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1.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826110

RESUMO

Lumbar spine surgery is one of the most widespread types of surgery for treating back and leg pain. However, the postoperative period always presents with severe pain due to the removal of skin, subcutaneous tissues, bones, and ligaments. Patients usually require high doses of opioids to relieve pain during the initial three days after operation, as well as experience drug-related complications and prolonged length of stay in hospital. We found that Erector spinae plane block significantly reduced postoperative opioid consumption and pain scores. The present systematic review revealed that ESPB was effective and safe for postoperative analgesia.

2.
Obes Rev ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817962

RESUMO

Reporting is critical for establishing the value of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This study evaluated the adherence of bariatric surgery RCT reporting to the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement 2010 and its 2017 extension for non-pharmacologic treatments (NPT extension). We identified all RCTs comparing bariatric surgery with conservational therapy or alternative bariatric surgery up to June 30, 2020. Reporting quality was assessed using criteria developed from the CONSORT statement and the NPT extension and scored as a percentage. The factors associated with reporting quality were explored by univariate and multivariate analysis. In total, 102 RCTs of bariatric surgery were included. The median scores according to the CONSORT statement and NPT extension were 63.3 and 26.8 of a maximum possible 100, respectively. Two-thirds of NPT extension items were reported in less than 25% of the RCTs. The median score improved over time for the CONSORT statement but not the NPT extension. A higher CONSORT score was associated with publication in core clinical journals, protocol registration, and funding. No factors associated with the NPT extension score were identified. Substantial efforts are warranted from authors, journals, registration platforms, and funders to overcome the flaws in the reporting of bariatric surgery RCTs.

3.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(3): 338-346, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The role of Paeoniflorin on hepatic fibrosis and the specific mechanisms has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we explored whether Paeoniflorin exerted protective effects on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A model of hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneally injecting with CCl4 (10% 5 µl/g) twice a week for 7 weeks. To explore the effects of Paeoniflorin, mice were treated with Paeoniflorin (100 mg/kg) by gavage once a day at 1 week after modeling until they were sacrificed. KEY FINDINGS: Paeoniflorin remarkably improved liver function and histopathological changes of hepatic tissues in CCl4-induced liver injury. Besides, the serum MAO enzyme activity and hydroxyproline contents were notably decreased following the intervention of Paeoniflorin. The decreased expression of Vimentin, α-SMA, Col1a and Desmin manifested the inhibition of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Interestingly, Paeoniflorin intervention significantly upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and attenuated the inflammatory cytokines production as well as the CCl4-induced oxidative stress imbalance. CONCLUSIONS: Paeoniflorin could effectively alleviate CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis by upregulation of heme oxygenase-1, and it might be a new effective option for the comprehensive treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

4.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 83, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria(PH)is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease that contains three subtypes (PH1, PH2 and PH3). Approximately 80% of PH patients has been reported as subtype PH1, this subtype of PH has been related to a higher risk of renal failure at any age. Several genetic studies indicate that the variants in gene AGXT are responsible for the occurrence of PH1. However, the population heterogeneity of the variants in AGXT makes the genetic diagnosis of PH1 more challenging as it is hard to locate each specific variant. It is valuable to have a complete spectrum of AGXT variants from different population for early diagnosis and clinical treatments of PH1. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, We performed high-throughput sequencing and genetic analysis of a 6-year-old male PH1 patient from a Chinese family. Two variants (c.346G > A: p.Gly116Arg; c.864G > A: p.Trp288X) of the gene AGXT were identified. We found a nonsense variant (c.864G > A: p.Trp288X) that comes from the proband's mother and has never been reported previously. The other missense variant (c.346G > A: p.Gly116Arg) was inherited from his father and has been found previously in a domain of aminotransferase, which plays an important role in the function of AGT protein. Furthermore, we searched 110 pathogenic variants of AGXT that have been reported worldwide in healthy local Chinese population, none of these pathogenic variants was detected in the local genomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our research provides an important diagnosis basis for PH1 on the genetic level by updating the genotype of PH1 and also develops a better understanding of the variants in AGXT by broadening the variation database of AGXT according to the Chinese reference genome.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 625928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732247

