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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 74, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is only intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, and distribution of O. hupensis is an important indicator for the surveillance of schistosomiasis. This study explored the feasibility of a random forest algorithm weighted by spatial distance for risk prediction of schistosomiasis distribution in the Yangtze River Basin in China, with the aim to produce an improved precision reference for the national schistosomiasis control programme by reducing the number of snail survey sites without losing predictive accuracy. METHODS: The snail presence and absence records were collected from Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces in 2018. A machine learning of random forest algorithm based on a set of environmental and climatic variables was developed to predict the breeding sites of the O. hupensis intermediated snail host of S. japonicum. Different spatial sizes of a hexagonal grid system were compared to estimate the need for required snail sampling sites. The predictive accuracy related to geographic distances between snail sampling sites was estimated by calculating Kappa and the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The highest accuracy (AUC = 0.889 and Kappa = 0.618) was achieved at the 5 km distance weight. The five factors with the strongest correlation to O. hupensis infestation probability were: (1) distance to lake (48.9%), (2) distance to river (36.6%), (3) isothermality (29.5%), (4) mean daily difference in temperature (28.1%), and (5) altitude (26.0%). The risk map showed that areas characterized by snail infestation were mainly located along the Yangtze River, with the highest probability in the dividing, slow-flowing river arms in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in Anhui, followed by areas near the shores of China's two main lakes, the Dongting Lake in Hunan and Hubei and the Poyang Lake in Jiangxi. CONCLUSIONS: Applying the machine learning of random forest algorithm made it feasible to precisely predict snail infestation probability, an approach that could improve the sensitivity of the Chinese schistosome surveillance system. Redesign of the snail surveillance system by spatial bias correction of O. hupensis infestation in the Yangtze River Basin to reduce the number of sites required to investigate from 2369 to 1747.


Assuntos
Rios/parasitologia , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Caramujos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estudos de Viabilidade , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Teóricos , Vigilância da População , Caramujos/parasitologia , Análise Espacial
2.
J Comp Neurol ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041754

RESUMO

Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria serve as intermediate hosts for the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni, the etiological agent for the most widespread form of intestinal schistosomiasis. As neuropeptide signaling in host snails can be altered by trematode infection, a neural transcriptomics approach was undertaken to identify peptide precursors in Biomphalaria glabrata, the major intermediate host for S. mansoni in the Western Hemisphere. Three transcripts that encode peptides belonging to the FMRF-NH2 -related peptide (FaRP) family were identified in B. glabrata. One transcript encoded a precursor polypeptide (Bgl-FaRP1; 292 amino acids) that included eight copies of the tetrapeptide FMRF-NH2 and single copies of FIRF-NH2 , FLRF-NH2 , and pQFYRI-NH2 . The second transcript encoded a precursor (Bgl-FaRP2; 347 amino acids) that comprised 14 copies of the heptapeptide GDPFLRF-NH2 and 1 copy of SKPYMRF-NH2 . The precursor encoded by the third transcript (Bgl-FaRP3; 287 amino acids) recapitulated Bgl-FaRP2 but lacked the full SKPYMRF-NH2 peptide. The three precursors shared a common signal peptide, suggesting a genomic organization described previously in gastropods. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on the nervous systems of B. glabrata and B. alexandrina, a major intermediate host for S. mansoni in Egypt. FMRF-NH2 -like immunoreactive (FMRF-NH2 -li) neurons were located in regions of the central nervous system associated with reproduction, feeding, and cardiorespiration. Antisera raised against non-FMRF-NH2 peptides present in the tetrapeptide and heptapeptide precursors labeled independent subsets of the FMRF-NH2 -li neurons. This study supports the participation of FMRF-NH2 -related neuropeptides in the regulation of vital physiological and behavioral systems that are altered by parasitism in Biomphalaria.

