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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158907, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150592

RESUMO

Forest soil harbors diverse microbial communities with decisive roles in ecosystem processes. Vegetation shift from needleleaf to broadleaf species is occurring across the globe due to climate change and anthropogenic activities, potentially change forest soil microbial communities and C cycle. However, our knowledge on the impact of such vegetation shift on soil microbial community and activities, and its consequences on forest soil C dynamics are still not well established. Here, we examined the seasonal variation of soil CO2 emission, soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs), and soil bacterial, fungal communities in subtropical forest from broadleaf, needleleaf, and mixed stands. In addition, soil CO2 emission and soil EEAs were measured in temperate forest during the growing season. Soil organic matter (SOM) content significantly differs between broadleaf and needleleaf forests and primarily distinguish various soil chemical and microbial characteristics. Significantly higher EEAs and soil CO2 emission in broadleaf forest compared to needleleaf forest were observed both in subtropical and temperate forests. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota positively correlated with SOM and EEAs and indirectly increase soil CO2 emission whereas the relative abundance of Ascomycota exhibits opposite trend, suggesting that soil fungal communities play a key role in determining the different microbial activities between broadleaf and needleleaf stands. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emission was significantly higher in broadleaf forest compared to needleleaf forest, further suggesting that the soil organic carbon in broadleaf forests is more vulnerable to warming.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(6): 1098-1103, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443059

RESUMO

Cyclic dimeric adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a newly-discovered second messenger in bacteria and archaea. By directly binding to or affecting the expression of target proteins, c-di-AMP regulates the physiological functions of bacteria, including maintaining osmotic pressure, balancing central metabolism, monitoring DNA damage, and controlling biofilm and spore formation. As a new pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), it binds to the host pattern recognition receptor (PRR), induces cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING signal axis to produce type Ⅰ interferon by activating the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), and promotes the secretion of inflammatory factors through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, thereby playing an important role in host immunity to bacterial infection and tumorigenesis. Due to its immunogenicity, c-di-AMP could be used as an immune adjuvant to provide new targets for the development of vaccines. However, the specific mechanism of action of c-di-AMP in host immunity awaits further exploration. Herein, we presented the structure and biological characteristics of c-di-AMP, and summarized the possible mechanism of c-di-AMP's regulation of host immune response. In addition, we also reported the latest findings on using c-di-AMP as an immune adjuvant in clinical treatment. Research on the function of c-di-AMP and its mechanism of action on host immune response provides new ideas for finding clinical solutions to bacterial resistance, infection control, tumor prevention, and vaccine development in the future.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fosfatos de Dinucleosídeos , Biofilmes , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(6): 1110-1117, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443061

RESUMO

Being one of the most important exocrine fluids of the human body, saliva can reflect the health status of the body. Soliva collection has various advantages--it is simple, painless, fast, and safe, and soliva can be collected multiple times a day. Therefore, it has been gradually applied in the exploration for biomarkers for disease detection, providing a basis for the monitoring of the course of diseases, medication monitoring, and efficacy evaluation. We should implement health management based on saliva testing, collect the medical data of the healthy and diseased individuals and monitor their whole life cycle health, perform clinical cohort study, aggregate the data on platforms for big data on health and medicine, manage and provide guidance for the health status of populations, pinpoint the high-risk factors for pathogenesis, and provide effective intervention, early warning, and assessment of the vital signs of individuals, thereby reinforcing health management of the whole life cycle and safeguarding people's health in an all-round way. In addition, it drives the development of the health industry and bears strategic significance for the promotion of national economic development. It is becoming a hot research topic promising great potential and impressive applicational prospects. Herein, we reviewed new techniques for clinical saliva testing and health management based on saliva testing.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Saliva , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Nível de Saúde , Fatores de Risco
4.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of widely used protein affinity tags and the tobacco PR1a signal peptide (SP) on detection, purification and bioactivity analyses of the small oomycete apoplastic effector SCR96 in planta. RESULTS: Through agroinfiltration, the phytotoxic effector SCR96 of Phytophthora cactorum was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf apoplast as a fusion protein carrying single affinity tag (His, HA or FLAG) at either C- or N-terminus. Leaf necrosis caused by different affinity-tagged SCR96 varied among tags and replicates. All of tagged proteins can be detected by antibodies against SCR96. All of SCR96 fusions except N-terminally fused 6His-tagged protein were detected using tag antibodies, indicating that 6His tag may be degraded when fused at N-terminus. Interestingly, C-terminal His- and FLAG-tagged SCR96 maintained the biological activity after purification. In the substitution assay of SCR96 SP, we observed that PR1a SP can lead chimeric SCR96 expression in N. benthamiana, but the replacement totally disrupted its bioactivity. CONCLUSION: C-terminal His or FLAG tag, along with its original SP, is efficient enough to enable detection and purification of functional SCR96 from N. benthamiana leaf apoplast, which would facilitate plant-pathogen interaction studies.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 248: 114302, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399995