RESUMO

Edwardsiella ictaluri is a highly destructive pathogen in cultured yellow catfish, thus it was very necessary to study the immune response of yellow catfish against bacterial infection. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to study the immune response in two distinct tissues of yellow catfish at eight different time points (h) after E. ictaluri infection. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the spleen and liver was low at 3 h and 6 h post-infection, respectively. Afterwards, the most number of DEGs in the spleen was detected at 72 h, while the number of DEGs in the liver maintained a high level from 24 h to 120 h. The GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of DEGs at different time points uncovered that cytokines were continuously transcribed at 6 h to 120 h; whereas the liver is the main organ that secretes the components of the complement system, and metabolic regulation was activated from 12 h to 120 h. Moreover, an overview of the inflammation response of yellow catfish was exhibited including pattern-recognition receptors, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, complements, and inflammation-related signal pathways. The similar expression tendency of nine genes by qRT-PCR validated the accuracy of transcriptome analyses. The different transcriptomic profiles obtained from the spleen and liver will help to better understand the dynamic immune response of fish against bacterial infection, and will provide basic information for establishing effective measures to prevent and control diseases in fish.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685116

RESUMO

The development of a highly salt-resistant solar evaporator with long-term energy conversion is essential for practical solar desalination. Herein, we first report the ionic liquid-assisted alignment of corn straw-based microcrystalline and oxidized microcrystalline cellulose for preparation of biomass aerogel (abbreviated as CSMCA and CSOMCA) evaporators with low tortuosity channels for salt-assistance solar steam generation. By coating of carbonized cornstalk nanoparticles onto CSMCA and CSOMCA as light-absorbing layers (named C-CSMCA and C-CSOMCA), the light absorption of C-CSMCA and C-CSOMCA reaches 92 and 95%, respectively. The formation of strong H-bonding between pyranoid rings of cellulose in the presence of the ionic liquid would result in a reorientation of microcrystalline cellulose, which makes it possible to create vertically aligned channels of CSMCA and CSOMCA after replacement of solvents, followed by freeze drying. Combined with their low thermal conductivity (0.037 and 0.043 W m-1 K-1), high porosity, and intrinsic superhydrophilicity, C-CSMCA and C-CSOMCA exhibit high evaporation rates (1.44 and 1.36 kg m-2 h-1) and excellent energy conversion efficiencies (88 and 84%). In particular, bearing with vertically aligned channels, C-CSMCA and C-CSOMCA possess excellent salt tolerance for solar desalination due to a rapid resolving and return of the crystalline salt into water, for example, no surface salt crystallization for C-CSMCA after 20 days of continuous evaporation. Moreover, both C-CSMCA and C-CSOMCA have excellent sewage treatment capacity and can efficiently absorb dyes and heavy-metal ions in water bodies, showing great potential in actual desalination and sewage treatment based on their cost-effective, simple, scalable, and green manufacture.

7.
J Int Med Res ; 49(3): 300060521999568, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis investigated the analgesic effects of erector spinae plane block (ESPB) in patients undergoing breast surgery. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database establishment to January 31, 2020. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. The primary outcomes were pain scores and opioid consumption during the first 24 hours after surgery. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials of 415 patients were included. Compared with the control value, the pain score was significantly lower in the ESPB group at different time points postoperatively. Patients who underwent ESPB required lower opioid consumption (standardized mean difference = -2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.85 to -1.20, I2= 91%. The rates of postoperative nausea (risk ratio [RR] = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.48-1.30, I2 = 47%) and postoperative vomiting (RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.30-1.96, I2 = 33%) did not differ between the groups. The quality of evidence was low or very low. CONCLUSIONS: ESPB significantly alleviated pain and reduced opioid consumption after breast surgery. Further research is needed to expand its clinical application.PROSPERO registration number CRD42020167900.

