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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 95, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance systems are essential for effective disease intervention and control by monitoring disease prevalence as time series. To evaluate the severity of an epidemic, statistical methods are widely used to forecast the trend, seasonality, and the possible number of infections of a disease. However, most statistical methods are limited in revealing the underlying dynamics of disease transmission, which may be affected by various impact factors, such as environmental, meteorological, and physiological factors. In this study, we focus on investigating malaria transmission dynamics based on time series data. METHODS: A data-driven nonlinear stochastic model is proposed to infer and predict the dynamics of malaria transmission based on the time series of prevalence data. Specifically, the dynamics of malaria transmission is modeled based on the notion of vectorial capacity (VCAP) and entomological inoculation rate (EIR). A particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC) method is employed to estimate the model parameters. Accordingly, a one-step-ahead prediction method is proposed to project the number of future malaria infections. Finally, two case studies are carried out on the inference and prediction of Plasmodium vivax transmission in Tengchong and Longling, Yunnan province, China. RESULTS: The results show that the trained data-driven stochastic model can well fit the historical time series of P. vivax prevalence data in both counties from 2007 to 2010. Moreover, with well-trained model parameters, the proposed one-step-ahead prediction method can achieve better performances than that of the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model with respect to predicting the number of future malaria infections. CONCLUSIONS: By involving dynamically changing impact factors, the proposed data-driven model together with the PMCMC method can successfully (i) depict the dynamics of malaria transmission, and (ii) achieve accurate one-step-ahead prediction about malaria infections. Such a data-driven method has the potential to investigate malaria transmission dynamics in other malaria-endemic countries/regions.

2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 91, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum-resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been largely reported among pregnant women. However, the profile of resistance markers to SP dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) in the general population are varied and not frequently monitored. Currently, SP is used as partner drug for artemisinin combination therapy (SP-artesunate) in some sub-Saharan African countries or as a prophylactic drug in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy and infants and in seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Profiling of P. falciparum-resistant genotypes to SP is dynamic and critical in providing data that would be useful for malaria control programmes. This study assessed the profile of dhfr and dhps genes genotypes among individuals with malaria in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: Molecular markers of SP resistance were identified by nested PCR and sequenced among malaria positive dried blood spots (DBS) that were collected from individuals attending health facilities from January 2013 to February 2014 and during community surveys from October 2010 to September 2011 across different Local Government Areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. RESULTS: A total of 242 and 167 samples were sequenced for dhfr and dhps, respectively. Sequence analysis of dhfr showed that 95.5% (231/242), 96.3% (233/242) and 96.7% (234/242) of the samples had N51I, C59R and S108N mutant alleles, respectively. The prevalence of dhps mutation at codons A437G, A613S, S436A, A581G, I431V and K540E were 95.8% (160/167), 41.9% (70/167), 41.3% (69/167), 31.1% (52/167), 25.1% (42/167), and 1.2% (2/167) respectively. The prevalence of triple mutations (CIRNI) in dhfr was 93.8% and 44.3% for the single dhps haplotype mutation (SGKAA). Partial SP-resistance due to quadruple dhfr-dhps haplotype mutations (CIRNI-SGKAA) and octuple haplotype mutations (CIRNI-VAGKGS) with rate of 42.6% and 22.0%, respectively has been reported. CONCLUSIONS: There was increased prevalence in dhfr triple haplotype mutations when compared with previous reports in the same environment but aligned with high prevalence in other locations in Nigeria and other countries in Africa. Also, high prevalence of dhfr and dhps mutant alleles occurred in the study areas in Lagos, Nigeria five to eight years after the introduction of artemisinin combination therapy underscores the need for continuous monitoring.

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 86, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646512

RESUMO

Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases represent a public health challenge of international concern. They include a large group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which are of zoonotic nature. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), another emerging zoonotic disease, has just increased the stakes exponentially. Most NTDs are subject to the impact of some of the very same human-related activities triggering other emerging and re-emerging diseases, including COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bird flu and swine flu. It is conceivable that COVID-19 will exacerbate the NTDs, as it will divert much needed financial and human resources. There is considerable concern that recent progress achieved with control and elimination efforts will be reverted. Future potential strategies will need to reconsider the determinants of health in NTDs in order to galvanize efforts and come up with a comprehensive, well defined programme that will set the stage for an effective multi-sectorial approach. In this Commentary, we propose areas of potential synergies between the COVID-19 pandemic control efforts, other health and non-health sector initiatives and NTD control and elimination programmes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Alocação de Recursos , Medicina Tropical/tendências , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
4.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 349-371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563331