RESUMO

Recent investigations have revealed that puerarin (PU) alleviates cadmium (Cd)-caused hepatic damage via inhibiting oxidative stress. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles and play a critical part in regulating the occurrence of oxidative stress, but the role of mitochondria in the protection of PU against hepatocellular damage caused by Cd exposure remains unknown. Thus, this study was aimed to clarify this issue using mouse hepatocyte AML-12 cell line. Transmission electron microscopy analysis firstly showed that PU prevents Cd-induced mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. Mitochondrial network image analysis by confocal microscopy revealed that PU exerts the protection against Cd-induced cytotoxicity via restoring mitochondrial network fragmentation. Also, mitochondrial dynamic protein expression profiles showed that enhanced fission protein levels and inhibited fusion protein levels in Cd-treated cells were significantly reversed by PU, suggesting the protective effect of PU against Cd-induced mitochondrial fission. Moreover, changes of intracellular ATP level and protein levels of key regulators involving in mitochondrial biogenesis indicated that Sirtuin-1(Sirt1) pathway may be involved in the protection of Cd-impaired mitochondrial function by PU. Next, Sirt1 protein levels in treated cells were effectively regulated by genetic knockdown or chemical agonist SRT1720. Accordingly, alleviation of Cd-induced mitochondrial fission assays and cell viability by PU was markedly regulated by SRT1720 or Sirt1 knockdown, suggesting the indispensable role of Sirt1 in this process. Collectively, these findings highlight that PU prevents Cd-induced mitochondrial fission to alleviate cytotoxicity via Sirt1-dependent pathway, which provide novel evidences to fully understand the hepatoprotective action of PU against heavy metal toxicity.

6.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Underimmunization of CHD children is a public health concern in China. This study aimed to analyze the vaccination status of CHD children to provide additional evidence on optimal vaccination strategies and to make suggestions to promote appropriate vaccination services for these children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 155 CHD children who received at least one vaccine at Peking University First Hospital. Vaccine-specific immunization rates were calculated. A telephone questionnaire survey was conducted that covered the following: the prognosis, reasons for delayed vaccinations and getting vaccination in the hospital. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 22 software. RESULTS: The left-to-right shunt group involved 138 children, while the other type CHD group involved 17. The vaccination rate was the highest for MPSV-AC (87.1%) and the lowest for DTaP (40.1%). The most frequent reason for vaccination in the hospital was refusal from community health centers (61.5%). No participant reported vaccine-related adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The age-appropriate vaccine-specific immunization rates in CHD children are low, with the lowest for DTaP. Refusal of community health centers was the primary reason. Our findings support that clinically stable CHD children may be safely vaccinated on a schedule similar to that of ordinary children in China. IMPACT: From our investigation, we found that the age-appropriate vaccine-specific immunization rates in children with CHD in China are low, with the lowest for diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis. Refusal of community health centers to vaccinate was the primary reason for the low rates. We believe our study provides additional evidence on optimal vaccination strategies for children with CHD and it can be used to develop strategies to promote appropriate vaccination services for these children.

