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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(10): 1545-1557.e4, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525331

RESUMO

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods. Blood feeding ensures that ticks obtain nutrients essential for their survival, development, and reproduction while providing routes for pathogen transmission. However, the effectors that determine tick feeding activities remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that reduced abundance of the symbiont Coxiella (CHI) in Haemaphysalis longicornis decreases blood intake. Providing tetracycline-treated ticks with the CHI-derived tryptophan precursor chorismate, tryptophan, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) restores the feeding defect. Mechanistically, CHI-derived chorismate increases tick 5-HT biosynthesis by stimulating the expression of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to 5-HT. The increased level of 5-HT in the synganglion and midgut promotes tick feeding. Inhibition of CHI chorismate biosynthesis by treating the colonized tick with the herbicide glyphosate suppresses blood-feeding behavior. Taken together, our results demonstrate an important function of the endosymbiont Coxiella in the regulation of tick 5-HT biosynthesis and feeding.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 706830, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490191

RESUMO

Background: Adequate understanding and precautionary behaviors are of vital importance to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among different populations have been reported, whereas such information is unavailable in teachers. We aimed to investigate the KAP of teachers associated with COVID-19 during the global outbreak. Methods: A large-scale population-based survey was conducted to gather information on COVID-19-related KAP among Chinese teachers using a self-administered questionnaire. We received 10,658 responses in April 2020, out of which 8,248 were enrolled in the final analysis. Participants responded to a self-administered questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics and KAP associated with COVID-19. Results: This work included 4,252 (51.6%) teachers in kindergartens, 2,644 (32.1%) teachers in primary schools, and 1,352 (16.4%) teachers in secondary schools. The knowledge level (mean: 4.46 out of seven points) was relatively lower than the levels of attitudes (mean: 3.27 out of four points) and practices (mean: 4.29 out of five points) toward COVID-19. Knowledge scores significantly varied by the collected demographic variables except education worksite (p < 0.05), whereas practice scores significantly differed in age groups (p < 0.05), education level (p < 0.001), education worksite (p < 0.001), and years of teaching (p < 0.001). The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that poor knowledge related to COVID-19 was common among men, younger, and less-educated teachers. In contrast, female teachers and those with higher education levels tend to have good practices against COVID-19. Conclusion: The present work suggested the knowledge gaps regarding COVID-19 were needed to be corrected immediately in teachers. Given the critical role of teachers in the education system, health authorities should take gender, age, and education level into account when developing suitable health interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Patient Saf Surg ; 15(1): 30, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an uncommon but fatal complication among patients undergoing elective spinal fusion surgery (SF), total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our objective was to estimate the incidence of AMI among adults undergoing elective SF, THA, and TKA in different post-operative risk windows and characterize high-risk sub-populations in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from a longitudinal electronic healthcare record (EHR) database from January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2018. ICD codes were used to identify SF, THA, TKA, AMI, and selected clinical characteristics. Incidence proportions (IPs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated in the following risk windows: index hospitalization, ≤ 30, ≤ 90, ≤ 180, and ≤ 365 days post-operation. RESULTS: A total of 67,533 SF patients, 87,572 THA patients, and 167,480 TKA patients were eligible for the study. The IP of AMI after SF, THA, and TKA ranged from 0.36, 0.28, and 0.25% during index hospitalization to 1.05, 0.93, and 0.85% ≤ 365 days post-operation, respectively. The IP of AMI was higher among patients who were older, male, with longer hospital stays, had a history of AMI, and had a history of diabetes. CONCLUSION: The IP of post-operative AMI was generally highest among the SF cohort compared to the THA and TKA cohorts. Additionally, potential high-risk populations were identified. Future studies in this area are warranted to confirm these findings via improved confounder control and to identify effect measure modifiers.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 718603, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484223

RESUMO

Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. The prevalence and type of infection changes over time and is influenced by the course of immune reconstitution post-transplant. The interaction between pathogens and host immune responses is complex in HCT settings, since the conditioning regimens create periods of neutropenia and immunosuppressive drugs are often needed to prevent graft rejection and limit graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Experimental murine models of transplantation are valuable tools for dissecting the procedure-related alterations to innate and adaptive immunity. Here we review mouse models of post-HCT infectious pulmonary complications, primarily focused on three groups of pathogens that frequently infect HCT recipients: bacteria (often P. aeruginosa), fungus (primarily Aspergillus fumigatus), and viruses (primarily herpesviruses). These mouse models have advanced our knowledge regarding how the conditioning and HCT process negatively impacts innate immunity and have provided new potential strategies of managing the infections. Studies using mouse models have also validated clinical observations suggesting that prior or occult infections are a potential etiology of noninfectious pulmonary complications post-HCT as well.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479991

