Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 177
Filtrar
1.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(1)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057080

RESUMO

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family has nine ligands that show promiscuity in binding multiple receptors. As different receptors transduce into diverse pathways, the study on the functional role of natural ligands is very complex. In this review, we discuss the TNF ligands engineering for receptor specificity and summarize the performance of the ligand variants in vivo and in vitro. Those variants have an increased binding affinity to specific receptors to enhance the cell signal conduction and have reduced side effects due to a lowered binding to untargeted receptors. Refining receptor specificity is a promising research strategy for improving the application of multi-receptor ligands. Further, the settled variants also provide experimental guidance for engineering receptor specificity on other proteins with multiple receptors.

2.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(1): e662, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrence is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) death. We aimed to identify circular RNA (circRNA) with predictive and therapeutic value for recurrent HCC. METHODS: Tissue samples from recurrent and non-recurrent HCC patients were subjected to circRNA sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. circKCNN2 was identified through multi-omics analyses. The effects of circKCNN2 on HCC were evaluated in cells, animals, database of The Cancer Genome Atlas, and a cohort with 130 HCC patients. circRNA precipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, RNA pull-down, luciferase assay, and cell experiments were applied to evaluate the interaction of circKCNN2 with miRNAs and proteins. The association between circKCNN2 and the therapeutic effect of lenvatinib was investigated in HCC cell lines and HCC tissue-derived organoids. RESULTS: The expression of circKCNN2 was downregulated in HCC tissues and predicted a favorable overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The expression of circKCNN2 was positively correlated with the parental gene, potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member (KCNN2). Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NFYA) was proven to inhibit the promoter activity of KCNN2, downregulate the expression of KCNN2 and circKCNN2, and predict an unfavorable recurrence-free survival. Ectopic expression of circKCNN2 inhibited HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and tumor formation in a mouse model. miR-520c-3p sponged by circKCNN2 could reverse the inhibitory effect of circKCNN2 on HCC cells and down-regulate the expression of methyl-DNA-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2). The intratumoral expression of MBD2 predicted a favorable recurrence-free survival. circKCNN2 down-regulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), which can be reversed by miR-520c-3p and knockdown of MBD2. Lenvatinib inhibited the expression of FGFR4 and upregulated the expression of circKCNN2 and MBD2. Ectopic expression of circKCNN2 in HCC cells enhanced the therapeutic effect of lenvatinib. However, the high inherent level of circKCNN2 in HCC cells was associated with lenvatinib resistance. CONCLUSIONS: circKCNN2, transcriptionally repressed by NFYA, suppresses HCC recurrence via the miR-520c-3p/MBD2 axis. Inherent level of circKCNN2 in HCC cells predisposes anti-tumor effect of lenvatinib possibly because both circKCNN2 and lenvatinib repress the expression of FGFR4. circKCNN2 may be a promising predictive biomarker and therapeutic agent for HCC recurrence.

3.
Ageing Res Rev ; 75: 101568, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051646

RESUMO

Psychotic symptoms of dementia are highly prevalent and lead to poor medical outcomes and substantial dysfunction. To date, which drug to use remains controversial without a summary of all direct or indirect comparisons of pharmacotherapy. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review with pairwise and network meta-analysis to examine efficacy and tolerability outcomes of pharmacological treatments in dementia patients. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched systematically up to August 31, 2020. We included trials of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), memantine, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers, with final approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We ranked the comparative effects of all drugs against placebo with surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities. This analysis is based on 34 trials, which included 10,415 patients randomly assigned to 15 commonly used drug regimens. Donepezil (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.30, 95% credible interval [CrI] -0.50 to -0.12; SUCRA, 0.85), memantine (SMD -0.20, 95%CrI -0.34 to -0.07; SUCRA, 0.68) and aripiprazole (SMD -0.17, 95% CrI -0.32 to -0.02; SUCRA, 0.62) showed greater benefit than placebo, and with relatively good tolerability in network meta-analyses. Risperidone was also found to be more efficacious than placebo (SMD -0.16, 95% CrI -0.28 to -0.05; SUCRA, 0.60), but with poor tolerability (odds ratios [OR] 1.50, 95% CrI 1.06-2.26). Donepezil, memantine, haloperidol, aripiprazole and risperidone were more efficacious than quetiapine (SMDs ranged from -0.36 to -0.22). Besides, donepezil, memantine and mirtazapine were more efficacious than sertraline (SMDs ranged from -0.47 to -0.36). Most of the results were rated as "low" to "very low". Several effective treatment choices for psychotic symptoms are available across drug classes. Donepezil, memantine and aripiprazole are probably the appropriate options to consider when a pharmacological treatment is indicated. Given the limitations of the meta-analytic approach and the low methodological quality of the majority of studies, our results should be cautiously interpreted.