7.
J Oral Rehabil ; 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Degenerative joint disease (DJD) can be associated with disc displacement (DD) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. However, the relationship between different types of DDs and DJD remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the odds ratios of different types of sagittal and coronal DDs confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DJD confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in TMD patients. METHODS: Radiographic data from 69 males and 232 females were collected for analysis. CBCT was used to diagnose DJD, with criteria including erosion, osteophytes, generalised sclerosis and cysts in the joint. Eight types of DDs were evaluated by sagittal and coronal MRIs: NA, no abnormality; SW, sideways; ADDR, anterior with reduction; ADDR+SW; ADDNR, anterior without reduction; ADDNR + SW; single SW; PDD, posterior; PDD + SW. The odds ratios of DJD in joints with different types of DDs were determined after joint correlation, age and gender adjustment. RESULTS: Compared with NA, the odds ratio of DJD in ADDR was 2.397 (95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.070-5.368), ADDR + SW was 4.808 (95% CI: 1.709-3.528), ADDNR was 29.982 (95% CI: 15.512-57.950) and ADDNR + SW was 25.974 (95% CI: 12.743-52.945). Erosion was significantly increased in ADDR, ADDR + SW, ADDNR and ADDNR + SW; osteophytes were significantly increased in ADDR + SW, ADDNR and ADDNR + SW; and generalised sclerosis and cysts were significantly increased in ADDNR and ADDNR + SW. There were no significant associations between single SW, PDD, PDD + SW and the DJD. CONCLUSIONS: ADDR, ADDR+SW, ADDNR and ADDNR+SW were associated with DJD. ADDNR had a significantly higher prevalence of DJD than ADDR. There were no significant relationships between single SW, PDD, PDD + SW and the DJD.

8.
Microb Pathog ; 173(Pt A): 105828, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243381

RESUMO

The ongoing global pandemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has a significant impact on global health and economy system. In this context, there have been some landmark advances in vaccine development. Over 100 new coronavirus vaccine candidates have been approved for clinical trials, with ten WHO-approved vaccines including four inactivated virus vaccines, two mRNA vaccines, three recombinant viral vectored vaccines and one protein subunit vaccine on the "Emergency Use Listing". Although the SARS-CoV-2 has an internal proofreading mechanism, there have been a number of mutations emerged in the pandemic affecting its transmissibility, pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Of these, mutations in the spike (S) protein and the resultant mutant variants have posed new challenges for vaccine development and application. In this review article, we present an overview of vaccine development, the prevalence of new coronavirus variants and their impact on protective efficacy of existing vaccines and possible immunization strategies coping with the viral mutation and diversity.

9.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(5): 744-751, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224673

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the relationship between miRNA-3679 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, and to verify the downstream target genes of miRNA-3679. Methods: PCR was used to determine the expression of miRNA-3679 in liver cancer cell lines, and databases, including ENCORI, miRDB and TargetScan, were used to predict the downstream target genes of miRNA-3679. qPCR of the normal control group (or NC group), miR-3679 inhibitor group and transfection negative control group (or inhibitor NC group) was done to determine the transfection efficiency of the target gene, thereby identifying zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase domain containing 2 (ZADH2) as the target gene. Western blot was used to determine the ZADH2 protein expression after miRNA-3679 inhibitor transfection. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining was done to determine the effect of transfection of miRNA-3679 inhibitor and simultaneous transfection of miRNA-3679 and ZADH2 inhibitors on cell proliferation. Clone formation assay was done to determine the ability of cell clone formation. Flow cytometry was done to examine cell apoptosis. Results: The expression level of miRNA-3679 in HCC cell lines was higher than that in normal human liver cell lines (P<0.05). Through screening conducted with the databases, six genes, including GLUD1, B3GAT1, SLC46A3, MAP2K3, ATF5, and ZADH2, were found to be down-regulated in HCC. qPCR showed that ZADH2 expression increased significantly after transfection with miRNA-3679 inhibitor (P<0.01) and luciferase activity increased after transfection with miR-3679 inhibitor (P<0.01). Western blot results showed that ZADH2 protein expression of the miR-3679 inhibitor group was higher than that of the NC group (P<0.01). EdU analysis showed that the number of positive cells in the miRNA-3679 inhibitor group was lower than that in the NC group and the Inhibitor NC group (P<0.05). The clone count of the miR-3679 inhibitor+si-ZADH2 group was significantly higher than that of the miR-3679 inhibitor group (P<0.01). Flow cytometry showed that the number of apoptotic cells of the miR-3679 inhibitor+si-ZADH2 group was significantly lower than that of the miR-3679 inhibitor group (P<0.01). Conclusion: miRNA-3679 is significantly highly expressed in HCC cells and miRNA-3679 can directly interact with ZADH2 gene and affect its expression. Moreover, miRNA-3679 promotes the proliferation of HCC cells and inhibits their apoptosis by suppressing ZADH2.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5770, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182949