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases have been widely epidemic in China with a long history. Great endeavours made in past 70 years led to significant decrease in morbidity and mortablity caused by several major parasitic diseases, while challenges existed to eliminate parasitic diseases. Surveillance-response system has play a crucial role in identifying public health problems, ascertaining the distribution and epidemic dynamics, discovering outbreaks and epidemic anomalies, evaluating the effects of on-site intervention activities and identifying risk factors. In this article, we reviewed the progress of the surveillance system for parasitic diseases, analysed the role of NIPD in the construction and application of surveillance-response system of parasitic diseases through elaborating the surveillance activities and typical surveillance-response events led by NIPD. Suggestion and comments for improve the surveillance-response system were put forward for further control or elimination of parasitic diseases.

5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533403

RESUMO

The fresh water snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe. Despite the medical importance of this intermediate host, there are no current data on its molecular characterization in Zimbabwe. In 2016, human water contact sites were identified in four communities in Madziwa area, Shamva district, Zimbabwe. The survey sites were recorded and mapped using a global positioning system. A 655 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene was amplified in 70 B. pfeifferi snails. The sequence data were analysed to determine the relationships between the individual snails, their inter, intra population diversity and structure. Overall, four unique cox1 haplotypes, with a haplotype diversity of 0.608, were identified in the snails. One haplotype spanned across most of the sites. There was no clear geographical clustering of haplotypes. The mean diversity among the haplotypes was very low (0.009), while the net divergence among the collection sites ranged from 0.000 to 0.026. The diversity within and between the sites was 0.017 and 0.012 respectively. This data advances our knowledge of the understanding of the population structure of B. pfeifferi in Madziwa area, Zimbabwe, with the high occurrence of one haplotype indicating the possibility of a recent bottleneck followed by population expansion. The population genetic structure of B. pfeifferi snails described here has provided an opportunity to investigate the contribution of snail genetics to variation in disease burden; and development of control strategies that exploit genetic differences in susceptibility to parasites.

6.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 1-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563322

RESUMO

Being a zoonotic parasitic disease, schistosomiasis was widely spread in 12 provinces of Southern China in the 1950s, severly harming human health and hindering economic development. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, and Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research (NIPD-CTDR), as the only professional institution focussing on parasitic diseases at the national level, has played an important role in schistosomiasis control in the country. In this article, we look back at the changes of schistosomiasis endemicity and the contribution of NIPD-CTDR to the national schistosomiasis control programme. We review NIPD-CTDR's activities, including field investigations, design of control strategies and measures, development of diagnostics and drugs, surveillance-response of endemic situation, and monitoring & evaluation of the programme. The NIPD-CTDR has mastered the transmission status of schistosomiasis, mapped the snail distribution, and explored strategies and measures suitable for different types of endemic areas in China. With a good understanding of the life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum and transmission patterns of the disease, advanced research carried out in the NIPD-CTDR based on genomics and modern technology has made it possible to explore highly efficient and soft therapeutic drugs and molluscicides, making it possible to develop new diagnostic tools and produce vaccine candidates. In the field, epidemiological studies, updated strategies and targeted intervention measures developed by scientists from the NIPD-CTDR have contributed significantly to the national schistosomiasis control programme. This all adds up to a strong foundation for eliminating schistosomiasis in China in the near future, and recommendations have been put forward how to reach this goal.

7.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 185-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563325

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania spp. is an important vector-borne disease prevalent in China. VL was rampant in the vast area of China north of the Yangtze River before the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. As a result of strenuous interventions, the disease was basically eliminated in most of the former epidemic areas in 1958-60. At present, only sporadic cases occur in the western regions of China. In the process, National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at China CDC and the Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research (NIPD-CTDR) have achieved great impact in controlling the diseases as well as in research on Leishmania spp. This review summarized the contribution of experts from NIPD-CTDR to the control and elimination of VL in various aspects, such as understanding the epidemiological features of VL, confirmation of VL vectors and their distribution, development of control tools including diagnostics and insecticides, monitoring and evaluation supported by information management, technical supports to the control programmes, as well as analysis of the challenges faced. At the same time, it puts forward constructive suggestions for the ultimate interruption of VL transmission in China.