4.
Cancer Lett ; 525: 67-75, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728311

RESUMO

Genotoxic agents are widely used anti-cancer therapies because of their ability to interfere with highly proliferative cells. An important outcome of these interventions is the induction of a state of permanent arrest also known as cellular senescence. However, senescent cancer cells are characterized by genomic instability and are at risk of escaping the growth arrest to eventually facilitate cancer relapse. The tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) signals extrinsic apoptosis via Death Receptors (DR) 4 and 5, while Decoy Receptors (DcR) 1 and 2, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) are homologous to death receptors but incapable of transducing an apoptotic signal. The use of recombinant TRAIL as an anti-cancer strategy in combination with chemotherapy is currently in development, and a major question remains whether senescent cancer cells respond to TRAIL. Here, we show variable sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL after senescence induction, and upregulation of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic receptors in therapy-induced senescent cancer cells. A DR5-selective TRAIL variant (DHER), unable to bind to DcR1 or OPG, was more effective in inducing apoptosis of senescent cancer cells compared to wild-type TRAIL. Importantly, no apoptosis induction was observed in non-cancerous cells, even at the highest concentrations tested. Our results suggest that targeting DR5 can serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the elimination of therapy-induced senescent cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/genética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Instabilidade Genômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Membro 10c de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Chamariz do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética
5.
J Neurosci Methods ; : 109436, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The temporal precision in neural spike train data is critically important for understanding functional mechanism in the nervous systems. However, the timing variability of spiking activity can be highly nonlinear in practical observations due to behavioral variability or unobserved/unobservable cognitive states. NEW METHOD: In this study, we propose to adopt a powerful nonlinear method, referred to as the Fisher-Rao Registration (FRR), to remove such nonlinear phase variability in discrete neuronal spike trains. We also develop a smoothing procedure on the discrete spike train data in order to use the FRR framework. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We systematically compare the FRR with the state-of-the-art linear and nonlinear methods in terms of model efficiency and effectiveness. RESULTS: We show that the FRR has superior performance and the advantages are well illustrated with simulation and real experimental data. CONCLUSIONS: It is found the FRR framework provide more appropriate alignment performance to understand the temporal variability in neuronal spike trains.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28291, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Henoch-Schönlein purpura is one of the most common systemic vascular inflflammatory disease in childhood with purpuric rash, arthritis, renal involvement, and abdominal pain. As a treatment for it, Xijiao Dihuang decoction, a traditional herbal formula, has been used. The object of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effificacy and safety on Xijiao Dihuang decoction in treating allergic purpura. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be systematically searched up to November 7, 2019 for eligible studies: The Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Biomedical LiteratureDatabase (CBM), the Chinese Scientifific Journal Database (VIP), andtheWanfang Database. Thetreatment group in the included studies will receive both routine western medicines and Xijiao Dihuang decoction, while the control group will receive routine western medicines. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments will be conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Heterogeneity will be assessed by I2 statistics, while reporting bias will be evaluated by funnel plots and Begg and Egger test. Sensitivity analysis and Subgroup analysis will be performed when necessary. Review Manager software (RevManV.5.3.0) and Stata will be used for all statistical analyses. Ethics approval is not required as no privacy data were involved. This systematic review and meta analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. RESULTS: This study could provide a systematically evaluated therapeutic efficacy and safety of XJDHD on patients with HSP via including RCTs that matches the needs. And we also expect to find predictors of treatment through subgroup analysis, helping patients with HSP detect as well as cope with the disease as early as possible. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study will provide the systematical review of the efficacy and safety of XJDHD on patients with HSP, and provide predictors of treatment. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD 42018111293.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 786602, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899755