RESUMO

COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to infection. Using peripheral monocytes and sera from human patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-A59) (an established murine model of SARS), we identified that coronavirus induces an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2. This decrease in SETDB2 upon coronavirus infection results in a decrease of the repressive trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at NFkB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters, effectively increasing inflammation. Mφs isolated from mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of SETDB2 displayed increased pathologic inflammation following coronavirus infection. Further, IFNß directly regulates SETDB2 in Mφs via JaK1/STAT3 signaling, as blockade of this pathway altered SETDB2 and the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection. Importantly, we also found that loss of SETDB2 mediates an increased inflammatory response in diabetic Mϕs in response to coronavirus infection. Treatment of coronavirus-infected diabetic Mφs with IFNß reversed the inflammatory cytokine production via up-regulation of SETDB2/H3K9me3 on inflammatory gene promoters. Together, these results describe a potential mechanism for the increased Mφ-mediated cytokine storm in patients with T2D in response to COVID-19 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the IFNß/SETDB2 axis in T2D patients may decrease pathologic inflammation associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1285-1294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Microwave ablation (MWA) is used for the treatment of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), but its efficacy and safety still remained unclear. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided MWA in patients with SHPT. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases were searched to identify published studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of US-guided MWA in patients with SHPT. The primary outcomes were parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium and phosphorus levels. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies with 932 patients were identified. The PTH levels showed significant reduction at 1 month [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 945.33, 95% CI: 797.15∼1093.52] and 6 months (WMD = 1,151.91, 95% CI: 990.93∼1312.89) after MWA of SHPT patients. The serum calcium (WMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.30 ∼ 0.48) and phosphorus levels (WMD = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43 ∼ 0.85) showed significant reduction at 6 months after MWA of SHPT patients. The most common complications observed were hypocalcemia (35.2%) and transient hoarseness (9.2%). No other major complications or death occurred in our study patients. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest MWA as a safe and effective minimally invasive technique for the management of SHPT. PTH, calcium, and phosphorus levels were significantly reduced at 1 and 6 months after MWA.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
7.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 1098-1105, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411493

RESUMO

CONTEXT: 18ß-Glycyrrhetinic acid (18ß-GA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin metabolite of glycyrrhizin, exhibits several biological activities. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of 18ß-GA on MA104 cells infected with rotavirus (RV) and its potential mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to assess tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) and 50% cellular cytotoxicity (CC50) concentration. MA104 cells infected with RV SA11 were treated with 18ß-GA (1, 2, 4, and 8 µg/mL, respectively). Cytopathic effects were observed. The virus inhibition rate, concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50), and selection index (SI) were calculated. Cell cycle, cell apoptosis, and mRNA and protein expression related to the Fas/FasL pathway were detected. RESULTS: TCID50 of RV SA11 was 10-4.47/100 µL; the CC50 of 18ß-GA on MA104 cells was 86.92 µg/mL. 18ß-GA showed significant antiviral activity; EC50 was 3.14 µg/mL, and SI was 27.68. The ratio of MA104 cells infected with RV SA11 in the G0/G1 phase and the G2/M phase decreased and increased, respectively, after 18ß-GA treatment. 18ß-GA significantly induced apoptosis in the infected cells. Furthermore, after 18ß-GA treatment, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Fas, FasL, caspase 3, and Bcl-2 decreased, whereas the expression levels of Bax increased. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that 18ß-GA may be a promising candidate for the treatment of RV SA11 infection and provides theoretical support for the clinical development of glycyrrhizic acid compounds for the treatment of RV infection.

8.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 95: 100639, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334801

RESUMO

Background: Concerns have been raised that the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, or more severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may be higher in immunocompromised individuals receiving immunomodulatory therapies compared with immunocompetent individuals. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and polyarticular course juvenile idiopathic arthritis. To date, data on tofacitinib treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic are limited. Objectives: To summarize current understanding of the use of tofacitinib in adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, and discuss research questions that are yet to be addressed, to further inform the safe and effective use of tofacitinib in clinical practice. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature (as of February 2021), to summarize the expert recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis in the context of COVID-19, and to assess the current data regarding the use of tofacitinib in adult patients during the pandemic. Results: Current recommendations for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis state that tofacitinib treatment should be continued during the pandemic, except in cases of positive or presumed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, limited data are available; analyses of data from international rheumatology and gastroenterology registries have suggested that tofacitinib may not be associated with an increased risk of hospitalization or treatment switching in adults with COVID-19. Conclusions: Further assessment of tofacitinib use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or ulcerative colitis will be required to elucidate and establish the benefit:risk profile of tofacitinib during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Behav Brain Res ; 413: 113466, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271036