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 79, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica remains an important public health concern due to its potential to cause severe outcomes and long-term sequelae. An integrated control strategy implemented in the Peoples' Republic of China has been shown to be effective to control or interrupt the transmission of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study is to estimate the disease burden of schistosomiasis and assess the cost-effectiveness of the integrated control strategy focused on different major interventions at three stages for schistosomiasis control in a lake setting, to provide reference for policy making or planning. METHODS: Annual cost data of schistosomiasis control during 2009-2019 were obtained from the control program implementers in Jiangling County, Hubei Province, China. Economic costs are provided in constant 2009 Chinese Yuan (CNY). Epidemiological data of schistosomiasis were collected from the Jiangling county station for schistosomiasis control. Disease burden of schistosomiasis was assessed by calculating years of life lost (YLLs) owing to premature death, years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLLs and YLDs. We then conducted a rudimentary cost-effectiveness analysis by determining the ratio by dividing the difference between the average cost of integrated control strategy at transmission control (2013-2016) or transmission interruption (2017-2019) and the average cost at stage of infection control (2009-2012) with the difference between the DALYs of schistosomiasis at different control stages. Descriptive statistics on the costs and DALYs were used in the analysis. RESULTS: The total economic costs for schistosomiasis control in Jiangling County from 2009 to 2019 were approximately CNY 606.88 million. The average annual economic costs for schistosomiasis prevention and control at stages of infection control (2009-2012), transmission control (2013-2016), and transmission interruption (2017-2019) were approximately CNY 41.98 million, CNY 90.19 million and CNY 26.06 million respectively. The overall disease burden caused by schistosomiasis presented a downward trend. Meanwhile, the disease burden of advanced cases showed an upward trend with the DALY increased from 943.72 to 1031.59 person-years. Most disease burden occurred in the age group over 45 years old (especially the elderly over 60 years old). Taking the infection control stage as the control, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of integrated control strategy was CNY 8505.5 per case averted, CNY 60 131.6 per DALY decreased at transmission control stage and CNY -2217.6 per case averted, CNY -18 116.0 per DALY decreased at transmission interruption stage. CONCLUSIONS: The disease burden of schistosomiasis decreased significantly with the implementation of the integrated prevention and control strategy. Surveillance and management on elder population should be strengthened to decrease diseases burden. There remains a need for well-conducted studies that examine the long-term cost-effectiveness of the integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis. GRAPHIC ABSTARCT.

4.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864372

RESUMO

Gene mutations on target sites can be a valuable indicator of the status of insecticide resistance. Jeddah, a global commercial and major port-of-entry city, is bearing the brunt of dengue disease burden in Saudi Arabia. In the current study, six genotypes of three codon combinations (989, 1016, and 1534) were observed on voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene in Jeddah's Aedes aegypti population, with PGF/PGC as the dominant one. Two types of introns between exon 20 and 21 on VGSC have been identified for the first time in Ae. aegypti in Saudi Arabia. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses showed that the intron type was significantly associated with the 1016 allele and may reflect the history of insecticide treatment in different continents. In addition, fixation of the L1014F allele on VGSC and G119S on acetylcholinesterase 1 gene was detected in local Culex quinquefasciatus populations, with frequencies of 95.24 and 100%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of resistant-associated mutations in field-caught Cx. quinquefasciatus in Saudi Arabia. The high prevalence of insecticide resistance gene mutations in local primary mosquito vector species highlights the urgent need to carry out comprehensive insecticide resistance surveillance in Saudi Arabia.