RESUMO

Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B streptococcus (GBS), can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia, making it a pathogen that can increase the risk of death in newborns and immunodeficient individuals. Neutrophils are the first barrier to a host's innate immune defense against these infections. Fpr2(Formyl peptide receptor 2) is an important chemotactic receptor of neutrophils, though its activation would cause pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we found that mice without Fpr2 receptor were highly susceptible to GBS infections. These mice demonstrated decreased chemotaxis to neutrophils, decreased bactericidal ability of neutrophils, and high mortality. RNA-seq and Luminex assay indicated that Fpr2 activates key signal molecules downstream and produces chemokines CXCL1/2 to chemotaxis neutrophils. Like Fpr2-/-, CXCL1/2 or neutrophil depletion impairs host's ability to defend against GBS infection. Altogether, these data indicate that Fpr2 contributes to a host's ability to control GBS infection and that a lack of Fpr2 was associated with selective impairment during the production of chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 as well as neutrophil recruitment. Here, We clarified that Fpr2, as a chemotactic receptor, could not only directly chemotactic neutrophils, but also regulate the production of chemokines to control infection by chemotactic neutrophils.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 674267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744809

RESUMO

Background: Anxiety disorder is the most prevalent mental disorder in children and adolescents. However, evidence for efficacy and acceptability between individual cognitive behavior therapy (I-CBT) and group cognitive behavior therapy (G-CBT) in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents remains unclear. Methods: Eight electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, and LILACS) were searched from inception to October 2019. Randomized controlled trials comparing I-CBT with G-CBT for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents were included. The primary outcomes were efficacy (mean change in anxiety symptom scores) at post-treatment and acceptability (all-cause discontinuation). The secondary outcome was remission at post-treatment. Subgroup analyses were also conducted to examine whether the result would be influenced by age, number of treatment sessions, parental involvement, male/female sex, and number of participants. Results: Nine studies were selected in this meta-analysis. The pooled analyses indicated no significant difference between I-CBT and G-CBT for efficacy at post-treatment [standardized mean difference (SMD), -0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.37 to 0.09], acceptability [odds ratio (OR), 1.30; 95% CI, 0.61-2.77], and remission at post-treatment (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.79-1.66). In the subgroup analysis of age, I-CBT was significantly more effective than G-CBT in adolescents at post-treatment (SMD, -0.77; 95% CI, -1.51 to -0.02), but not in children (SMD, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.20). However, the findings were not materially different from those of the efficacy subgroup analysis of number of treatment sessions, parental involvement, male/female sex, and number of participants. Conclusions: Based on those current evidence, I-CBT was shown to be more beneficial than G-CBT for anxiety disorders in adolescents, but not in children. However, further well-designed clinical studies should be performed to confirm these findings. Systematic Review Registration:http://osf.io/xrjkp, identifier: 10.17605/OSF.IO/XRJKP.

9.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure, and treatment of DILI remains a challenge. MG53 is a muscle-derived tissue-repair protein that circulates in the bloodstream whose physiological role in protection against DILI has not been examined. METHODS: Recombinant MG53 protein (rhMG53) was administered exogenously, using mice with deletion of MG53 or RIPK3. Live cell imaging, histological, biochemical, and molecular studies were used to investigate the mechanisms that underlie the extracellular and intracellular action of rhMG53 in hepatoprotection. RESULTS: Systemic administration of rhMG53 protein, in mice, can prophylactically and therapeutically treat DILI induced through exposure to acetaminophen tetracycline, concanavalin A, carbon tetrachloride, or thioacetamide. Circulating MG53 protects hepatocytes from injury through direct interaction with MLKL at the plasma membrane. Extracellular MG53 can enter hepatocytes and act as an E3-ligase to mitigate RIPK3-mediated MLKL phosphorylation and membrane translocation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the membrane-delimited signaling and cytosolic dual action of MG53 effectively preserves hepatocyte integrity during DILI. rhMG53 may be a potential treatment option for patients with DILI. LAY SUMMARY: Interventions to treat drug-induced liver injury and halt its progression into liver failure are of great value to the medical society. The present study reveals that muscle-liver cross talk, with MG53 as a messenger, serves an important role in liver-cell protection.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719692