8.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651964

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in understanding tissue organization, homeostasis, and inflammation. However, despite an abundance of data, the organizing principles of tissue biology remain poorly defined. Here, we present a perspective on tissue organization based on the relationships between cell types and the functions that they perform. We provide a formal definition of tissue homeostasis as a collection of circuits that regulate specific variables within the tissue environment, and we describe how the functional organization of tissues allows for the maintenance of both tissue and systemic homeostasis. This leads to a natural definition of inflammation as a response to deviations from homeostasis that cannot be reversed by homeostatic mechanisms alone. We describe how inflammatory signals act on the same cellular functions involved in normal tissue organization and homeostasis in order to coordinate emergency responses to perturbations and ultimately return the system to a homeostatic state. Finally, we consider the hierarchy of homeostatic and inflammatory circuits and the implications for the development of inflammatory diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 39 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 600598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717080

RESUMO

C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is a susceptibility gene of various immune-related diseases, which was suggested to be shared with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). In this study, we aimed to identify the functional variants. First, we analyzed the associations of CCR6 common and rare variants detected by multi-platform chips with IgAN susceptibility using imputation and identified 68 significantly associated common variants located in the regulatory region. Among them, rs3093023 showed both statistical significance (rs3093023-A, odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, P = 2.00 × 10-2) and the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) effect (P = 1.45 × 10-3). It was independently replicated (rs3093023-A, OR = 1.18, P = 5.56 × 10-3) and the association was reinforced in the meta-analysis (rs3093023-A, OR = 1.17, P = 6.14 × 10-7). Although rs3093023 was in a strong linkage disequilibrium with the reported CCR6 functional variant dinucleotide polymorphism, CCR6DNP, the alleles of rs3093023 (G>A) rather than of CCR6DNP were shown differential nuclear protein binding effect by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The RegulomeDB and JASPAR databases predicted Pou2f1 as the potential transcription factor, which was negatively associated with CCR6 mRNA (r = -0.60, P = 3.94 × 10-9). At the mRNA level, the eQTL effect of CCR6 was validated (P = 4.39 × 10-2), and CCR6 was positively associated with the expression of CCR4 and IL-17A rather than that of CXCR3 and IFNG. At the protein level, a higher CCR6+ cell ratio was observed in a risk allele dose-dependent manner in lymphocytes (P = 3.57 × 10-2), CD3+ T cells (P = 4.54 × 10-2), and CD4+ T cells (P = 1.32 × 10-2), but not in CD8+ T cells. Clinical-pathological analysis showed that rs3093023 risk allele was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, and high ratio of tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis. Overall, the rs3093023 was prioritized as the function variant in CCR6, which may contribute to IgAN susceptibility by regulating Th17 cells.

10.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130084, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740650

RESUMO

Anthropogenic NOx, SO2 and CO2 emission from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants has aroused growing attention. This study investigated the removal performance of CO2, SO2 and NOx in flue gas as well as conversion efficiency of nitric- and sulfur-compounds in liquid phase in a biofilter. In order to develop the potential of the biofilter, simulative industry wastewater was employed as the spray solution. The satisfactory flue gas removal performance (75.23% CO2, 100% SO2 and 82.81% NO) were achieved under the optimal operating conditions of biofilter: initial solution pH of 9 and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) of 3. The gas film mass transfer coefficients (kGa) results showed that the resistance of gas mass transfer was decreased with increasing the pH value and L/G ratio, respectively. The final transformation product of NO was mostly N2 while about 78% SO2 was converted to elemental sulfur. The microbial community analysis results showed that the relative abundance of bacteria with denitrification capacity was increased by 3.05% which might have contributed to the conversion of NO intermediates products in present study. Collectively, this biofilter system achieve a better flue gas removal performance via the proper operation system, which provides an economic feasible strategy of flue gas purification and increases potential for industrial application.

11.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 253: 119590, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647826

RESUMO

To explore problems with the fast estimation method of moisture content (MC) in reconstructed soil under human disturbance, this paper used a fly ash-filled reconstructed soil region as the research object and obtained experimental data by Fieldspec4 high spectrometry and the laboratory drying method. The response characteristics of MC were analyzed from the original spectral data that underwent mathematical transformation and the spectral index data, and a corresponding inversion model was established. Combined with the successive projections algorithm (SPA), the model was optimized with a better fitting effect, and the optimal inversion model was obtained. The results showed that the composition of soil and fly ash were different, resulting in obvious differences in the shape of the spectral curve, but both had large moisture absorption peaks near 1420 nm and 1920 nm. After mathematical transformation, the correlation between the spectral reflectance and MC was enhanced, in which the absolute value of the maximum correlation between the soil moisture content (SMC) was 0.839, and the absolute value of the maximum correlation between the fly ash moisture content (FMC) was 0.801. Among them, the first-order differential of multivariate scattering correction (MSC') and the first-order differential of logarithm ((lgR)') had higher fitting accuracy for FMC and SMC, respectively. The scale and sensitivity of significance variables were greatly improved based on the spectral index of two-band operation. Better FMC and SMC models were constructed based on the difference soil index (DSI) under mathematical transformation, and R2 were 0.73 and 0.87, respectively. After SPA optimization, the predictive ability of the model was further improved, in which the predictive accuracy R2 of FMC and SMC reached up to 0.87 and 0.96, respectively, and the RPD was greater than 3. This shows that the DSI model based on MSC' and (lgR)' combined with the SPA method can be used as an effective means of predicting the MC in fly ash-filled reconstructed soil. These research results provide the theoretical basis and technical support for the application of soil near-earth sensing technology and rapid estimation of the MC of reconstructed soil under human disturbance.