RESUMO

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is an appealing approach for "green" hydrogen generation. The natural p-type semiconductor of Cu2O is one of the most promising photocathode candidates for direct hydrogen generation. However, the Cu2O-based photocathodes still suffer severe self-photo-corrosion and fast surface electron-hole recombination issues. Herein, we propose a facile in-situ encapsulation strategy to protect Cu2O with hydrogen-substituted graphdiyne (HsGDY) and promote water reduction performance. The HsGDY encapsulated Cu2O nanowires (HsGDY@Cu2O NWs) photocathode demonstrates a high photocurrent density of -12.88 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode under 1 sun illumination, approaching to the theoretical value of Cu2O. The HsGDY@Cu2O NWs photocathode as well as presents excellent stability and contributes an impressive hydrogen generation rate of 218.2 ± 11.3 µmol h-1cm-2, which value has been further magnified to 861.1 ± 24.8 µmol h-1cm-2 under illumination of concentrated solar light. The in-situ encapsulation strategy opens an avenue for rational design photocathodes for efficient and stable PEC water reduction.

11.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 30(5): 1532-1535, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and laboratory characteristics of primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients with negative results of direct antiglobulin test (DAT) by tube test but positive results by microcolumn gel assay, in order to provide references for the diagnosis of these patients. METHODS: 59 patients diagnosed with primary AIHA in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the results of tube test and microcolumn gel assay, the cases were divided into 3 groups, and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of each group were compared. RESULTS: The cases were grouped as follows: Group I, cases with negative results by both methods of DAT (n=5); Group II, cases with negative results by tube test but positive results by microcolumn gel assay (n=26); Group III, cases with positive results by both methods of DAT (n=28). There was no significant difference in age and sex between Group II and other groups, whereas the positive rate of anti-IgG + anti-C3d of Group II was lower than that in Group III (P=0.015). The main clinical manifestations of Group II were chest tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, as well as yellow skin and sclera or dark urine, but the incidence rate of these symptoms was not significantly different from other groups. Anemia related indexes in Group II such as red blood cell (RBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) were lower than the reference intervals, but there was no significant difference compared with other groups. Hemolysis related indexes in Group II such as reticulocyte (Ret) ratio, indirect bilirubin (IBIL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and free-hemoglobin (F-Hb) were higher than the reference intervals, and the latter two items were signficantly higher than those in Group I (P=0.031 and P=0.036). Serum complement C3 and C4 in Group II were higher than those in Group III (P=0.010 and P=0.037). CONCLUSION: Anemia severity of primary AIHA patients who were negative of DAT by tube test but positive by microcolumn gel assay was similar to those with negative or positive results by both DAT methods, but the mechanism and degree of complement system involved in hemolysis might be different. Results above may be helpful for laboratory diagnosis of this kind of patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Bilirrubina , Complemento C3 , Teste de Coombs/métodos , Eritrócitos , Hemólise , Humanos , Lactato Desidrogenases , Resultados Negativos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(5): 842-850, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224687

