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1.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731433

RESUMO

Due to its complex pathogenesis and lack of effective therapeutic methods, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a severe public health problem worldwide. Recent studies have discovered the function of central nervous system lymphatic drainage, which provides a new strategy for the treatment of AD. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been considered as a cure for AD for hundreds of years in China, and its effect on scavenging ß-amyloid protein in the brain of AD patients has been confirmed. In this review, the mechanism of central nervous system lymphatic drainage and the regulatory functions of CHM on correlation factors were briefly summarized. The advances in our understanding regarding the treatment of AD via regulating the central lymphatic system with CHM will promote the clinical application of CHM in AD patients and the discovery of new therapeutic drugs.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 769787, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744749

RESUMO

Objective: To elucidate the oncogenic role of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in esophageal squamous cancer and unravel the therapeutic role and molecular mechanism of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) by targeting hTERT. Methods: The expression of hTERT in esophageal squamous cancer and the patients prognosis were analyzed by bioinformatic analysis from TCGA database, and further validated with esophageal squamous cancer tissues in our cohort. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and colony formation assay were used to evaluate the proliferation of esophageal squamous cancer cell lines (Eca109, KYSE150, and TE1) after hTERT overexpression or treated with indicated concentrations of DHA. Transwell migration assay and scratch assay were employed to determine the migration abilities of cancer cells. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were conducted to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cancer cells after treated with DHA. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to test the alteration of associated genes on mRNA and protein level in DHA treated esophageal squamous cancer cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, tumor-bearing nude mice were employed to evaluate the anticancer effect of DHA in vivo. Results: We found that hTERT was significantly upregulated in esophageal squamous cancer both from TCGA database and our cohort also. Overexpression of hTERT evidently promoted the proliferation and migration of esophageal squamous cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, DHA could significantly inhibit the proliferation and migration of esophageal cancer cell lines Eca109, KYSE150, and TE1 in vitro, and significantly down-regulate the expression of hTERT on both mRNA and protein level in a time- and dose-dependent manner as well. Further studies showed that DHA could induce intracellular ROS production in esophageal cancer cells and down-regulate SP1 expression, a transcription factor that bound to the promoter region of hTERT gene. Moreover, overexpression of SP1 evidently promoted the proliferation and migration of Eca109 and TE1 cells. Intriguingly, rescue experiments showed that inhibiting ROS by NAC alleviated the downregulation of SP1 and hTERT in cells treated with DHA. Furthermore, overexpression of SP1 or hTERT could attenuate the inhibition effect of DHA on the proliferation and migration of Eca109 cells. In tumor-bearing nude mice model, DHA significantly inhibited the growth of esophageal squamous cancer xenografts, and downregulated the expression of SP1 and hTERT protein, while no side effects were observed from heart, kidney, liver, and lung tissues by HE stain. Conclusion: hTERT plays an oncogenic role in esophageal squamous cancer and might be a therapeutic target of DHA through regulating ROS/SP1 pathway.

3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1315, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799676

RESUMO

Telomere maintenance and tumor cell differentiation have been separately implicated in neuroblastoma malignancy. Their mechanistic connection is unclear. We analyzed neuroblastoma cell lines and morphologic subclones representing the adrenergic (ADRN) and mesenchymal (MES) differentiation states and uncovered sharp differences in their telomere protein and telomerase activity levels. Pharmacologic conversion of ADRN into MES cells elicited consistent and robust changes in the expression of telomere-related proteins. Conversely, stringent down-regulation of telomerase activity triggers the differentiation of ADRN into MES cells, which was reversible upon telomerase up-regulation. Interestingly, the MES differentiation state is associated with elevated levels of innate immunity factors, including key components of the DNA-sensing pathway. Accordingly, MES but not ADRN cells can mount a robust response to viral infections in vitro. A gene expression signature based on telomere and cell lineage-related factors can cluster neuroblastoma tumor samples into predominantly ADRN or MES-like groups, with distinct clinical outcomes. Our findings establish a strong mechanistic connection between telomere and differentiation and suggest that manipulating telomeres may suppress malignancy not only by limiting the tumor growth potential but also by inducing tumor cell differentiation and altering its immunogenicity.