5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 50, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a neglected cross-species parasitic disease transmitted between canines and livestock, echinococcosis remains a global public health concern with a heavy disease burden. In China, especially in the epidemic pastoral communities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the harsh climate, low socio-economic status, poor overall hygiene, and remote and insufficient access to all owned dogs exacerbate the difficulty in implementing the ambitious control programme for echinococcosis. We aimed to design and implement a remote management system (RMS) based on internet of things (IoT) for control and surveillance of echinococcosis by combining deworming devices to realise long-distance smart deworming control, smooth statistical analysis and result display. New methods and tools are urgently needed to increase the deworming coverage and frequency, promote real-time scientific surveillance, and prevent transmission of echinococcosis in remoted transmission areas. METHODS: From 2016 to 2019, we had cooperated and developed the smart collar and smart feeder with the Central Research Institute of Shanghai Electric Group Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China) and Shenzhen Jizhi Future Technology Co., Ltd. (Shenzhen, China). From September 2019 to March 2020, We had proposed the RMS based on IoT as a novel tool to control smart deworming devices to deliver efficient praziquantel (PZQ) baits to dogs regularly and automatically and also as a smart digital management platform to monitor, analyse, and display the epidemic trends of echinococcosis dynamically, in real time in Hezuo City, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China. Starting from January 2018, The RMS has been maintained and upgraded by Shanghai Yier Information Technology Co., Ltd (Shanghai, China). The database was based on MySQL tools and the Chi-square test was used to probe the difference and changes of variables in different groups. RESULTS: The smart collars are fully capable of anti-collision, waterproof, and cold-proof performance, and the battery's energy is sufficient, the anti-collision rate, water-proof rate, cold-proof rate and voltage normal rate is 99.6% (521/523), 100.0% (523/523), 100.0% (523/523) and 100.0% (523/523), respectively. The RMS can accurately analyse the monitoring data and parameters including positive rates of canine faeces, and the prevalence of echinococcosis in the general population livestock, and children. The data of dogs deworming and surveillance for echinococcosis is able to be controlled using RMS and has expanded gradually in townships to the whole Hezuo region. The automatic delivering PZQ rate, collar positioning rate, deliver PZQ reminding rate, and fault report rate is 91.1% (1914/2102), 92.1% (13 580/14 745), 92.1% (1936/2102) and 84.7% (1287/1519), respectively. After using the RMS from 2019, the missing rate of monitoring data decreased from 32.1% (9/28) to 0 (0/16). A total of 48 administrators (3, 3, 8, 11, 23 at the provincial, municipal, county, township, village levels, respectively) participated in the questionnaire survey, with 93.8% of its overall satisfaction rate. CONCLUSIONS: The existing difficulties and challenges in the way of prevention and control for echinococcosis can partially be resolved using the innovative, IoT-based technologies and tools. The proposed RMS advance the upgrade of existing manual prevention and control models for echinococcosis, especially in the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as social distance and community blockade continue.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Equinococose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Robótica , Animais , Cães , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Internet das Coisas , Pandemias , Quarentena , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Tibet/epidemiologia
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 51, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875017

RESUMO

Malaria was once one of the most serious public health problems in China, with more than 30 million malaria cases annually before 1949. However, the disease burden has sharply declined and the epidemic areas has shrunken after the implementation of an integrated malaria control and elimination strategy, especially since 2000. Till now, China has successfully scaled up its efforts to become malaria-free and is currently being evaluated for malaria-free certification by the WHO. In the battle against malaria, China's efforts have spanned generations, reducing from an incidence high of 122.9/10 000 (6.97 million cases) in 1954 to 0.06/10 000 (7855 cases) in 2010. In 2017, for the first time, China reached zero indigenous case of malaria, putting the country on track to record three consecutive years of zero transmission by 2020, accoding to the National Malaria Elimination Action Plan (2010-2020). China's efforts to eliminate malaria is impressive, and the country is dedicated to sharing its lessons learned in malaria elimination-including, but not limited to, the application of novel genetics-based approaches-with other nations through new initiatives. China will promote international relationships and establish collaborative platforms on a wide range of topics in roughly 65 countries, including 20 African nations. China's experience in applying innovative genetics-based approaches and tools to characterize malaria parasite populations, including surveillance of markers related to drug resistance, categorization of cases as indigenous or imported, and objective identification of the likely sources of infections to inform efforts towards malaria control and elimination in Africa could offer game-changing results when applied to settings with ongoing transmission.