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, cognition, and communication, as well as the presence of repetitive or stereotyped behaviors and interests. ASD is most often studied as a neurodevelopmental disease, but it is a lifelong disorder. Adults with ASD experience more stressful life events and greater perceived stress, and frequently have comorbid mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. It remains unclear whether adult exposure to chronic stress can exacerbate the behavioral and neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with ASD. To address this issue, we first investigated whether adult male and female Engrailed-2 deficient (En2-KO, En2-/-) mice, which display behavioral disturbances in avoidance tasks and dysregulated monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels, also display impairments in instrumental behaviors associated with motivation, such as the progressive ratio task. We then exposed adult En2-KO mice to chronic environmental stress (CSDS, chronic social defeat stress), to determine if stress exacerbated the behavioral and neuroanatomical effects of En2 deletion. En2-/- mice showed impaired instrumental acquisition and significantly lower breakpoints in a progressive ratio test, demonstrating En2 deficiency decreases motivation to exert effort for reward. Furthermore, adult CSDS exposure increased avoidance behaviors in En2-KO mice. Interestingly, adult CSDS exposure also exacerbated the deleterious effects of En2 deficiency on forebrain-projecting monoaminergic fibers. Our findings thus suggest that adult exposure to stress may exacerbate behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotypes associated with developmental effects of genetic En2 deficiency.

10.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265179

RESUMO

Tea polysaccharide is a kind of acid glycoprotein complex extracted from tea. Tea polysaccharide has a variety of biological activities, especially the hypoglycemic effect is outstanding. It is good for human health. Tea polysaccharides have been extensively studied over the past few decades. The advantages and disadvantages of water extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction were described. At the same time, the structure and biological activity of tea polysaccharide were also summarized. The development of tea polysaccharide was prospected.

11.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2452-2474, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295654

RESUMO

Background: Conventional analysis of single-plex chromogenic immunohistochemistry (IHC) focused on quantitative but spatial analysis. How immune checkpoints localization related to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis remained unclear. Methods: Here, we analyzed ten immune checkpoints on 1,859 tumor microarrays (TMAs) from 121 NSCLC patients and recruited an external cohort of 30 NSCLC patients with 214 whole-slide IHC. EfficientUnet was applied to segment tumor cells (TCs) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), while ResNet was performed to extract prognostic features from IHC images. Results: The features of galectin-9, OX40, OX40L, KIR2D, and KIR3D played an un-negatable contribution to overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in the internal cohort, validated in public databases (GEPIA, HPA, and STRING). The IC-Score and Res-Score were two predictive models established by EfficientUnet and ResNet. Based on the IC-Score, Res-Score, and clinical features, the integrated score presented the highest AUC for OS and RFS, which could achieve 0.9 and 0.85 in the internal testing cohort. The robustness of Res-Score was validated in the external cohort (AUC: 0.80-0.87 for OS, and 0.83-0.94 for RFS). Additionally, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) combined with the PD-1/PD-L1 signature established by EfficientUnet can be a predictor for RFS in the external cohort. Conclusions: Overall, we established a reliable model to risk-stratify relapse and death in NSCLC with a generalization ability, which provided a convenient approach to spatial analysis of single-plex chromogenic IHC.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 653, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175894