RESUMO

Most previous studies in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) focused on fecal samples, which limit the identification of the gut mucosal and luminal microbiome in depression. Here, we address this knowledge gap. Male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were randomly assigned to a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) group, or to an unstressed control group. Behavioral tests were completed in both groups. At endpoint, microbe composition of paired mucosal and luminal samples from cecum, ascending, transverse, and descending colons were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The levels of 34 metabolites involved in carbohydrate or energy metabolism in luminal samples were measured by targeted metabolomics profiling. CUMS macaques demonstrated significantly more depressive-like behaviors than controls. We found differences in mucosal and luminal microbial composition between the two groups, which were characterized by Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes at the phylum level, as well as Prevotellaceae and Lachnospiraceae at the family level. The majority of discriminative microbes correlated with the depressive-like behavioral phenotype. In addition, we found 27 significantly different microbiome community functions between the two groups in mucosa, and one in lumen, which were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism. A total of nine metabolites involved in these pathways were depleted in CUMS animals. Together, CUMS macaques with depressive-like behaviors associated with distinct alterations of covarying microbiota, carbohydrate and energy metabolism in mucosa and lumen. Further studies should focus on the mucosal and luminal microbiome to provide a deeper spatiotemporal perspective of microbial alterations in the pathogenesis of MDD.

11.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757120

RESUMO

Kidney fibrosis is associated with the progression of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease. MG53, a cell membrane repair protein, has been shown to protect against injury to kidney epithelial cells and acute kidney injury. Here, we evaluated the role of MG53 in modulation of kidney fibrosis in aging mice and in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) a known model of progressive kidney fibrosis. Mice with ablation of MG53 developed more interstitial fibrosis with age than MG53-intact mice of the same age. Similarly, in the absence of MG53, kidney fibrosis was exaggerated compared to mice with intact MG53 in the obstructed kidney compared to the contralateral unobstructed kidney or the kidneys of sham operated mice. The ureteral obstructed kidneys from MG53 deficient mice also showed significantly more inflammation than ureteral obstructed kidneys from MG53 intact mice. In vitro experiments demonstrated that MG53 could enter the nuclei of proximal tubular epithelial cells and directly interact with the p65 component of transcription factor NF-κB, providing a possible explanation of enhanced inflammation in the absence of MG53. To test this, enhanced MG53 expression through engineered cells or direct recombinant protein delivery was given to mice subject to UUO. This reduced NF-κB activation and inflammation and attenuated kidney fibrosis. Thus, MG53 may have a therapeutic role in treating chronic kidney inflammation and thereby provide protection against fibrosis that leads to the chronic kidney disease phenotype.

12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 729836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790106

RESUMO

The hippocampus is one of the most phylogenetically preserved structures in the mammalian brain. Engaged in a host of diverse cognitive processes, there has been increasing interest in understanding how the hippocampus dynamically supports these functions. One of the lingering questions is how to reconcile the seemingly disparate cytoarchitectonic organization, which favors a dorsal-ventral layering, with the neurofunctional topography, which has strong support for longitudinal axis (anterior-posterior) and medial-lateral orientation. More recently, meta-analytically driven (e.g., big data) approaches have been employed, however, the question remains whether they are sensitive to important task-specific features such as context, cognitive processes recruited, or the type of stimulus being presented. Here, we used hierarchical clustering on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from healthy individuals at 7T using a battery of tasks that engage the hippocampus to determine whether stimulus or task features influence cluster profiles in the left and right hippocampus. Our data suggest that resting state clustering appears to favor the cytoarchitectonic organization, while task-based clustering favors the neurofunctional clustering. Furthermore, encoding tasks were more sensitive to stimulus type than were recognition tasks. Interestingly, a face-name paired associate task had nearly identical clustering profiles for both the encoding and recognition conditions of the task, which were qualitatively morphometrically different than simple encoding of words or faces. Finally, corroborating previous research, the left hippocampus had more stable cluster profiles compared to the right hippocampus. Together, our data suggest that task-based and resting state cluster profiles are different and may account for the disparity or inconsistency in results across studies.