8.
Geospat Health ; 16(1)2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733649

RESUMO

The transition from the control phase to elimination of malaria in China through the national malaria elimination programme has focussed attention on the need for improvement of the surveillance- response systems. It is now understood that routine passive surveillance is inadequate in the parasite elimination phase that requires supplementation by active surveillance in foci where cluster cases have occurred. This study aims to explore the spatial clusters and temporal trends of malaria cases by the multivariate auto-regressive state-space model (MARSS) along the border to Myanmar in southern China. Data for indigenous cases spanning the period from 2007 to 2010 were extracted from the China's Infectious Diseases Information Reporting Management System (IDIRMS). The best MARSS model indicated that malaria transmission in the study area during 36 months could be grouped into three clusters. The estimation of malaria transmission patterns showed a downward trend across all clusters. The proposed methodology used in this study offers a simple and rapid, yet effective way to categorize patterns of foci which provide assistance for active monitoring of malaria in the elimination phase.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax , Malária , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Plasmodium vivax
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009193, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788843

RESUMO

Single brain enhancing lesions (SEL) are the most common presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC) observed on neuroimaging in people presenting with epileptic seizures not only on the Indian sub-continent and in travelers returning from cysticercosis-endemic regions, but are also present in other parts of the world. The aim of this study, which consisted of a systematic review (CRD42019087665), a meta-analysis and an expert group consultation, was to reach consensus on the best anti-seizure medication and anti-inflammatory treatment for individuals with SEL NCC. Standard literature review methods were used. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used and random effects model meta-analyses were performed. The quality of the body of evidence was rated using GRADE tables. The expert committee included 12 gender and geographically balanced members and recommendations were reached by applying the GRADE framework for guideline development. The 1-1.5-year cumulative incidence of seizure recurrence, cyst resolution or calcification following anti-seizure medication (ASM) withdrawal was not statistically different between ASM of 6, 12 or 24 months. In contrast, in persons whose cyst calcified post treatment, longer ASM decreased seizure recurrence. The cumulative incidence ratio (CIR) 1-1.5 years after stopping ASM was 1.79 95% CI: (1.00, 3.20) for patients given 6 versus 24 months treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids in patients treated with ASM compared to patients treated with ASM only showed a statistically significant beneficial effect on seizure reduction (CIR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23, 0.85) and cyst resolution (CIR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.75). Our results indicate that ASM in patients with SEL NCC whose cysts resolved can be withdrawn, while patients whose cysts calcified seem to benefit from prolonged anti-seizure medication. Additional corticosteroid treatment was found to have a beneficial effect both on seizure reduction and cyst resolution.

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 626368, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718273

RESUMO

Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are rapidly spreading due to increasing international travel and trade. Routine mosquito surveillance and screening for mosquito-borne pathogens can be early indicators for local disease transmission and outbreaks. However, arbovirus detection in mosquito vectors has rarely been reported in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 769,541 Aedes and Culex mosquitoes were collected by Black Hole traps during routine mosquito surveillance in the first half of 2016. Culex. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti were the most prevalent species observed. Twenty-five and 24 randomly selected pools of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively, were screened for arboviruses by RT-PCR. Results: Dengue 2 (DENV-2) and four strains of insect-specific flaviviruses, including one of cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV) and three of Phlebotomus-associated flavivirus (PAFV) were detected in pools of Ae. aegypti. We also detected 10 strains of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) in pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Phylogenetic analysis using whole genome sequences placed the DENV strain into the cosmopolitan 1 sub-DENV-2 genotype, and the CxFVs into the African/Caribbean/Latin American genotype. These analyses also showed that the DENV-2 strain detected in the present study was closely related to strains detected in China in 2014 and in Japan in 2018, which suggests frequent movement of DENV-2 strains among these countries. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis suggested at least five introductions of DENV-2 into Saudi Arabia from 2014 through 2018, most probably from India. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study reports the first detection of four arboviruses DENV, CFAV, PAFV, and CxFV in mosquitoes in Saudi Arabia, which shows that they are co-circulating in Jeddah. Our findings show a need for widespread mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance programs in Saudi Arabia, which will improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of the mosquito-borne arboviruses within the country and help early predict and mitigate the risk of human infections and outbreaks.