8.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 217-244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563326

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) have been widely transmitted in China and the control of STHs was initiated by NIPD-CTDR since its foundation. Three national surveys on STHs have been carried out in China, and the infection rate has dropped from 53.58% in the first national survey (1988-92) to 4.49% in the third national survey (2014-16) due to strong interventions including mass drug administration, health education and environment improvement. National surveillance of STHs started in 2006 and has been implemented successively until now, which allows to understand the endemic status and trends of STHs prevalence in China. Surveillance has been expanded to 30 provinces of China since 2016. Integrated pilot programmes have been implemented between 2006 and 2009, in which an integrated strategy, with health education and control of infection sources as key components, was adopted. Since 2019, new control pilots have been started, which will be continued for five successive years to further explore appropriate control strategies in the current "new era". With the decline of infection rate of STHs, China is approaching the elimination stage for STHs. In order to achieve this final target, poverty alleviation programmes should be integrated with precise control measures, according to real situations.

9.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 245-267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563327

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis is caused by ingestion of raw freshwater fish containing infective larvae of Clonorchis sinensis. China harbours the largest number of people with C. sinensis infection. During the past three decades, the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, affiliated to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD) conducted many studies to facilitate the control on clonorchiasis. Three national surveys have shown the updated epidemiology of clonorchiasis in China. Recently, a national surveillance system has also been established, which will enable the production of high-resolution map. The evaluation of the disease burden has enhanced the awareness on clonorchiasis. Diverse diagnosis techniques including rapid screening by questionnaire, serological tests, faecal examination and a molecular method have been developed or evaluated. The NIPD also participated in the early evaluation of praziquantel against clonorchiasis, which enhanced its application in China. Also, the NIPD has verified the efficacy of tribendimidine against clonorchiasis. A new sustainable strategy is also being explored. However, more research is expected to further facilitate control of clonorchiasis in China, as well as international cooperation in fighting human liver fluke infections in Asia.

10.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 269-288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563328

RESUMO

Rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major infective agent of human eosinophilic meningitis (EM) in the world. The parasite was first noted in China in 1933. However, the public health importance was not realized until several EM outbreaks occurred recent years. Such disease is considered as emerging infectious disease in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) since the major source of infection is invasive snail species, particularly Pomacea spp. National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) initiated a systematic implementation research on this disease since 2003. Our researchers in NIPD developed the lung-microscopy for detecting A. cantonensis larvae in Pomacea snails and further accomplished the atlas of larval morphology by this method. We studied the determinants in infection, which helped the field collection of snails and improved the infection procedure in laboratory. Our researches promoted the promulgation of diagnosis criteria of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis by the Ministry of Health. We explored the molecular diversity of rat lungworm and its major snail host for development of source-tracing technique. The transmission modelling could provide the vulnerable area for surveillance. All the studies supported the surveillance system of EM caused by A. cantonensis in P.R. China. Such implementation research will provide a case study for control of emerging infectious diseases.

11.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 289-317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563329

RESUMO

National surveys suggest that the prevalence of taeniasis has considerably decreased in China, while reported cases indicated T. solium cysticercosis was historically highly endemic in northeastern, central and southwestern China. The high prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis there was driven by socio-ecological determinants. Cysticercosis may occur in the central nervous system, spinal cord, subcutaneous muscle, eyes, heart and oral cavity. Neurocysticercosis, the clinically most important type, causes epilepsy, increased intracranial pressure and neuropsychiatric symptoms. New molecular diagnostic techniques have been introduced for high sensitivity and discrimination of Taenia species. Immunological methods remain useful in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, especially neurocysticercosis. The introduction of imaging techniques including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has significantly improved the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Recently, a combination of pumpkin seeds and areca nut has been explored against taeniasis, while praziquantel and albendazole are administrated simultaneously against cysticercosis, with promising efficacy and low side-effects. The widespread adoption of deworming protocols and techniques for inspection, management and treatment of pigs as well as improved sewage management has contributed to the significant decrease of taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern China. The positive results of these techniques should now be extended to highly endemic areas in western China to achieve the national elimination target for taeniasis and cysticercosis. Elimination of taeniasis and cysticercosis in China will not only benefit public health within China but also set an important example for less developed countries.

12.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 319-347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563330

RESUMO

The analysis of epidemiological data has played an important role for the academic research carried out by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, China CDC, since its foundation in 1950s. Those researches, e.g., the temporal-spatial patterns of disease transmission and the identification of risk factors, have contributed significantly to the national parasitic disease control and elimination programmes in China. With the development and application of epidemiological data analysis in the last decade, all research results improve our understanding of parasitic diseases epidemiology and related health issues through the application platform of epidemiological big data and analytical tools. In particular, implementation research on analytical predictions on disease outbreak or epidemic risks have provided references to the scientific guidance on effective preventions and interventions in the parasitic disease elimination in China, such as fliariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis. This review has reflected the function of data accumulation and application of temporospatial tools in parasitic diseases control, and the ways of the NIPD's sustained contributions to the disease control programmes in China.