12.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 33, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leydig cells reflect the activation of inflammation, decrease of androgen production, inhibition of cell growth and promotion of cell apoptosis under orchitis. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) exerts a crucial role in various human diseases, but under orchitis, the role and underlying molecular mechanism of MEG3 in Leydig cells remain unclear. METHODS: Lipofectamine 2000 was used for the cell transfections. qPCR and western blots assay were applied to assess the gene expression. ELISA assay was used to measure the TNFα, IL6 and testosterone secretion. CCK8 and EdU assay was employ to test the cell viability and proliferation respectively. Luciferase reporter and RIP assay were introduced to detect the binding of miR-93-5p with MEG3 and PTEN. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced TNFα and IL6 secretion, lowered testosterone production, inhibited cell viability and proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis in Leydig cells. MEG3 was upregulated in Leydig cells treated with LPS and that knockdown of MEG3 inhibited the role of LPS in Leydig cells. MEG3 absorbed miR-93-5p and that suppression of miR-93-5p restored the role of silenced MEG3 in Leydig cells under LPS treatment. miR-93-5p inhibited PTEN expression and that over-expressed PTEN alleviated the effect of miR-93-5p in Leydig cells treated with LPS. LPS activated the MEG3/miR-93-5p/PTEN signalling pathway in Leydig cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that MEG3 serves as a molecular sponge to absorb miR-93-5p, thus leading to elevation of PTEN expression in Leydig cells under LPS treatment, offering a theoretical basis on which to establish potential new treatment strategies for orchitis.

13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 545-552, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galactose-deficient IgA1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, the most common primary GN worldwide. Although serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 have a strong genetic component, the genetic link between this molecule and IgA nephropathy has not yet been clearly established. METHODS: To identify novel loci associated with galactose-deficient IgA1, we performed a quantitative genome-wide association study for serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels, on the basis of two different genome-wide association study panels conducted in 1127 patients with IgA nephropathy. To test genetic associations with susceptibility to IgA nephropathy, we also enrolled 2352 patients with biopsy-diagnosed IgA nephropathy and 2632 healthy controls. Peripheral blood samples from 59 patients and 27 healthy controls were also collected for gene expression analysis. RESULTS: We discovered two loci, in C1GALT1 and GALNT12, that achieved genome-wide significance, explaining about 3.7% and 3.4% of variance in serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels, respectively. We confirmed the previously reported association of C1GALT1 with serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels, but with a different lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs10238682; ß=0.26, P=1.20×10-9); the locus we identified at GALNT12 (rs7856182; ß=0.73, P=2.38×10-9) was novel. Of more interest, we found that GALNT12 exhibits genetic interactions with C1GALT1 in both galactose-deficient IgA1 levels (P=1.40×10-2) and disease risk (P=6.55×10-3). GALNT12 mRNA expression in patients with IgA nephropathy was significantly lower compared with healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our data identify GALNT12 as a novel gene associated with galactose-deficient IgA1 and suggest novel genetic interactions. These findings support a key role of genetically conferred dysregulation of galactose-deficient IgA1 in the development of IgA nephropathy.