11.
Malar J ; 20(1): 73, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of multidrug resistance poses a significant risk to malaria control and eradication goals in the world. There has been no indigenous malaria cases reported in China since 2017, and China is approaching national malaria elimination. Therefore, anti-malarial drug resistance surveillance and tracking the emergence and spread of imported drug-resistant malaria cases will be necessary in a post-elimination phase in China. METHODS: Dried blood spots were obtained from Plasmodium falciparum-infected cases returned from Africa to China between 2012 and 2015, prior to anti-malarial drug treatment. Whole DNA were extracted and known polymorphisms relating to drug resistance of pfcrt, pfmdr1 gene, and the propeller domain of pfk13 were evaluated by nested PCR and sequencing. The haplotypes and prevalence of these three genes were evaluated separately. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate differences among the different sub-regions of Africa. A P value < 0.05 was used to evaluate differences with statistical significance. The maps were created using ArcGIS. RESULTS: A total of 731 P. falciparum isolates were sequenced at the pfcrt locus. The wild type CVMNK was the most prevalent haplotype with prevalence of 62.8% and 29.8% of the isolates showed the triple mutant haplotype CVIET. A total of 434 P. falciparum isolates were successfully sequenced and pfmdr1 allelic variants were observed in only codons 86, 184 and 1246. Twelve haplotypes were identified and the prevalence of the wild type pfmdr1 NYD was 44.1%. The single mutant pfmdr1 in codons 86 and 184 was predominant but the haplotype NYY with single mutation in codon 1246 was not observed. The double mutant haplotype YFD was common in Africa. About 1,357 isolates were successfully sequenced of pfk13-propeller domain, the wild type was found in 1,308 samples (96.4%) whereby 49 samples (3.6%) had mutation in pfk13. Of 49 samples with pfk13 mutations, 22 non-synonymous and 4 synonymous polymorphic sites were confirmed. The A578S was the most common mutation in pfk13-propeller domain and three mutations associated with artemisinin resistance (M476I, R539T, P553L) were identified in three isolates. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that could give insight into potential issues with anti-malarial drug resistance to inform national drug policy in China in order to treat imported cases.

12.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 7, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS+) was established in 1998, which has developed close partnerships with Asian countries endemic for schistosomiasis and other helminthiasis in Asia. RNAS+ has provided an ideal regional platform for policy-makers, practitioners and researchers on the prevention, control and research of parasitic diseases in Asian countries. China, one of the initiating countries, has provided significant technical and financial support to the regional network. However, its roles and contributions have not been explored so far. The purpose of this study was to assess China's contributions on the supporting of RNAS+ development. METHODS: An assessment research framework was developed to evaluate China's contributions to RNAS+ in four aspects, including capacity building, funding support, coordination, and cooperation. An anonymous web-based questionnaire was designed to acquire respondents' basic information, and information on China's contributions, challenges and recommendations for RNAS+development. Each participant scored from 0 to 10 to assess China's contribution: "0" represents no contribution, and "10" represents 100% contribution. Participants who included their e-mail address in the 2017-2019 RNAS+ annual workshops were invited to participate in the assessment. RESULTS: Of 71 participants enrolled, 41 responded to the survey. 37 (37/41, 90.24%) of them were from RNAS+ member countries, while the other 4 (4/41, 9.76%) were international observers. Most of the respondents (38/41, 92.68%) were familiar with RNAS+. Respondents reported that China's contributions mainly focused on improving capacity building, providing funding support, coordination responsibility, and joint application of cooperation programs on RNAS+ development. The average scores of China's contributions in the above four fields were 8.92, 8.64, 8.75, and 8.67, respectively, with an overall assessment score of 8.81 (10 for a maximum score). The challenge of RNAS+ included the lack of sustainable funding, skills, etc. and most participants expressed their continual need of China's support. CONCLUSIONS: This survey showed that China has played an important role in the development of RNAS+ since its establishment. This network-type organization for disease control and research can yet be regarded as a great potential pattern for China to enhance regional cooperation. These findings can be used to promote future cooperation between China and other RNAS+ member countries.