RESUMO

In female mammals, the proliferation, apoptosis, and estradiol-17ß (E2) secretion of granulosa cells (GCs) have come to decide the fate of follicles. DNA methylation and RSPO2 gene of Wnt signaling pathway have been reported to involve in the survival of GCs and follicular development. However, the molecular mechanisms for how DNA methylation regulates the expression of RSPO2 and participates in the follicular development are not clear. In this study, we found that the mRNA and protein levels of RSPO2 significantly increased during follicular development, but the DNA methylation level of RSPO2 promoter decreased gradually. Inhibition of DNA methylation or DNMT1 knockdown could decrease the methylation level of CpG island (CGI) in RSPO2 promoter and upregulate the expression level of RSPO2 in porcine GCs. The hypomethylation of -758/-749 and -563/-553 regions in RSPO2 promoter facilitated the occupancy of transcription factor E2F1 and promoted the transcriptional activity of RSPO2. Moreover, RSPO2 promoted the proliferation of GCs with increasing the expression level of PCNA, CDK1, and CCND1 and promoted the E2 secretion of GCs with increasing the expression level of CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 and inhibited the apoptosis of GCs with decreasing the expression level of Caspase3, cleaved Caspase3, cleaved Caspase8, cleaved Caspase9, cleaved PARP, and BAX. In addition, RSPO2 knockdown promoted the apoptosis of GCs, blocked the development of follicles, and delayed the onset of puberty with decreasing the expression level of Wnt signaling pathway-related genes (LGR4 and CTNNB1) in vivo. Taken together, the hypomethylation of -758/-749 and -563/-553 regions in RSPO2 promoter facilitated the occupancy of E2F1 and enhanced the transcription of RSPO2, which further promoted the proliferation and E2 secretion of GCs, inhibited the apoptosis of GCs, and ultimately ameliorated the development of follicles through Wnt signaling pathway. This study will provide useful information for further exploration on DNA-methylation-mediated RSPO2 pathway during follicular development.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Ilhas de CpG , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Sus scrofa , Trombospondinas/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Via de Sinalização Wnt
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(25): 29691-29707, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152123

RESUMO

Although it is established that the force-induced electric polarization field of piezoelectric semiconductors can be used to tune the transfer rate of photoexcited charge carriers, there is still a lack of successful strategies to effectively improve the photocatalytic reactivity and solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency (SCC) of piezoelectric materials. Here, we are the first to prepare and study a kind of catalyst based on nanopiezoelectric heterostructures of LiNbO3-type ZnTiO3·TiO2 and tetragonal BaTiO3 with Pt or FeOx nanoparticle modification (i.e., ZBTO-Pt or ZBTO-FeOx) for reactive species generation. With respect to the production of •OH and •O2- radicals, higher amounts were observed in piezophotocatalysis relative to those for individual piezo- and photocatalysis. Benefiting from the charge transfer resistance decreases by the deposition of Pt and FeOx, the amounts of •OH radicals formed on ZBTO-Pt and ZBTO-FeOx were approximately 48 and 21% higher than that on isolated ZBTO during piezophotocatalysis, and for the amounts of •O2- radicals the enhancements were approximately 11 and 6%, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of H2O2 formed on ZBTO-Pt and ZBTO-FeOx under piezophotocatalysis reached approximately 315 and 206 µM after 100 min of reaction (and was still increasing) corresponding to 0.10 and 0.06% SCCs, respectively, which were also much higher than the concentrations and SCCs observed for piezo- and photocatalysis. The enhancements of piezophotocatalytic activities with these piezoelectric materials were related to the mechanical strain exerted on ZBTO, which generated a larger electric polarization field than those on ZnTiO3·TiO2 and BaTiO3 as analyzed by a finite element method. This high-intensity electric polarization field accelerated the separation and transportation of photoexcited charge carriers in the highly sunlight responsive nanopiezoelectric heterostructures based on ZBTO-Pt and ZBTO-FeOx.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was introduced in DSM-5 to distinguish a subset of chronically irritable youth who may be incorrectly diagnosed and/or treated for pediatric bipolar disorder (BPD). This study characterized the rate of new treatment episodes and treated prevalence of BPD and DMDD from a longitudinal electronic health record database and examined the impact of DMDD on prescription trends. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study using 2008-2018 Optum electronic health record data was conducted. Youth aged 10 to < 18 years with ≥ 183 days of database enrollment before the study cohort entry were included. Annual new treatment episode rates per 1,000 patient-years and treated prevalence (%) were estimated. Prescriptions for medications, concomitant diagnoses, and acute mental health service use for 2016-2018 were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 7,677 youths with DMDD and 6,480 youths with BPD identified. Mean age (13-15 years) and ethnicity were similar for both groups. A rise in new treatment episode rates (0.87-1.75 per 1,000 patient-years, p < .0001) and treated prevalence (0.08%-0.35%, p < .0001) of DMDD diagnoses (2016-2018) following diagnosis inception was paralleled by decreasing new treatment episode rates (1.22-1.14 per 1,000 patient-years, p < .01) and treated prevalence (0.42%-0.36%, p < .0001) of BPD diagnoses (2015-2018). More youth in the DMDD group were prescribed medications compared with the BPD group (81.9% vs 69.4%), including antipsychotics (58.9% vs 51.0%). Higher proportions of youth with DMDD vs youth with BPD had disruptive behavior disorders (eg, 35.9% vs 20.5% had oppositional defiant disorder), and required inpatient hospitalization related to their mental health disorder (45.0% vs 33.0%). CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of DMDD has had rapid uptake in clinical practice but is associated with increased antipsychotic and polypharmacy prescriptions and higher rates of comorbidity and inpatient hospitalization in youth with a DMDD diagnosis compared with a BPD diagnosis.