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the salivary metabolic profile of patients with periodontitis through metabolomic techniques and to explore the metabolic patterns associated with periodontal diseases. Methods: Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technique in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA) analysis and orthogonal partial least squares identification (OPLS-DA) method was used to study the metabolomics of saliva samples from gingivitis patients, periodontitis patients, and healthy controls, with 10 samples for each group. We examined the correlation between migration in metabolic profile and the progression of periodontal diseases. Results: Saliva metabolite profiles of gingivitis and periodontitis patients was significantly different from those of the healthy controls. Significant differences were identified between the different groups for eight salivary metabolites, including arachidonic acid, tyramine, L-arginine, thymine, N-acetylgalactosamine sulfate, prostaglandin E2, L-phenylalanine, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR). In comparison with those of the health controls, the concentration of AICAR in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis was lower and the metabolic trend was down-regulated, while the other metabolites were up-regulated. Conclusion: Salivary metabolic profile changes along with the progression of periodontal diseases. Abnormal metabolism of the periodontal tissue and of pathogenic microorganisms related to periodontal diseases is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis, development and prognosis of periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Acetilgalactosamina , Ácido Araquidônico , Arginina , Biomarcadores/análise , Dinoprostona , Gengivite/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Fenilalanina , Sulfatos , Timina , Tiramina
13.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(21): 2992-3000, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy in females around the world. Recently, a growing number of studies have focused on gene dysregulation. In our previous study, Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) were found to play essential roles in breast cancer development, among which KLF2 could function as a tumor suppressor. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: miR-92a-3p was identified as the upstream regulator of KLF2 by starBase v.3.0. The regulation of KLF2 by miR-92a-3p was verified by a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. Further exploration revealed that Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5 (BIRC5) was the target of KLF2. ChIP assay, dual-luciferase reporter analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot were performed for verification. RESULTS: miR-92a-3p functioned as a tumor promoter by inhibiting KLF2 by binding to its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). In addition, KLF2 could transcriptionally suppress the expression of BIRC5. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results uncovered the miR-92a-3p/KLF2/BIRC5 axis in breast cancer and provided a potential mechanism for breast cancer development, which may serve as promising strategies for breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like , MicroRNAs , Survivina , Feminino , Humanos , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Survivina/genética
14.
J Environ Manage ; 324: 116340, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170780

RESUMO

Al toxicity and Cd pollution are key limiting factors for agricultural production in the acidic soils in China. The application of amendments is an effective and promising measure for remediating strongly acidic Cd-contaminated soils. However, the information on applying amendments for alleviating Al toxicity and regulating plant Cd accumulation is still rare. Here, oyster shell (OS), red mud (RM), hydroxyapatite (HAP), and biochar (BC) at 30 g kg-1 were investigated for alleviating Al toxicity and decreasing Cd accumulation in spinach plants. The results showed that four amendments significantly increased soil pH, and reduced soil exchangeable Al3+ and DTPA-Cd, promoted spinach growth (P < 0.05). Al(OH)30 and Al-HA were the main forms of active Al in soil. The BC and OS were more effective to alleviate Al toxicity but significantly (P < 0.05) increased Cd accumulation in spinach. RM and HAP effectively reduced the uptake of Cd by spinach plants as well as alleviated Al toxicity (P < 0.05). Bivariate correlation analysis and the partial least squares path modeling analysis indicated that soil exchangeable Al3+ was the main limiting factor for biomass production. Our study demonstrated that HAP could significantly alleviate Al toxicity, promote spinach growth, and decrease Cd accumulation in strongly acidic Cd-contaminated soils. Besides, OS and BC effectively alleviated soil Al toxicity leading to promoting the growth of spinach. Compared with CK, RM treatment significantly reduced soil Cd bioavailability (61.2%) and decreased Cd concentration and uptake of spinach plants by 90.0% and 50.7%. These results indicated that RM could be used as an efficient amendment in Cd contaminated.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Solo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Spinacia oleracea , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carvão Vegetal
15.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(10): 1401-1416.e8, 2022 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057258