14.
Water Res ; 193: 116862, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550168

RESUMO

Chlorophenols (CPs) are highly toxic and refractory contaminants which widely exist in various environments and cause serious harm to human and environment health and safety. This review provides comprehensive information on typical CPs biodegradation technologies, the most green and benign ones for CPs removal. The known aerobic and anaerobic degradative bacteria, functional enzymes, and metabolic pathways of CPs as well as several improving methods and critical parameters affecting the overall degradation efficiency are systematically summarized and clarified. The challenges for CPs mineralization are also discussed, mainly including the dechlorination of polychlorophenols (poly-CPs) under aerobic condition and the ring-cleavage of monochlorophenols (MCPs) under anaerobic condition. The coupling of functional materials and degraders as well as the operation of sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors and bioelectrochemical system (BES) are promising strategies to overcome some current limitations. Future perspective and research gaps in this field are also proposed, including the further understanding of microbial information and the specific role of materials in CPs biodegradation, the potential application of innovative biotechnologies and new operating modes to optimize and maximize the function of the system, and the scale-up of bioreactors towards the efficient biodegradation of CPs.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Anaerobiose , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Humanos
15.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638766

RESUMO

The tetrapeptide repeat domain 3 (TTC3) gene falls within Down's syndrome (DS) critical region. Cognitive impairment is a common phenotype of DS and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and overexpression of TTC3 can accelerate cognitive decline, but the specific mechanism is unknown. The TTC3-mediated protein quality control (PQC) mechanism, similar to the PQC system, is divided into three parts: it acts as a cochaperone to assist proteins in folding correctly; it acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3s) involved in protein degradation processes through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS); and it may also eventually cause autophagy by affecting mitochondrial function. Thus, this article reviews the research progress on the structure, function, and metabolism of TTC3, including the recent research progress on TTC3 in DS and AD; the role of TTC3 in cognitive impairment through PQC in combination with the abovementioned attributes of TTC3; and the potential targets of TTC3 in the treatment of such diseases.

16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 68, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhomboid intercostal block (RIB) and Rhomboid intercostal block with sub-serratus plane block (RISS) are the two types of plane blocks used for postoperative analgesia after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). This prospective randomized controlled trial was performed to analyze the postoperative analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided RIB block and RISS block after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. METHODS: Ninety patients aged between 18 and 80 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Classes I-II and scheduled for elective unilateral VATS were randomly allocated into three groups. In group C, no block intervention was performed. Patients in group RIB received ultrasound-guided RIB with 20-mL 0.375% ropivacaine and those in group RISS received ultrasound-guided RIB and serratus plane block using a total of 40-mL 0.375% ropivacaine. All patients received intravenous sufentanil patient-controlled analgesia upon arrival in the recovery room. Postoperative sufentanil consumption and pain scores were compared among the groups. RESULTS: The dosages of sufentanil consumption at 24 h after the surgery in the RIB and RISS groups were significantly lower than that in group C (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for all comparisons, respectively), the postoperative Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores in the RIB and RISS groups at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after surgery when patients were at rest or active were significantly lower than that in group C (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). The required dosage of sufentanil and time to first postoperative analgesic request in groupRISS were less than those in the group RIB at 24 h after the surgery (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for all comparisons, respectively). Similarly, the Numerical Rating Scale scores for group RISS at 12, 18, and 24 h after the surgery when the patients were active were significantly lower than those for group RIB (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION: Both ultrasound-guided RIB block and RISS block can effectively reduce the demand for sufentanil within 24 h after VATS, and less sufentanil dosage is needed in patient with RISS block. Ultrasound-guided RIB block and RISS block can effectively relieve pain within 24 h after VATS, and RISS block is more effective.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current population-based estimates of the incidence and prognosis of lung metastases of hypopharyngeal cancer are lacking. The purpose of the study is to characterize the incidence proportions and survival probability of patients with hypopharyngeal cancer and lung metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 2714 adult patients diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer between 2010 and 2014 for whom the status of lung metastases was known from the SEER database. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were performed to identify the risk factors associated with the presence of lung metastases at diagnosis and 5-year all-cause mortality, respectively. RESULTS: We identified 128 patients with lung metastases at the time of diagnosis of hypopharyngeal cancer. Females were less likely to have lung metastases. Incidences of lung metastases were higher among patients with histological grade III/IV. For each 10 mm increase in tumor size, the odds of having lung metastases increased by 6.6%. Patients with lung metastases had a shorter survival time. CONCLUSION: Our study provides insight into the epidemiology of lung metastases in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. When the tumor is diagnosed, we should pay close attention to the sex, race, tumor size and histological grade to quickly detect the distant metastases.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(2): 138, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542227