4.
Environ Res ; : 112398, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800536

RESUMO

Bisphenol analogues (BPs) are heavily used and negatively affect the health of human beings, however, there is little knowledge regarding human exposure to BPs other than BPA. This study aims to assess human exposure to BPs through investigating pooled urine and wastewater samples. Twenty-four pooled urine samples were prepared from 960 specimens (classified by age and gender). Wastewater samples were collected from six major wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Guangzhou, South of China. BPA, BPS, and BPAF were widely detected in urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.96, 0.42, and 0.15 µg/L, respectively. Median urinary levels of BPA and BPS were higher in males than females (p > 0.05). In addition, BPA and BPS urinary levels in young adults (15-30 years old) were greater than those in children (0-15 years old) (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, most of the BPs were detected in wastewater samples, of which BPA and BPS were predominant BPs, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 0.29 µg/L. The average per capital mass loads of ΣBPs on the weekdays of mix typed WWTP was much higher than those of the weekends. Nonetheless, the average loads of ΣBPs on the weekdays of domestic WWTP was slightly lower than those of the weekends. This indicated that important sources of BPs might include industrial wastewater and household cleaning products. Urinary BPA, BPS, and BPAF accounted for less than 5% per capital mass loads in wastewater, suggesting that much of the BPA, BPS, and BPAF in municipal wastewater originate non-human excretion. Hence, the wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach based on parent compounds is not available for assessing human exposure to BPs, neither for other industrial chemicals with diverse sources in municipal wastewater. These results contributes to the development of an efficient surveillance system which can provide insight in the trends of human exposure of BPs.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796540

RESUMO

Tumor-induced osteomalacia TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by excessive production of fibroblast growth factor 23 FGF23 by a tumor. Previous studies have revealed generalized mineralization defects and low areal bone mineral density aBMD in TIO. However, data on the bone microarchitecture in TIO are limited. In this study, we evaluated the microarchitecture in the peripheral distal radius and tibia and axial lumbar spine skeleton using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography HR-pQCT and trabecular bone score TBS and investigated related factors in a large cohort of Chinese patients with TIO. A total of 186 patients with TIO who had undergone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA or HR-pQCT scans were enrolled. Compared with age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy controls, TIO patients n=113 had lower vBMD, damaged microstructure and reduced bone strength in the peripheral skeleton, especially at the tibia. The average TBS obtained from 173 patients was 1.15 ± 0.16. The proportion of patients with abnormal TBS <1.35 was higher than that with low L1-4 aBMD Z-score Z≤-2 43.9% vs. 89.6%, p < 0.001. Higher intact fibroblast growth factor 23 iFGF23, intact parathyroid hormone iPTH, alkaline phosphatase and ß-isomerized C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen ß-CTx levels, more severe mobility impairment and a history of fracture were associated with poorer HR-pQCT parameters but not with lower TBS. However, greater height loss and longer disease duration were correlated with worse HR-pQCT parameters and TBS. Moreover, TBS was correlated with both trabecular and cortical HR-pQCT parameters in TIO. In conclusion, we revealed impaired bone microarchitecture in the axial and peripheral skeleton in a large cohort of Chinese TIO patients. HR-pQCT parameters and TBS showed promising advantages over aBMD for assessing bone impairment in patients with TIO. A longer follow-up period is needed to observe changes in bone microarchitecture after tumor resection.

6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 734398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803813

RESUMO

Online data collection methods are expanding the ease and access of developmental research for researchers and participants alike. While its popularity among developmental scientists has soared during the COVID-19 pandemic, its potential goes beyond just a means for safe, socially distanced data collection. In particular, advances in video conferencing software has enabled researchers to engage in face-to-face interactions with participants from nearly any location at any time. Due to the novelty of these methods, however, many researchers still remain uncertain about the differences in available approaches as well as the validity of online methods more broadly. In this article, we aim to address both issues with a focus on moderated (synchronous) data collected using video-conferencing software (e.g., Zoom). First, we review existing approaches for designing and executing moderated online studies with young children. We also present concrete examples of studies that implemented choice and verbal measures (Studies 1 and 2) and looking time (Studies 3 and 4) across both in-person and online moderated data collection methods. Direct comparison of the two methods within each study as well as a meta-analysis of all studies suggest that the results from the two methods are comparable, providing empirical support for the validity of moderated online data collection. Finally, we discuss current limitations of online data collection and possible solutions, as well as its potential to increase the accessibility, diversity, and replicability of developmental science.

