentration-dependently stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity. The HPLC drug accumulation assay suggested that the ABCB1-overexpressing cells had lower levels of intracellular GSK-1070916 compared with the parental cells. GSK-1070916 also showed high binding affinity to ABCB1 substrate-binding site in the computational docking analysis. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence that ABCB1 can confer resistance to GSK-1070916, which should be taken into consideration in clinical setting.

7.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 49(8): 583-8, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22093419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics and effects of immunoglobulin treatment in children with the different types of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). METHOD: Data of 108 patients hospitalized for GBS were retrospectively analyzed; 75 cases in this group were given acute high dose of gamma globulin (IVIG) 400 mg/(kg·d) intravenously for 5 d. Clinical and electrophysiological data and information on treatment and recovery of the children were collected during the follow-up and were analyzed. RESULT: According to the clinical and electrophysiologic findings, 32 patients manifested acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), 34 had acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), 3 had acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), 4 were inexcitable, 2 were unclassified. The clinical progress of the AMAN was faster than the AIDP group. Except for sensory nerve involvement, there was no significant difference in the clinical feature and severity. The mean time of the muscle strength began to recover was (5.59±3.63) days in the AIDP group and (7.21±4.68) days in the AMAN group after IVIG treatment. The time of the AIDP group was shorter than the AMAN group, but the difference was not statistically significant (t=-1.5702, P>0.05). The mean time of the muscle strength increased one grade was (8.88±4.39) days in the AIDP group and (12.67±8.35) days in the AMAN group. The difference was statistically significant (t=-2.3689, P<0.05). No patients in this group died. Follow-up data showed that the complete recovery time was not significantly different (t=0.2041, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical progress of the AMAN was faster than the AIDP group. Besides sensory nerve involvement, there was no significant difference in the clinical feature and severity. The AIDP group's clinical recovery was faster than AMAN's after the immunoglobulin treatment. The two groups were not significantly different in long-term prognosis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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