15.
Nano Lett ; 21(17): 7411-7418, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176267

RESUMO

Water collection by dew condensation emerges as a sustainable solution to water scarcity. However, the transient condensation process that involves droplet nucleation, growth, and transport imposes conflicting requirements on surface properties. It is challenging to satisfy all benefits for different condensation stages simultaneously. By mimicking the structures and functions of moss Rhacocarpus, here, we report the attainment of dropwise condensation for efficient water collection even on a hydrophilic surface gated by a liquid suction mechanism. The Rhacocarpus-inspired porous surface (RIPS), which possesses a three-level wettability gradient, facilitates a rapid, directional, and persistent droplet suction. Such suction condensation enables a low nucleation barrier, frequent surface refreshing, and well-defined maximum droplet shedding radius simultaneously. Thus, a maximum ∼160% enhancement in water collection performance compared to the hydrophobic surface is achieved. Our work provides new insights and a design route for developing engineered materials for a wide range of water-harvesting and phase-change heat-transfer applications.


Assuntos
Água , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Sucção , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
16.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120836

RESUMO

Periodontal disease is an inflammatory reaction of the periodontal tissues to oral pathogens. In the present review we discuss the intricate effects of a regulatory network of gene expression modulators, microRNAs (miRNAs), as they affect periodontal morphology, function and gene expression during periodontal disease. These miRNAs are small RNAs involved in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation and affect all stages of periodontal disease, from the earliest signs of gingivitis to the regulation of periodontal homeostasis and immunity and to the involvement in periodontal tissue destruction. MiRNAs coordinate periodontal disease progression not only directly but also through long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have been demonstrated to act as endogenous sponges or decoys that regulate the expression and function of miRNAs, and which in turn suppress the targeting of mRNAs involved in the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. While the integrity of miRNA function is essential for periodontal health and immunity, miRNA sequence variations (genetic polymorphisms) contribute toward an enhanced risk for periodontal disease progression and severity. Several polymorphisms in miRNA genes have been linked to an increased risk of periodontitis, and among those, miR-146a, miR-196, and miR-499 polymorphisms have been identified as risk factors for periodontal disease. The role of miRNAs in periodontal disease progression is not limited to the host tissues but also extends to the viruses that reside in periodontal lesions, such as herpesviruses (human herpesvirus, HHV). In advanced periodontal lesions, HHV infections result in the release of cytokines from periodontal tissues and impair antibacterial immune mechanisms that promote bacterial overgrowth. In turn, controlling the exacerbation of periodontal disease by minimizing the effect of periodontal HHV in periodontal lesions may provide novel avenues for therapeutic intervention. In summary, this review highlights multiple levels of miRNA-mediated control of periodontal disease progression, (i) through their role in periodontal inflammation and the dysregulation of homeostasis, (ii) as a regulatory target of lncRNAs, (iii) by contributing toward periodontal disease susceptibility through miRNA polymorphism, and (iv) as periodontal microflora modulators via viral miRNAs.

17.
ACS Omega ; 6(23): 14968-14976, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151078

RESUMO

The profile-control technique is one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods to maintain oil production in the medium and late stages of water flooding. It is necessary to conduct laboratory experiments based on the reservoir parameters from specific oil reservoirs to optimize the operation parameters during the profile-control process. In this work, based on the reservoir properties from Daqing Oil Field (China), we employed three parallel core holders and a square core with one injection well and four production wells to conduct profile-control experiments, and the operational parameters in the field scale were obtained using the similarity principle. The results show that the selected gel system has a good plugging performance and the best injection volume and profile-control radius are 0.3 PV and 6 m, respectively. Additionally, we show the optimized injection speed under different injection pressures when the profile-control radius is in the range of 6-9 m. The optimized displacing radius of the field is in the range of 3-6 m. When the radius is 6 m, the pressure decreases 90% and the corresponding plugging ratio is 81%. The optimized plugging proportion of the fracture length is 50%, and further increase of the proportion has a negligible effect on the production performance. Good field response has been achieved after the implementation of the optimized parameters in the target reservoir. This work, for the first time, systematically studies the operational parameters for the profile-control technique using experimental methods, and it provides the fundamental understandings and implications for enhancing oil recovery in similar types of high-water-cut reservoirs.