13.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 373-400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563332

RESUMO

The National Parasitic Resource Center (NPRC) was created in 2004. It is a first-level platform under the Basic Condition Platform Center of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. The resource centre involves 21 depository institutions in 15 regions of the country, including human parasite and vector depository, animal parasite depository, plant nematode characteristic specimen library, medical insect characteristic specimen library, trematode model specimen library, parasite-vector/snail model specimen library, etc. After nearly 15 years of operation, the resource centre has been built into a physical library with a database of 11 phyla, 23 classes, 1115 species and 117,814 pieces of parasitic germplasm resources, and three live collection bases of parasitic germplasm resources. A variety of new parasite-related immunological and molecular biological detection and identification technologies produced by the resource centre are widely used in the fields of public health responses, risk assessments on food safety, and animal or plant quarantine. The NPRC is the largest and top level resource centre on parasitology in China, and it is a leading technology platform for collecting and identifying parasitic resources.

14.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 401-427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563333

RESUMO

China has achieved a great success in control and elimination of key parasitic diseases. In 2007, the elimination of lymphatic filariasis was verified by WHO. The schistosomiasis incidence and snail-distributed areas have reduced to the lowest level in the history. The transmission and disease burden of echinococcosis have been contained largely, and the populations infected with soil-transmitted trematode and food-borne parasites have also shown a significantly declining trend. Because of rapid globalization and climate changes, however, many new challenges have arisen. In his paper, the 2020-2030 roadmaps towards the control and elimination of these key parasitic diseases are described. Moreover, China is actively implementing its global health strategy, and will be more and more engaged into global health affairs, in which a series of China-Africa health cooperation projects have been in planning with a wish of making a greater contribution to the SDGs.

15.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 63-105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563334

RESUMO

Although the past decades have seen a remarkable decrease in malaria-caused mortality and morbidity, the infection remains a significant challenge to global health. In the battle against malaria, China has gained notable feat and achievement since the 1940s through the efforts of several generations. Notably, China has not recorded a single indigenous malaria case since August 2016. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD), as the only specialized institution for parasitic disease at the national level, has played a significant role in the malaria control, prevention, and elimination in China in the different historical periods. In order to transfer Chinese experiences on malaria control and elimination to other Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) and to improve global health collaboration, we have summarized and reviewed the contributions and achievements by the NIPD over the past 70 years, covering the epidemic situation; field investigation and laboratory experimental research on both parasite and vector; research and development on diagnostics, drugs, and insecticides; surveillance and response; technical and international. Support and cooperation. In addition, we also focus in particular on malaria retransmission risk, strategies on management of imported malaria cases and mobile populations, surveillance and response capacity to be maintained in post-elimination stage, challenges on diagnosis, drug resistance, and insecticide resistance as future concerns.

17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 63, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A steady progress on schistosomiasis control in the Peoples' Republic of China (P.R. China) was achieved and broadened into the twelve-year medium and long term national plan (MLNP) which marled the implementation of an integrated control strategy across all endemic areas in P.R. China in 2004. To understand the endemic trends of schistosomiasis to assess the effectiveness of an integrated strategy, we conducted an analysis of schistosomiasis surveillance data spanned from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: The schistosomiasis sentinel surveillance data from sentinel sites were collected and analyzed from 2005 to 2015. In these sentinel sites, residents aged 6 years or above were screened annually by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), while only antibody positives were followed by stool examination either Kato-katz method (KK) and/or hatching technique (HT). Domestic animals raised in sentinel sites were examined by HT for confirming the infection of schistosomes. Snail investigation was conducted each year through systematic sampling method combined with environmental sampling method. The snails collected from field were tested by microscopic dissection method. The infection rates of schistosomes in residents, domestic animals and snails, as well as the indicators reflecting the snails' distribution were calculated and analyzed. ANOVA analysis was used to examine the changes of the number of eggs per gram feces in population and Chi-square test was used to examine any change in proportions among groups. RESULTS: A total of 148 902 residents from sentinel sites attended this study and 631 676 blood samples were examined by IHA test during the 11 covered years. The annual average antibody positive rates presented a significant decrease trends, from 17.48% (95% CI: 17.20-17.75%) in 2005 to 5.93% (95% CI: 5.71-6.15%) (χ2 = 8890.47, P < 0.001) in 2015. During 2005-2015, the average infection rate of schistosomes in residents declined from 2.07% (95% CI: 1.96-2.17%) to 0.13% (95% CI: 0.09-0.16%), accompanied by significant decrease of infection intensity in population. In 2015, the stool positives were only found in farmers, fishermen and boatmen with infection rate of 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11-0.20%), 0.17% (95% CI: 0-0.50%) respectively. The infection rate of schistosomes in domestic animals dropped from 9.42% (538/5711, 95% CI: 8.66-10.18%) to 0.08% (2/2360, 95% CI: 0-0.20%) from 2005 to 2015. Infections were found in eight species of domestic animals at the beginning of surveillance while only two cattle were infected in 2015. Totally 98 ha of new snail habitats were found, while 94.90% (93/98) distributed in lake and marshland regions. The percentage of frames with snails decreased from 16.96% (56 884/33 5391, 95% CI: 16.83-17.09%) in 2005 to 4.28% (18 121/423 755, 95% CI: 4.22-4.34%) in 2014, with a slightly increase in 2015. Meanwhile, the infection rate of schistosomes in snails was decreased from 0.26% (663/256 531, 95% CI: 0.24-0.28%) to zero during 2005-2015. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of schistosomes declined significantly, providing evidence that the goal of the MLNP was achieved. Elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem defined as WHO was also reached in P.R. China nationwide. Surveillance-response system should be improved and strengthened to realize the final goal of schistosomiasis elimination.