13.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 9174-9188, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709972

RESUMO

LncRNAs are identified as critical regulators in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI). In this current work, SH-SY5Y cells suffered from oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) were applied to analyze the biological role of lncRNA NORAD and underlying molecular mechanism in CIRI in vitro. Levels of lncRNA NORAD, miR-30a-5p and YWHAG were measured using RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics analysis predicted the binding sites of lncRNA NORAD to miR-30a-5p and miR-30a-5p to YWHAG. Luciferase reporter assay verified the binding relationships among lncRNA NORAD, miR-30a-5p and YWHAG. Additionally, cell viability was determined using CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL staining and western blot analysis. Moreover, the levels of ROS, MDA, LDH and SOD as well as IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 were assessed via application of the corresponding assay kits. Decreased cell viability and temporarily increased lncRNA NORAD level were observed in SH-SY5Y cells after OGD/R. It was demonstrated that lncRNA NORAD regulated YWHAG expression by sponging miR-30a-5p. Upregulation of lncRNA NORAD contributed to the enhancement of cell viability, the inhibition of cell apoptosis as well as the alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation in OGD/R-injured SH-SY5Y cells, which were reversed upon elevation of miR-30a-5p. In contrast, downregulation of lncRNA NORAD reduced cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis as well as aggravated oxidative stress and inflammation under OGD/R challenge, and the functions of lncRNA NORAD knockdown in OGD/R injury were abolished by upregulation of YWHAG. Taken together, lncRNA NORAD exerted protective effects against OGD/R-induced neural injury by sponging miR-30a-5p to upregulate YWHAG expression.

14.
ACS Sens ; 6(11): 4244-4254, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711049

RESUMO

Cell adhesion plays a critical role in cell communication, cell migration, cell proliferation, and integration of medical implants with tissues. Focal adhesions physically link the cell cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, but it remains challenging to image single focal adhesions directly. Here, we show that plasmonic scattering microscopy (PSM) can directly image the single focal adhesions in a label-free, real-time, and non-invasive manner with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. PSM is developed based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microscopy, and the evanescent illumination makes it immune to the interference of intracellular structures. Unlike the conventional SPR microscopy, PSM can provide a high signal-to-noise ratio and sub-micrometer spatial resolution for imaging the analytes with size down to a single-molecule level, thus allowing both the super-resolution lateral localization for measuring the nanoscale displacement and precise tracking of vertical distances between the analyte centroid and the sensor surface for analysis of free-energy profiles. PSM imaging of the RBL-2H3 cell with temporal resolution down to microseconds shows that the focal adhesions have random diffusion behaviors in addition to their directional movements during the antibody-mediated activation process. The free-energy mapping also shows a similar movement tendency, indicating that the cell may change its morphology upon varying the binding conditions of adhesive structures. PSM provides insights into the individual focal adhesion activities and can also serve as a promising tool for investigating the cell/surface interactions, such as cell capture and detection and tissue adhesive materials screening.

15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 697640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595128