18.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(7): 571, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987269

RESUMO

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. The prognosis of GBM patients is poor. Even with active standard treatment, the median overall survival is only 14.6 months. It is therefore critical to ascertain recurrence and search for factors that influence the prognosis of GBM. This study aimed to screen the variables related to the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of GBM patients undergoing surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, as well as propose a nomogram for individual risk prediction based on preoperative imaging parameters and clinicopathological variables readily available in clinical practice. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 114 consecutive patients with GBM who underwent surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 1st, 2015, to June 1st, 2018. Twenty-four preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters were extracted manually from the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Clinicopathological factors were extracted from the electronic medical record system (EMRS). Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression and Cox regression were used for feature selection and model prediction, respectively. The models were presented using nomograms, which were applied to identify the risk of recurrence and survival according to the score. The performance of the nomograms to predict PFS and OS was tested with C-statistics, calibration plots, and Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: The results revealed that sex, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), O6-methylglucamine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein expression, number of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles with temozolomide (TMZ), and the MRI signature effectively predicted PFS; and sex, KPS, extent of surgery, number of TMZ cycles, and MRI signature effectively predicted OS. The nomogram revealed good discriminative ability (C-statistics: 0.81 for PFS and 0.79 for OS). In the nomogram of PFS, patients with a score greater than 122 were considered to have a high risk of recurrence. In the nomogram of OS, the cutoff score were 115 and 145, and then patients were classified as low, medium, and high risk. Conclusions: In conclusion, our nomograms can effectively predict the risk of recurrence and survival of GBM patients and thus can be a good guide for clinical practice.

19.
Cell Rep ; 35(3): 108992, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882310

RESUMO

Plant-nectar-derived sugar is the major energy source for mosquitoes, but its influence on vector competence for malaria parasites remains unclear. Here, we show that Plasmodium berghei infection of Anopheles stephensi results in global metabolome changes, with the most significant impact on glucose metabolism. Feeding on glucose or trehalose (the main hemolymph sugars) renders the mosquito more susceptible to Plasmodium infection by alkalizing the mosquito midgut. The glucose/trehalose diets promote proliferation of a commensal bacterium, Asaia bogorensis, that remodels glucose metabolism in a way that increases midgut pH, thereby promoting Plasmodium gametogenesis. We also demonstrate that the sugar composition from different natural plant nectars influences A. bogorensis growth, resulting in a greater permissiveness to Plasmodium. Altogether, our results demonstrate that dietary glucose is an important determinant of mosquito vector competency for Plasmodium, further highlighting a key role for mosquito-microbiota interactions in regulating the development of the malaria parasite.

20.
eNeuro ; 8(3)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863781

RESUMO

Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator and metabolic regulator of the brain through receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. In the brain, adenosine is tightly controlled through its metabolic enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), which exists in a cytoplasmic (ADK-S) and nuclear (ADK-L) isoform. We recently discovered that ADK-L contributes to adult hippocampal neurogenesis regulation. Although the cerebellum (CB) is a highly plastic brain area with a delayed developmental trajectory, little is known about the role of ADK. Here, we investigated the developmental profile of ADK expression in C57BL/6 mice CB and assessed its role in developmental and proliferative processes. We found high levels of ADK-L during cerebellar development, which was maintained into adulthood. This pattern contrasts with that of the cerebrum, in which ADK-L expression is gradually downregulated postnatally and largely restricted to astrocytes in adulthood. Supporting a functional role in cell proliferation, we found that the ADK inhibitor 5-iodotubericine (5-ITU) reduced DNA synthesis of granular neuron precursors in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro In the developing CB, immunohistochemical studies indicated ADK-L is expressed in immature Purkinje cells and granular neuron precursors, whereas in adulthood, ADK is absent from Purkinje cells, but widely expressed in mature granule neurons and their molecular layer (ML) processes. Furthermore, ADK-L is expressed in developing and mature Bergmann glia in the Purkinje cell layer, and in astrocytes in major cerebellar cortical layers. Together, our data demonstrate an association between neuronal ADK expression and developmental processes of the CB, which supports a functional role of ADK-L in the plasticity of the CB.


Assuntos
Adenosina Quinase , Cerebelo , Adenosina Quinase/genética , Adenosina Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo
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