7.
PhytoKeys ; 185: 17-26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819778

RESUMO

Dryopteriswulingshanensis, a new species growing on limestone in the Wulingshan Mountains, Hunan, China, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to D.jishouensis and D.gymnophylla on general morphological traits, such as the form of scales, rhizome and sori, but differs by the number of vascular bundles at the base of the petiole, length to width ratio of lamina, stalk length of basal pinnae, division of the lamina, apex form of the pinnule and habitat. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis using the chloroplast rbcL gene suggested that D.wulingshanensis, as the sister group of D.jishouensis, is a monophyletic clade. According to its restricted geographic range, small populations and few individuals, D.wulingshanensis should be considered endangered, according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

8.
Opt Express ; 29(24): 40106-40115, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809359

RESUMO

Fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is the generalization of Fourier transform. It provides many significant advantages, such as fractional order as the new degree of freedom and high efficiency and great performance for non-stationary signal analysis/processing, that other operations including Fourier transform cannot. Here, we report a hybrid optical system for computation of arbitrary-order FRFT of temporal signals. In experiment, the fractional-domain information of input temporal signals could be directly acquired by detector. In addition, the optical computing results are in good agreement with numerical results. Then we apply the optical computing engine to demodulation of chirp spread spectrum signals. Using sub-Nyquist sampling, the proposed technology could greatly save the number of measurements in demodulation. The compression ratio could be as low as 0.4%, because of the high compression performance of chirp signals in FRFT domain. As a result, the proposed technology has unique advantages in analysis and information extraction for non-stationary signals, especially for chirp-like signals, and may become a powerful optical time-frequency analysis tool for temporal signals.

9.
J Microbiol Methods ; : 106378, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818574

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes belongs to the category of facultative anaerobic bacteria, and is the pathogen of listeriosis, potentially lethal disease for humans. There are many similarities between L. monocytogenes and other non-pathogenic Listeria species, which causes great difficulties for their correct identification. The level of L. monocytogenes contamination in food remains high according to statistics from the Food and Drug Administration. This situation leads to food recall and destruction, which has caused huge economic losses to the food industry. Therefore, the identification of Listeria species is very important for clinical treatment and food safety. This work aims to explore an efficient classification algorithm which could easily and reliably distinguish Listeria species. We attempted to classify Listeria species by incorporating denoising autoencoder (DAE) and machine learning algorithms in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In addition, convolutional neural networks were used to map the high dimensional original mass spectrometry data to low dimensional core features. By analyzing MALDI-TOF MS data via incorporating DAE and support vector machine (SVM), the identification accuracy of Listeria species was 100%. The proposed classification algorithm is fast (range of seconds), easy to handle, and, more importantly, this method also allows for extending the identification scope of bacteria. The DAE model used in our research is an effective tool for the extraction of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry features. Despite the fact that the MALDI-TOF MS dataset examined in our research had high dimensionality, the DAE + SVM algorithm was still able to exploit the hidden information embedded in the original MALDI-TOF mass spectra. The experimental results in our work demonstrated that MALDI-TOF mass spectrum combined with DAE + SVM could easily and reliably distinguish Listeria species.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 53659-53670, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726383