RESUMO

Current antidepressants do not confer a clear advantage in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Accumulating evidence highlights the potential antidepressant-like effects of inosine on adult MDD, and gut microbiomes are significantly associated with MDD via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, few studies have investigated possible associations between inosine and gut microbiota in adolescents with MDD. The current study investigated the potential antidepressant effects of inosine in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. After 4 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) stimulation, the mice were assessed by body weight, the sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test, and the elevated plus maze (EPM). The microbiota compositions of feces were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Inosine significantly improved CUMS-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adolescent mice including SPT and EPM results. Fecal microbial composition differed in the CON+saline, CUMS+saline, and CUMS+inosine groups, which were characterized by 126 discriminative amplicon sequence variants belonging to Bacteroidetes and Firmicute at the phylum level and Muribaculaceae and Lachnospiraceae at the family level. Muribaculaceae was positively associated with depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. KEGG functional analysis suggested that inosine might affect gut microbiota through carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism pathways. The results of the study indicated that inosine improved depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adolescent mice, in conjunction with the alteration of fecal microbial composition. Our findings may provide a novel perspective on the antidepressant effects of inosine in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Inosina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estresse Psicológico
16.
Nanoscale ; 13(41): 17592-17602, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661594

RESUMO

Li-S batteries are considered as one of the most promising battery systems because of their large theoretical capacity and high energy density. However, the "shuttle effect" of soluble polysulfides and sluggish electrochemical redox kinetics of Li-S batteries could cause a broken electrode structure and poor electrochemical performance. Herein, a high-performance and stable Li-S battery has been demonstrated by employing organo-polysulfide chain modified acetylene black (ABPS) as the coating layer on the separator. In addition to the traditional advantages of fast electron transport and polysulfide-interception ability of the carbon coating layer, the grafted organo-polysulfide chain endows the ABPS coating layer with permselectivity for lithium ion against polysulfides, electrocatalytic ability for the sluggish redox kinetics and self-repairing ability for the broken electrode. Hence, the battery prepared using an ABPS-coated separator delivers the best cycling performance (970 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C after 100 cycles) and rate performance (805 mA h g-1 at 2 C) as compared to the cells using acetylene black (AB)-coated or Celgard separators. Moreover, the Li-S battery prepared using an ABPS-coated separator exhibits a stable cycling performance at 1 C over 500 cycles with a low degradation of 0.04% per cycle, and a high coulombic efficiency (near 100%). Furthermore, as the sulfur loading was increased to 6.8 mg cm-2, the Li-S battery using the ABPS-coated separator still could deliver a high areal capacity of 6.03 mA h cm-2 with a low electrolyte/sulfur ratio (E/S = 4, µLelectrolyte mgS-1) after 170 cycles. Significantly, ABPS is an effective coating layer material for improving and stabilizing Li-S batteries.

17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679657

RESUMO

Respiratory failure from progressive respiratory muscle weakness is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Defects in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and progressive NMJ loss occur at early stages, thus stabilizing and preserving NMJs represents a potential therapeutic strategy to slow ALS disease progression. Here we demonstrate that NMJ damage is repaired by MG53, an intrinsic muscle protein involved in plasma membrane repair. Compromised diaphragm muscle membrane repair and NMJ integrity are early pathological events in ALS. Diaphragm muscles from ALS mouse models show increased susceptibility to injury and intracellular MG53 aggregation, which is also a hallmark of human muscle samples from ALS patients. We show that systemic administration of recombinant human MG53 protein in ALS mice protects against injury to diaphragm muscle, preserves NMJ integrity, and slows ALS disease progression. As MG53 is present in circulation in rodents and humans under physiological conditions, our findings provide proof-of-concept data supporting MG53 as a potentially safe and effective therapy to mitigate ALS progression.

18.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 24(4): 153-160, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available evidence on the comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare and rank the different types and formats of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched eight databases and other international registers up to 31 December 2020. The pairwise meta-analyses and frequentist network meta-analyses estimated pooled standardised mean differences (SMDs) and ORs with random-effects model. Efficacy at post-treatment and follow-up, acceptability, depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured. FINDINGS: We included 56 randomised controlled trials with 5327 patients comparing 14 different types of psychotherapies and 3 control conditions. For efficacy, cognitive processing therapy (CPT), behavioural therapy (BT), individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing, and group TF-CBT were significantly superior to all control conditions at post-treatment and follow-up (SMDs between -2.42 and -0.25). Moreover, CPT, BT and individual TF-CBT were more effective than supportive therapy (SMDs between -1.92 and -0.49). Results for depressive and anxiety symptoms were similar to the findings for the primary outcome. Most of the results were rated as 'moderate' to 'very low' in terms of confidence of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: CPT, BT and individual TF-CBT appear to be the best choices of psychotherapy for PTSD in young patients. Other types and different ways of delivering psychological treatment can be alternative options. Clinicians should consider the importance of each outcome and the patients' preferences in real clinical practice.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Psicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
19.
JMIR Infodemiology ; 1(1): e26895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541460