18.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 273, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fishermen and boatmen are a population at-risk for contracting schistosomiasis due to their high frequency of water contact in endemic areas of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China (P. R. China). To develop specific interventions towards this population, the present study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) towards schistosomiasis of fishermen and boatmen, and to identify the risk factors associated with schistosome infection using a molecular technique in a selected area of Hunan Province in P. R. China. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted in the Dongting Lake Basin of Yueyang County, Hunan Province. A total of 601 fishermen and boatmen were interviewed between October and November 2017. Information regarding sociodemographic details and KAPs towards schistosomiasis were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Fecal samples of participants were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the risk factors related to the positive results of PCR. RESULTS: Of the 601 respondents, over 90% knew schistosomiasis and how the disease was contracted, the intermediate host of schistosomes and preventive methods. The majority of respondents had a positive attitude towards schistosomiasis prevention. However, only 6.66% (40/601) of respondents had installed a latrine on their boats, while 32.61% (196/601) of respondents defecated in the public toilets on shore. In addition, only 4.99% (30/601) respondents protected themselves while exposed to freshwater. The prevalence of schistosomiasis, as determined by PCR, among fishermen and boatmen in Yueyang County was 13.81% (83/601). Age, years of performing the current job, number of times receiving treatment, and whether they were treated in past three years were the main influencing factors of PCR results among this population. CONCLUSIONS: Fishermen and boatmen are still at high risk of infection in P. R. China and gaps exist in KAPs towards schistosomiasis in this population group. Chemotherapy, and health education encouraging behavior change in combination with other integrated approaches to decrease the transmission risk in environments should be improved.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008263, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352962

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis is caused by raw-freshwater fish-eating practice and causes high burden in Asia. Transmission mechanism of this behavior hasn't been illuminated, which hinders the adoption of sustainable control activities. A cross-sectional survey was implemented in students from four endemic provinces in China. Data with 23,222 students aged 9-18 and their parents were eligible. Familial clustering of raw-eating practice, impact of parents' practice on children, interaction of spouses' practice was analyzed. Raw-eating practice met ß-binomial distribution (χ2 = 0.8, p>0.05). Clustering coefficient increased by students' age (R2 = 0.82, p<0.001) and was higher in those families with boys compared to girls (t = 4.1, p<0.01). The proportion of students with raw-eating practice increased yearly by 8.9% in girls and 10.5% in boys. Compared to those without parents' raw-eating practice, adjusted odds ratio of students' raw-eating practice was 10.5 (95% confidential intervals (95% CI): 9.4-11.7) in those with fathers' practice, 33.6 (95% CI: 26.3-42.9) in those with mothers' practice and 47.1 (95% CI: 42.0-52.8) in those with both parents' practice. There existed interaction between spouses' practice (χ2 = 6713.1, p<0.001) and the impact from husband on his wife was higher than that from wife on her husband. Familial assimilation characterizes the transmission of raw-freshwater fish-eating practice, consisted of vertical intergenerational assimilation from parents to their children and horizontal martial assimilation between spouses. A sustainable strategy against clonorchiasis should interrupt the transmission of raw-freshwater fish-eating practice. Additionally, further studies are expected to explore more information, e.g. the frequency in raw-eating practice and type of raw freshwater fish, infection status of C. sinensis in participants, as well as direct collection of parents' eating information from themselves.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Saúde da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Alimentos Crus/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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