RESUMO

Advanced antibacterial methods are urgently needed to deal with possible infectious diseases. As promising alternatives to antibiotics, enzyme-mimic nanocatalysts face bottlenecks of low activities and indistinct catalytic mechanisms, which seriously restrict their development for anti-infection treatment. Herein, metastable copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanozymes with diversiform sizes and compositions were selected to adjust the electronic structure for enhancing enzyme-mimic activities. The as-synthesized large and thin nanoplates (L/TN nanoplates), with the stoichiometric ratio of Cu1.25S, were proven to possess the optimal peroxidase (POD)-mimic activity. Using quantum mechanics, it was theoretically revealed that the sulfur vacancies could alter the electronic structure of copper active sites and thus reduce the reaction energy barrier of H2O2 to·OH to promote the POD-mimic performance. Moreover, through enhanced enzyme-mimic activities, L/TN nanoplates achieved efficient depletion of glutathione and ascorbic acid for improving antibacterial performances. Further, synergizing with the NIR irradiation, the satisfactory destruction capability for bacteria and biofilm was achieved for L/TN nanoplates under an inflammatory level of hydrogen peroxide (50 µM). Altogether, this work provides a deeper understanding of geometrical and electronic properties-dependent antibacterial performance, and paves the way toward precise compositions and structures engineering of nanozymes.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 54113-54123, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738788

RESUMO

Nowadays, Li-S batteries are facing many thorny challenges like volume expansion and lithium dendrites on the road to commercialization. Due to the peculiarity of complete lithiation and the capability to match non-lithium anodes, Li2S-based Li-S batteries have attracted more and more attention. Nevertheless, the same notorious shuttle effect of polysulfides as in traditional Li-S batteries and the poor conductivity of Li2S lead to sluggish conversion reaction kinetics, poor Coulombic efficiency, and cycling performance. Herein, we propose the interconnected porous carbon skeleton as the host, which is modified by an atomically dispersed Mn catalyst as well as O, N atoms (named as ON-MnPC) via the melt salt method, and introduce the Li2S nanosheet into the carbon host with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) ethanol solution. It has been found that the introduction of O, N to bind with Mn atoms can endow the nonpolar carbon surface with ample unsaturated coordination active sites, restrain the shuttle effect, and enhance the diffusion of Li+ and accelerate the conversion reaction kinetics. Besides, due to the ultra-high catalyst activity of atomically dispersed Mn catalysts, the Li2S/ON-MnPC cathode shows good electrochemical performance, e.g., an initial capacity of 534 mAh g-1, a capacity of 514.18 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, a high retention rate of 96.23%, and a decay rate of 0.04% per cycle. Hence, use of atomically dispersed Mn catalysts to catalyze the chemical conversion reactions of polysulfides from multiple dimensions is a significant exploration, and it can provide a brand-new train of thought for the development and commercialization of the economical, high-performance Li2S-based Li-S batteries.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 778613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776988

RESUMO

Multi-target intervention and synergistic treatment are critical for the drug development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to its complex and multifactional nature. Oxidative stress and amyloid ß peptides (Aß) accumulation have been recognized as therapeutic targets for AD. Herein, with ability to inhibit Aß aggregation and the broad-spectrum antioxidant properties, the large amino acid mimicking selenium-doped carbon quantum dots (SeCQDs) are presented as novel nanoagents for multi-target therapy of AD. Compared with the precursor, selenocystine, SeCQDs which maintain the intrinsic properties of both selenium and carbon quantum dots (CQDs) possess good biocompatibility and a remarkable ROS-scavenging activity. Moreover, the functionalized α-carboxyl and amino groups on edge of SeCQDs can trigger multivalent interactions with Aß, leading to the ability of SeCQDs to inhibit Aß aggregation. In vivo study demonstrated that SeCQDs can significantly ameliorate the Aß induced memory deficits, reduce Aß accumulation and inhibit neuron degeneration in AD model rats. The versatility of functionalization and potential ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) make SeCQDs as prospective nanodrugs for treating AD.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 766224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778325