RESUMO

Background: Massive community-wide testing has become the cornerstone of management strategies for the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: This study was a comparative analysis between the United Kingdom and China, which aimed to assess public attitudes and uptake regarding COVID-19 testing, with a focus on factors of COVID-19 testing hesitancy, including effectiveness, access, risk perception, and communication. Methods: We collected and manually coded 3856 UK tweets and 9299 Chinese Sina Weibo posts mentioning COVID-19 testing from June 1 to July 15, 2020. Adapted from the World Health Organization's 3C Model of Vaccine Hesitancy, we employed social listening analysis examining key factors of COVID-19 testing hesitancy (confidence, complacency, convenience, and communication). Descriptive analysis, time trends, geographical mapping, and chi-squared tests were performed to assess the temporal, spatial, and sociodemographic characteristics that determine the difference in attitudes or uptake of COVID-19 tests. Results: The UK tweets demonstrated a higher percentage of support toward COVID-19 testing than the posts from China. There were much wider reports of public uptake of COVID-19 tests in mainland China than in the United Kingdom; however, uncomfortable experiences and logistical barriers to testing were more expressed in China. The driving forces for undergoing COVID-19 testing were personal health needs, community-wide testing, and mandatory testing policies for travel, with major differences in the ranking order between the two countries. Rumors and information inquiries about COVID-19 testing were also identified. Conclusions: Public attitudes and acceptance toward COVID-19 testing constantly evolve with local epidemic situations. Policies and information campaigns that emphasize the importance of timely testing and rapid communication responses to inquiries and rumors, and provide a supportive environment for accessing tests are key to tackling COVID-19 testing hesitancy and increasing uptake.

20.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 118, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer cells develop resistance to chemotherapeutic intervention by excessive formation of stress granules (SGs), which are modulated by an oncogenic protein G3BP2. Selective control of G3BP2/SG signaling is a potential means to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Co-immunoprecipitation was conducted to identify the interaction of MG53 and G3BP2. Immunohistochemistry and live cell imaging were performed to visualize the subcellular expression or co-localization. We used shRNA to knock-down the expression MG53 or G3BP2 to test the cell migration and colony formation. The expression level of MG53 and G3BP2 in human NSCLC tissues was tested by western blot analysis. The ATO-induced oxidative stress model was used to examine the effect of rhMG53 on SG formation. Moue NSCLC allograft experiments were performed on wild type and transgenic mice with either knockout of MG53, or overexpression of MG53. Human NSCLC xenograft model in mice was used to evaluate the effect of MG53 overexpression on tumorigenesis. RESULTS: We show that MG53, a member of the TRIM protein family (TRIM72), modulates G3BP2 activity to control lung cancer progression. Loss of MG53 results in the progressive development of lung cancer in mg53-/- mice. Transgenic mice with sustained elevation of MG53 in the bloodstream demonstrate reduced tumor growth following allograft transplantation of mouse NSCLC cells. Biochemical assay reveals physical interaction between G3BP2 and MG53 through the TRIM domain of MG53. Knockdown of MG53 enhances proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells, whereas reduced tumorigenicity is seen in NSCLC cells with knockdown of G3BP2 expression. The recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein can enter the NSCLC cells to induce nuclear translation of G3BP2 and block arsenic trioxide-induced SG formation. The anti-proliferative effect of rhMG53 on NSCLC cells was abolished with knockout of G3BP2. rhMG53 can enhance sensitivity of NSCLC cells to undergo cell death upon treatment with cisplatin. Tailored induction of MG53 expression in NSCLC cells suppresses lung cancer growth via reduced SG formation in a xenograft model. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings support the notion that MG53 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting G3BP2/SG activity in NSCLCs.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...