13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 5, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused substantial disruptions to health services in the low and middle-income countries with a high burden of other diseases, such as malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. METHODS: We present a data-driven method to quantify the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), could lead to the change of malaria transmission potential in 2020. First, we adopt a particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate epidemiological parameters in each country by fitting the time series of the cumulative number of reported COVID-19 cases. Then, we simulate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under two groups of NPIs: (1) contact restriction and social distancing, and (2) early identification and isolation of cases. Based on the simulated epidemic curves, we quantify the impact of COVID-19 epidemic and NPIs on the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Finally, by treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020, we evaluate the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential based on the notion of vectorial capacity. RESULTS: We conduct case studies in four malaria-endemic countries, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia, in Africa. The epidemiological parameters (i.e., the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] and the duration of infection [Formula: see text]) of COVID-19 in each country are estimated as follows: Ethiopia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Nigeria ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Tanzania ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), and Zambia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Based on the estimated epidemiological parameters, the epidemic curves simulated under various NPIs indicated that the earlier the interventions are implemented, the better the epidemic is controlled. Moreover, the effect of combined NPIs is better than contact restriction and social distancing only. By treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020 as a baseline, our results show that even with stringent NPIs, malaria transmission potential will remain higher than expected in the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: By quantifying the impact of various NPI response to the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential, this study provides a way to jointly address the syndemic between COVID-19 and malaria in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. The results suggest that the early intervention of COVID-19 can effectively reduce the scale of the epidemic and mitigate its impact on malaria transmission potential.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/terapia , /transmissão , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Cadeias de Markov , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sindemia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The damage inflicted by the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic upon humanity is and will continue to be considerable. Unprecedented progress made in global health over the past 20 years has reverted and economic growth has already evaporated, giving rise to a global recession, the likes of which we may not have experienced since the Second World War. Our aim is to draw the attention of the neglected tropical disease (NTD) community towards some of the major emerging economic opportunities which are quickly appearing on the horizon as a result of COVID-19. MAIN TEXT: This scoping review relied on a literature search comprised of a sample of articles, statements, and press releases on initiatives aimed at mitigating the impact of COVID-19, while supporting economic recovery. Of note, the donor scenario and economic development agendas are highly dynamic and expected to change rapidly as the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds, as are donor and lender priorities. CONCLUSIONS: The NTD community, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), will need to work quickly, diligently, and in close collaboration with decision-makers and key stakeholders, across sectors at national and international level to secure its position. Doing so might enhance the odds of grasping potential opportunities to access some of the massive resources that are now available in the form of contributions from corporate foundations, trust funds, loans, debt relieve schemes, and other financial mechanisms, as part of the ongoing and future economic development agendas and public health priorities driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper should serve as a starting point for the NTD community to seek much needed financial support in order to sustain and revitalize control and elimination efforts pertaining to NTDs in LMICs.


Assuntos
/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Status Econômico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Pobreza , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Clima Tropical , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0009116, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507969