RESUMO

Alport syndrome-diffuse leiomyomatosis is a rare type of X-linked Alport syndrome resulting from contiguous deletions of 5' exons of COL4A5 and COL4A6. Studies have suggested that the occurrence of diffuse leiomyomatosis is associated with the characteristic localisation of the COL4A6 gene deletion break point. An electronic database was searched for all studies accessing AS-DL to analyze the clinical characteristics, gene deletion break points of patients with AS-DL, and the pathogenesis of AS-DL. It was found that the proportion of de novo mutations of AS-DL was significantly higher in female probands than male probands (78 vs. 44%). Female patients with AS-DL had a mild clinical presentation. The incidence of proteinuria and ocular abnormalities was much lower in female probands than in male probands, and there was generally no sensorineural hearing loss or chronic kidney disease (CKD), which progressed to Stage 3 in female probands. The contiguous deletion of the 5' exons of COL4A5 and COL4A6, with the break point within the intron 3 of COL4A6, was the critical genetic defect causing AS-DL. However, the pathogenesis of characteristic deletion of COL4A6 that contributes to diffuse leiomyomatosis is still unknown. In addition, characteristic contiguous deletion of COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes in AS-DL may be related to transposed elements (TEs).

15.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685130

RESUMO

Ag+ pollution is of great harm to the human body and environmental biology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop inexpensive and accurate detection methods. Herein, lignin-derived structural memory carbon nanodots (CSM-dots) with outstanding fluorescence properties were fabricated via a green method. The mild preparation process allowed the CSM-dots to remain plentiful phenol, hydroxyl, and methoxy groups, which have a specific interaction with Ag+ through the reduction of silver ions. Further, the sulfur atoms doped on CSM-dots provided more active sites on their surface and the strong interaction with Ag nanoparticles. The CSM-dots can specifically bind Ag+, accompanied by a remarkable fluorescence quenching response. This "turn-off" fluorescence behavior was used for Ag+ determination in a linear range of 5-290 µM with the detection limit as low as 500 nM. Furthermore, findings showed that this sensing nano-platform was successfully used for Ag+ determination in real samples and intracellular imaging, showing great potential in biological and environmental monitoring applications.

16.
ACS Omega ; 6(41): 27491-27500, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693170

RESUMO

The application of biomass-based composites in the field of adsorption has attracted extensive attention. Herein, soybean dreg/hydrocalumite composites were prepared by in situ self-assembly from soybean dregs and applied to the adsorption of Congo Red (CR). The composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, and N2 physical adsorption-desorption. The results showed that the adsorption property of soybean dregs/hydrocalumite for CR was better than that of soybean dregs or hydrocalumite. Effects of preparation and adsorption conditions on the adsorption of CR by soybean dregs/hydrocalumite were also investigated. The removal rate of soybean dregs/hydrocalumite (30%BD-LDH) prepared under the optimized conditions reached 97.4% with a 486.8 mg·g-1 adsorption capacity. Also, the adsorption capacity of 30%BD-LDH was about 2.4 times and 3.0 times that of hydrocalumite and soybean dregs, respectively. In addition, the adsorption process of CR by 30%BD-LDH was more in line with the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isothermal models.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697419

RESUMO

Pericytes are present tight around the intervals of capillaries, play an essential role in stabilizing the blood-brain barrier, regulating blood flow and immunomodulation, and persistent contraction of pericytes eventually leads to impaired blood flow and poor clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke. We previously show that iptakalim, an ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, exerts protective effects in neurons, and glia against ischemia-induced injury. In this study we investigated the impacts of iptakalim on pericytes contraction in stroke. Mice were subjected to cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), then administered iptakalim (10 mg/kg, ip). We showed that iptakalim administration significantly promoted recovery of cerebral blood flow after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Furthermore, we found that iptakalim significantly inhibited pericytes contraction, decreased the number of obstructed capillaries, and improved cerebral microcirculation. Using a collagen gel contraction assay, we demonstrated that cultured pericytes subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) consistently contracted from 3 h till 24 h during reoxygenation, whereas iptakalim treatment (10 µM) notably restrained pericyte contraction from 6 h during reoxygenation. We further showed that iptakalim treatment promoted K-ATP channel opening via suppressing SUR2/EPAC1 complex formation. Consequently, it reduced calcium influx and ET-1 release. Taken together, our results demonstrate that iptakalim, targeted K-ATP channels, can improve microvascular disturbance by inhibiting pericyte contraction after ischemic stroke. Our work reveals that iptakalim might be developed as a promising pericyte regulator for treatment of stroke.