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract facilitates food digestion, with the gut microbiota playing pivotal roles in nutrient breakdown and absorption. However, the microbial molecules and downstream signaling pathways that activate food digestion remain unexplored. Here, by establishing a food digestion system in C. elegans, we discover that food breakdown is regulated by the interaction between bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and a neural-immune pathway. E. coli OmpF/A activate digestion by increasing the neuropeptide NLP-12 that acts on the receptor CCKR. NLP-12 is homologous to mammalian cholecystokinin, known to stimulate dopamine, and we found that loss of dopamine receptors or addition of a dopamine antagonist inhibited OMP-mediated digestion. Dopamine and NLP-12-CKR-1 converge to inhibit PMK-1/p38 innate immune signaling. Moreover, directly inhibiting PMK-1/p38 boosts food digestion. This study uncovers a role of bacterial OMPs in regulating animal nutrient uptake and supports a key role for innate immunity in digestion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Dopamina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Mamíferos , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo
16.
Microb Ecol ; 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151339

RESUMO

Research on niche specialization in the microbial communities of ammonia oxidizers is important for assessing the consequences of vegetation shift on nitrogen (N) cycling. In this study, soils were sampled from three tree stands (needleleaf, mixed, and evergreen broadleaf) from the Hannam experimental forest in South Korea in spring (May 2019), summer (August 2019), autumn (November 2019), and winter (January 2020). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing were used to measure the abundance and community structure of various nitrifiers: ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria (AOA and AOB, respectively) as well as complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox). Nitrification rates and total ammonia oxidizer abundance were significantly higher in needleleaf forest soil than those in other forest stands, and they were lowest in evergreen broadleaf forest soil. Comammox clade B was most abundant in needleleaf and evergreen broadleaf forest soils, while AOA were significantly more abundant in mixed forest soil. The abundances of comammox clade B and AOA were negatively correlated with dissolved organic carbon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that NT-alpha and NS-gamma-2.3.2 were the most abundant AOA lineages in all the samples. The seasonal of AOA, AOB, and comammox varied with the sites, suggesting the need to examine the combinations of environmental factors when considering the effects of seasonal changes in the environment. Overall, the results suggest that potential vegetation shifts in forest ecosystems might affect nitrification activities by regulating the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizers.

17.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144478

RESUMO

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease, whereas α-glucosidases are key enzymes involved in the metabolism of starch and glycogen. There is a long history of the use of mulberry leaf (the leaf of Morus alba) as an antidiabetic herb in China, and we found that chalcomoracin, one of the specific Diels-Alder adducts in mulberry leaf, had prominent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and has the potential to be a substitute for current hypoglycemic drugs such as acarbose, which have severe gastrointestinal side effects. In this study, chalcomoracin was effectively isolated from mulberry leaves, and its α-glucosidase inhibition was studied via enzymatic kinetics, isothermal titration (ITC) and molecular docking. The results showed that chalcomoracin inhibited α-glucosidase through both competitive and non-competitive manners, and its inhibitory activity was stronger than that of 1-doxymycin (1-DNJ) but slightly weaker than that of acarbose. ITC analysis revealed that the combination of chalcomoracin and α-glucosidase was an entropy-driven spontaneous reaction, and the molecular docking results also verified this conclusion. During the binding process, chalcomoracin went into the "pocket" of α-glucosidase via hydrophobic interactions, and it is linked with residues Val544, Asp95, Ala93, Gly119, Arg275 and Pro287 by hydrogen bonds. This study provided a potential compound for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and a theoretical basis for the discovery of novel candidates for α-glycosidase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Morus , Acarbose/análise , Acarbose/farmacologia , Benzofuranos , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Amido/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
18.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(21): 7483-7494, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive tubulopathy, characterized clinically by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and metabolic alkalosis, and is caused by an inactivating mutation in SLC12A3. GS is prone to misdiagnosis when occurring simultaneously with hyperthyroidism. It is important to consider the possibility of other diseases when hyperthyroidism is combined with hypokalemia, which is difficult to correct. CASE SUMMARY: A female patient with hyperthyroidism complicated with limb weakness was diagnosed with thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis for 4 mo. However, the patient's serum potassium level remained low despite sufficient potassium replacement and remission of hyperthyroidism. GS was confirmed by whole exome and Sanger sequencing. Gene sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of c.488C>T (p.Thr163Met), c.2612G>A (p.Arg871His), and c.1171_1178dupGCCACCAT (p.Ile393fs) in SLC12A3. Protein molecular modeling was performed to predict the effects of the identified missense mutations. All three mutations cause changes in protein structure and may result in abnormal protein function. All previously reported cases of GS coexisting with autoimmune thyroid disease are reviewed. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel compound heterozygous mutation in SLC12A3. The present study provides new genetic evidence for GS.