RESUMO

Clonorchis sinensis infection is highly prevalent in Asia. Diverse hepatobiliary morbidity has been documented for C. sinensis infection. This study aimed to assess the association between C. sinensis infection and hepatobiliary morbidity, taking into consideration of the control, confounders and infection intensity. A cross-sectional community survey was implemented in Hengxian county, southeastern China. Helminth infections were detected by fecal examination. Physical examination and abdominal ultrasonography were then conducted. After excluding confounding effects from gender, age and alcohol drinking, quantitative association between C. sinensis infection and hepatobiliary morbidity was assessed, and the effect from infection intensity was also evaluated, through adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). 696 villagers older than 10 years were enrolled. The prevalence and infection intensity of C. sinensis were higher in male, elder people and the individuals consuming alcohol. Light C. sinensis infection was associated with the increase of diarrhoea (aOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). C. sinensis infection was associated with the increase of fatty liver (aOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.2), and the effect was similar in different infection intensities. Moderate C. sinensis infection was associated with the increase of gallbladder stone (aOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-8.6), while moderate and heavy infections with the increase of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation (aOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.9 and aOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.9, respectively). C. sinensis infection had an effect on the development of periductal fibrosis (aOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.9), which showed increasing trend by infection intensity. The length and width of gallbladder in those with C. sinensis infection were enlarged, especially in those over 30 years old. C. sinensis infection is significantly associated with hepatobiliary morbidity. The occurrence of some morbidity was strongly related to the infection intensity. Awareness on harm of clonorchiasis should be raised both for policy-makers and villagers to adopt effective interventions.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Clonorchis sinensis , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Vesícula Biliar , Cálculos Biliares , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 165, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a disease caused by parasites, is controlled in most provinces in China, it is still a serious public health problem and remains fundamentally uncontrolled in some northwest provinces and autonomous regions. The objective of this study is to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of VL in Sichuan Province, Gansu Province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China from 2004 to 2018 and to identify the risk areas for VL transmission. METHODS: Spatiotemporal models were applied to explore the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of VL and the association between VL and meteorological factors in western China from 2004 to 2018. Geographic information of patients from the National Diseases Reporting Information System operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was defined according to the address code from the surveillance data. RESULTS: During our study period, nearly 90% of cases occurred in some counties in three western regions (Sichuan Province, Gansu Province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), and a significant spatial clustering pattern was observed. With our spatiotemporal model, the transmission risk, autoregressive risk and epidemic risk of these counties during our study period were also well predicted. The number of VL cases in three regions of western China concentrated on a few of counties. VL in Kashi Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is still serious prevalent, and integrated control measures must be taken in different endemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: The number of VL cases in three regions of western China concentrated on a few of counties. VL in Kashi Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is still serious prevalent, and integrated control measures must be taken in different endemic areas. Our findings will strengthen the VL control programme in China.

17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 164, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the promotion of national control programs on parasitic and tropical diseases in China, the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has gained significant experience in the global health arena through international cooperation over the last seven decades allowing a multilateral impact in the elimination of major endemic diseases. METHODS: The achievements of NIPD since 1950 has been analyzed with emphasis on the various stages that started with research and control of the endemic parasitic and other tropical diseases at the national level and progressed via international cooperation into a global presence. RESULTS: The major achievements contributed by NIPD consist of (i) improving technical capability; (ii) promoting control and elimination of parasitic and tropical diseases; (iii) participating in global health governance and cooperation; and (iv) developing a cooperation model for technical assistance and global public health development. It is expected that NIPD's experience of international cooperation will be essential for the dissemination of China's successful experience in global health governance, emergency response and development, with focus on malaria and neglected tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis, soil-borne and food-borne helminthiases and echinococcosis. CONCLUSIONS: NIPD's new tasks will not only continue to promote national control of endemic parasitic infections and disease elimination programs in China, but also play a leading role in global health and disease elimination programs in the future.

18.
Malar J ; 19(1): 427, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria was once a serious public health problem in China, with Plasmodium vivax the major species responsible for more than 90% of local transmission. Following significant integrated malaria control and elimination programmes, malaria burden declined, and since 2017 China has not recorded any indigenous case. To understand the historical malaria transmission patterns and epidemic characteristics in China and insights useful to guide P. vivax malaria control and elimination elsewhere, a retrospective study was carried out. METHODS: Historical data from a pilot study conducted in Guantang, Luyi in central China from 1971-1995, were digitized. The data included monthly numbers of reported cases, febrile cases, parasite carriage rates, the neonatal infection rate, and entomological data regarding Anopheles sinensis. RESULTS: Following 25 years of continuous integrated malaria control activities, malaria incidence in Guantang decreased from 4,333 cases per 10,000 in 1970 before integrated implementation to 0.23 cases per 10,000 in 1991, and no cases in 1992-1995. Some fluctuations in incidence were observed between 1977 and 1981. During the period parasite rates, antibody levels and the neonatal infection rate also decreased. The pattern of seasonality confirmed that P. vivax in Henan Province was primarily of the long incubation type (temperate) during non-transmission period. The findings retrospectively provide a scientific basis for the implementation of mass campaigns of liver stage hypnozoite clearance. Entomological studies indicated that An. sinensis was the only vector, and it preferred bovine to human hosts, predominantly biting and resting outdoors. Mosquito densities declined between 1971 and 1984. CONCLUSION: The integrated malaria control approach in Guantang effectively controlled malaria and achieved elimination. Analysis of the effectiveness of the programme can provide guidance to other regions or countries with similar ecological settings aiming to move from malaria control to elimination. There is a potential challenge in the maintenance of non-transmission status owing to imported cases and the long dormancy of liver stage hypnozoites.