18.
Opt Express ; 29(17): 27309-27321, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615149

RESUMO

Single-pixel imaging technology has a number of advantages over conventional imaging approaches, such as wide operation wavelength region, compressive sampling, low light radiation dose and insensitivity to distortion. Here, we report on a novel single-pixel imaging based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), which captures images by acquiring the fractional-domain information of targets. With the use of structured illumination of two-dimensional FRFT base patterns, FRFT coefficients of the object could be measured by single-pixel detection. Then, the object image is achieved by performing inverse FRFT on the measurements. Furthermore, the proposed method can reconstruct the object image from sub-Nyquist measurements because of the sparsity of image data in fractional domain. In comparison with traditional single-pixel imaging, it provides a new degree of freedom, namely fractional order, and therefore has more flexibility and new features for practical applications. In experiments, the proposed method has been applied for edge detection of object, with an adjustable parameter as a new degree of freedom.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617233

RESUMO

Sludge conditioning is important for improved dewatering, with the sludge characteristics impacting the effect of conditioning. A composite conditioner, Fe2+-activated sodium persulfate (Fe2+/SPS) combined with phosphogypsum (PG), was used to examine its impact on sludges with different organic contents (34.6-43.8%) or different solid contents (2.8-5.9%). Response surface optimization analysis shows that when the best conditioning is achieved, the reduction of the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) is not sensitive to organic matter content, but the dewatering performance of the sludge is greatly affected by the solid content. The oxidation role of Fe2+/SPS and the skeleton builder role of PG together affect the conditioning, oxidation playing a major role in conditioning, especially for greater organic matter content. The organic content (maximum ηSOL value was 0.32) also affects the effectiveness of the skeleton builder more than the solid content (Maximum ηSOL value was 0.25). Changes in PG significantly impacts the optimal molar ratio and dosage of Fe2+/SPS. Sludge with greater solid content requires greater Fe2+/SPS dosage to provide stronger oxidation to destroy flocs, and the maximum Fe2+:SPS molar ratio was 1.14 with solid content of 5.9 wt%. The composite conditioning decreases the content of extracellular polymeric substances and proteins/polysaccharides. This study provides new insight into the relationship between the oxidation role of Fe2+/SPS and the skeleton builder role of PG for sludge conditioning strategies according to the optimal conditions.

20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 580: 48-55, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624569

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal human cancers with a lower 5-year survival rate. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation, an important epigenetic modification, has been reported to associate with physiological and pathological processes of cancers. However, its role in ESCC remains unclear. In this work, we found that the m6A levels were elevated in ESCC cancer tissues and ESCC cells. The PPI network demonstrated that METTL3, METTL14, WTAP, RBM15, and KIAA1429 were all significantly associated with each other. Moreover, we found a significant upregulation of METTL3 mRNA and protein amounts in ESCC tissues. The METTL3 mRNA expression level of tissues had associations with ESCC differentiation extent and sex (p < 0.05). The METTL3 mRNA expression level of tissues, sensitivity for diagnosing ESCC was 75.00%, specificity was 72.06% and area under the ROC curve was 0.8030. Depletion of METTL3 markedly diminished m6A levels in human ESCC cell lines and METTL3 overexpression restored the reduction in m6A levels. These results suggested that METTL3 is the primary enzyme that modulates m6A methylation and a critical regulatory factor in ESCC. Additionally, METTL3 knockdown significantly suppressed the ESCC cell proliferation, while METTL3 overexpression markedly promoted ESCC cell proliferation both in cell and animal models. These results demonstrated that METTL3 promotes ESCC development. Furthermore, METTL3 may modulate the cell cycle of ESCC cells through a p21-dependent pattern. METTL3-guided m6A modification may contribute to the progression of ESCC via the p21-axis. Our study is the first investigation to report that METTL3-mediated m6A methylation plays a crucial role in ESCC oncogenesis and highlights that METTL3 might be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for ESCC patients.

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