19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 938402, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091555

RESUMO

The work cognition of public employees lays importance on tackling an escalating health crisis situation. At the micro-level and macro-level, different factors contribute to different degrees of public employees' work cognition. However, there are limited studies examining the work cognition of public employees and its influencing factors, particularly in situations such as a public health crisis. Our research takes China's response to COVID-19 as an example. The data have been taken from six Chinese provinces, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shanxi, Henan, and Shandong, through a total of 738 questionnaires and telephonic interviews. Furthermore, this study used a logistic multiple regression model to analyze the factors that influenced the public employees' work cognition when working under a public health crisis. The results of our study showed that at a micro-level, the educational background, attitudes, and actions (initiative, responsibility, administrative capacity, and timeliness of feedback), and their level of concern with work influenced the work cognition of the public employees. At a macro-level, we found that it was the anti-epidemic measures that most influenced public employees' work cognition. Our findings provide important policy implications for emergency preparedness and handling of major emergencies, and have important reference value for the management of public employees and the improvement of national governance capabilities under similar major challenges in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod ; 15(1): 93, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: JAZ subfamily plays crucial roles in growth and development, stress, and hormone responses in various plant species. Despite its importance, the structural and functional analyses of the JAZ subfamily in Brassica napus are still limited. RESULTS: Comparing to the existence of 12 JAZ genes (AtJAZ1-AtJAZ12) in Arabidopsis, there are 28, 31, and 56 JAZ orthologues in the reference genome of B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus, respectively, in accordance with the proven triplication events during the evolution of Brassicaceae. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 127 JAZ proteins from A. thaliana, B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus could fall into five groups. The structure analysis of all 127 JAZs showed that these proteins have the common motifs of TIFY and Jas, indicating their conservation in Brassicaceae species. In addition, the cis-element analysis showed that the main motif types are related to phytohormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. The qRT-PCR of the representative 11 JAZ genes in B. napus demonstrated that different groups of BnJAZ individuals have distinct patterns of expression under normal conditions or treatments with distinctive abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Especially, the expression of BnJAZ52 (BnC08.JAZ1-1) was significantly repressed by abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and NaCl treatments, while induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), cold and waterlogging. Expression pattern analysis showed that BnC08.JAZ1-1 was mainly expressed in the vascular bundle and young flower including petal, pistil, stamen, and developing ovule, but not in the stem, leaf, and mature silique and seed. Subcellular localization showed that the protein was localized in the nucleus, in line with its orthologues in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of BnC08.JAZ1-1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced seed weight, likely through regulating the expression of the downstream response genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and phospholipid metabolism pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic identification, phylogenetic, syntenic, and expression analyses of BnJAZs subfamily improve our understanding of their roles in responses to stress and phytohormone in B. napus. In addition, the preliminary functional validation of BnC08.JAZ1-1 in Arabidopsis demonstrated that this subfamily might also play a role in regulating seed weight.

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