19.
Acta Trop ; : 105752, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188749

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease in China because of the popularity in ingesting raw freshwater fish. To explore the epidemiology and determinants of clonorchiasis in children, a cross-sectional survey was implemented in two middle schools in Qiyang county, Hunan province, in southeastern China. Questionnaire survey and fecal examination were implemented. Questionnaires were fed back by 627 students, while stool samples were collected from 557 students, out of which 545 ones also provided questionnaire information. The percentage of students ingesting raw freshwater fish was 40.5% (254/627), while the prevalence with Clonorchis sinensis infection was 18.9% (105/557). Such factors contributed significantly to the students' practice in eating raw freshwater fish including boys, fathers' eating raw freshwater fish, mothers' eating raw freshwater fish, and preparation of raw freshwater fish at home, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.3-2.8), 3.9 (95% CI: 2.3-6.5), 3.0 (95% CI: 1.8-4.8) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8-4.5), correspondingly. Ingestion of raw freshwater fish, fathers' eating raw freshwater fish and preparation of raw freshwater fish at home were risk factors of C. sinensis infection in students, and the adjusted odds ratio was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9-5.5), 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0-3.2), respectively. Thus, clonorchiasis was endemic in the surveyed schools due to the ingestion of raw freshwater fish, which is influenced by family environment. Education should be implemented in schools to promote behavioral change of eating raw freshwater fish.

20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 552698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193320

RESUMO

Malaria is a public health concern worldwide, and Togo has proven to be no exception. Effective approaches to provide information on biological insights for disease elimination are therefore a research priority. Local selection on malaria pathogens is due to multiple factors including host immunity. We undertook genome-wide analysis of sequence variation on a sample of 10 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) clinical isolates from Togo to identify local-specific signals of selection. Paired-end short-read sequences were mapped and aligned onto > 95% of the 3D7 Pf reference genome sequence in high fold coverage. Data on 266 963 single nucleotide polymorphisms were obtained, with average nucleotide diversity π = 1.79 × 10-3. Both principal component and neighbor-joining tree analyses showed that the Togo parasites clustered according to their geographic (Africa) origin. In addition, the average genome-wide diversity of Pf from Togo was much higher than that from other African samples. Tajima's D value of the Togo isolates was -0.56, suggesting evidence of directional selection and/or recent population expansion. Against this background, within-population analyses identifying loci of balancing and recent positive selections evidenced that host immunity has been the major selective agent. Importantly, 87 and 296 parasite antigen genes with Tajima's D values > 1 and in the top 1% haplotype scores, respectively, include a significant representation of membrane proteins at the merozoite stage that invaded red blood cells (RBCs) and parasitized RBCs surface proteins that play roles in immunoevasion, adhesion, or rosetting. This is consistent with expectations that elevated signals of selection due to allele-specific acquired immunity are likely to operate on antigenic targets. Collectively, our data suggest a recent expansion of Pf population in Togo and evidence strong host immune selection on membrane/surface antigens reflected in signals of balancing/positive selection of important gene loci. Findings from this study provide a fundamental basis to engage studies for effective malaria control in Togo.

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