RESUMO

The interaction between LncRNA and RNA-binding protein (RBPs) plays an essential role in the regulation over the malignant progression of tumors. Previous studies on the mechanism of SNHG1, an emerging lncRNA, have primarily focused on the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism between SNHG1 and RBPs in tumors remains to be explored, especially in prostate cancer (PCa). SNHG1 expression profiles in PCa were determined through the analysis of TCGA data and tissue microarray at the RNA level. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to investigate the biological role of SNHG1 in PCa initiation and progression. RNA-seq, immunoblotting, RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation analyses were utilized to clarify potential pathways with which SNHG1 might be involved. Finally, rescue experiments were carried out to further confirm this mechanism. We found that SNHG1 was dominantly expressed in the nuclei of PCa cells and significantly upregulated in PCa patients. The higher expression level of SNHG1 was dramatically correlated with tumor metastasis and patient survival. Functionally, overexpression of SNHG1 in PCa cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), accompanied by down-regulation of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and up-regulation of the mesenchymal marker, vimentin. Increased proliferation and migration, as well as accelerated xenograft tumor growth, were observed in SNHG1-overexpressing PCa cells, while opposite effects were achieved in SNHG1-silenced cells. Mechanistically, SNHG1 competitively interacted with hnRNPL to impair the translation of protein E-cadherin, thus activating the effect of SNHG1 on the EMT pathway, eventually promoting the metastasis of PCa. Our findings demonstrate that SNHG1 is a positive regulator of EMT activation through the SNHG1-hnRNPL-CDH1 axis. SNHG1 may serve as a novel potential therapeutic target for PCa.

19.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 1010539521993685, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593075

RESUMO

Toilet hygiene is an important preventive measure for infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. This study explored public's opinions on improving toilet environment and hygiene practices in Hong Kong. A mixed-method approach was applied. We conducted 4 focus groups plus 3 individual interviews among the Hong Kong Chinese, followed by a questionnaire survey with 300 respondents recruited from various districts. Difference in response distributions between groups with different demographics was tested by Pearson χ2 test. Instead of advocating for advanced toilet facilities, respondents were mostly concerned about basic hygiene issues. Malfunctioning facilities resulting from poor toilet management, such as clogged toilets, stained facilities, and problematic flushing systems, were most cited as barriers to toilet hygiene practices. Three quarters of the survey respondents expressed concerns over worn and poorly maintained toilets, shortage of janitors, and cleansing supplies. However, respondents who were older (P < .001), less educated (P < .001), and had lower income (P = .001) were significantly more likely to find hygiene conditions in public toilets satisfactory. The findings reflected the substandard of the current provisions as a developed city in Asia. Enhanced efforts by the government to maintain basic toilet supplies and facilities is the key to improving public compliance to toilet hygiene practices.

20.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(4): 595-603, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are limited data from retrospective studies on whether therapeutic outcomes after regular pancreatectomy are superior to those after enucleation in patients with small, peripheral and well-differentiated non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. This study aimed to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of regular pancreatectomy and enucleation in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. METHODS: Between January 2007 and July 2020, 227 patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who underwent either enucleation (n = 89) or regular pancreatectomy (n = 138) were included. Perioperative complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival probabilities were compared. Propensity score matching was performed to balance the baseline differences between the two groups. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 60.76 months in the enucleation group and 43.29 months in the regular pancreatectomy group. In total, 34 paired patients were identified after propensity score matching. The average operative duration in the enucleation group was significantly shorter than that in the regular pancreatectomy group (147.94 ± 42.39 min versus 217.94 ± 74.60 min, P < 0.001), and the estimated blood loss was also significantly lesser (P < 0.001). The matched patients who underwent enucleation displayed a similar overall incidence of postoperative complications (P = 0.765), and a comparable length of hospital stay (11.12 ± 3.90 days versus 9.94 ± 2.62 days, P = 0.084) compared with those who underwent regular pancreatectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in disease-free survival and overall survival after propensity score matching. CONCLUSION: Enucleation in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors was associated with shorter operative time, lesser intraoperative bleeding, similar overall morbidity of postoperative complications, and comparable 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival when compared with regular pancreatectomy.

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