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1.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(1): 70-76, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies show increased prevalence of MDR bacteria amongst asylum seekers, but data on the molecular profiles of such strains are limited. We aimed to evaluate the molecular profiles of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli) strains isolated from asylum seekers and investigate their phylogenetic relatedness. METHODS: WGS data of ESBL-E. coli isolates from asylum seekers, retrieved from 1 January to 31 December 2016, were analysed to assess MLST STs, fim types, phylogroups and resistance genes. Fifty-two ESBL-E. coli isolates from the Dutch-German border region were used for genome comparison purposes as a control group. RESULTS: Among 112 ESBL-E. coli isolates from asylum seekers, originating mostly from Syria (n = 40) and Iraq (n = 15), the majority belonged to ST131 (21.4%) and ST10 (17.0%). The predominant gene for ß-lactam resistance was blaCTX-M-15 (67.9%), followed by the often co-detected blaTEM-1B (39.3%). No mcr or carbapenemase genes were detected. The majority of the strains belonged to phylogroups B2 (38.4%) and A (32.1%), carrying fimH27 (25%) and fimH30 (19.6%). A core genome MLST minimum spanning tree did not reveal clusters containing strains from the asylum seekers and the control group. Five clusters were formed within the asylum seeker group, by strains isolated from people originating from different countries. CONCLUSIONS: The most frequently isolated clones in this study were isolated on a regular basis within the Dutch population before the increase in the asylum seeker population. No mcr- or carbapenemase-producing clones were detected among the asylum seeker population. Minor clustering was observed amongst the asylum seeker strains.

2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184740

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the contamination levels of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in raw milk and the subsequent potential health risk to local consumers close to leather-processing plants in China. The As and Pb concentrations in milk from contaminated areas were 0.43 ± 0.21 and 2.86 ± 0.96 µg/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.20 ± 0.05 and 2.32 ± 0.78 µg/L, respectively. The Cr and Cd levels in milk from contaminated areas were 1.21 ± 1.57 and 0.15 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, which were slightly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.87 ± 0.61 and 0.13 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, (P > 0.05). Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) values for As, Pb, Cr, and Cd from milk consumption were calculated for individuals aged 3 to 69. The THQ followed a descending order of As > Pb > Cr > Cd, with values of 0.0066-0.0441, 0.0033-0.0220, 0.0019-0.0124, and 0.0007-0.0046, respectively. The HI values (0.0124-0.0832) were far below the threshold of 1.

3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 130, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778149

RESUMO

Early in its evolution, Enterococcus faecium acquired traits that allowed it to become a successful nosocomial pathogen. E. faecium inherent tenacity to build resistance to antibiotics and environmental stressors that allows the species to thrive in hospital environments. The continual wide use of antibiotics in medicine has been an important driver in the evolution of E. faecium becoming a highly proficient hospital pathogen.For successful prevention and reduction of nosocomial infections with vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VREfm), it is essential to focus on reducing VREfm carriage and spread. The aim of this review is to incorporate microbiological insights of E. faecium into practical infection control recommendations, to reduce the spread of hospital-acquired VREfm (carriage and infections). The spread of VREfm can be controlled by intensified cleaning procedures, antibiotic stewardship, rapid screening of VREfm carriage focused on high-risk populations, and identification of transmission routes through accurate detection and typing methods in outbreak situations. Further, for successful management of E. faecium, continual innovation in the fields of diagnostics, treatment, and eradication is necessary.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113322, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610504

RESUMO

Various industrial activities lead to environmental pollution by heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals enter the food chain of dairy cows through feed and water, then transferred into milk. This study investigated the correlations of heavy metal contents between individual cows' milk, water, silage and soil. The relationships between heavy metal contents in individual cows' milk with milk protein, fat, lactose, solid nonfat (SNF), and total solids (TS) were analysed. Concentrations of Pb, As, Cr, and Cd in milk, silage and water were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Lead, Cr, and Cd in soil were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and As was detected by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS). One-way non-parametric tests and Spearman correlation analyses were performed using SAS 9.4 software. Levels of Pb and Cd in milk from the unpolluted area were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those from industrial area. Significantly higher (P < 0.01) As residue was recorded in milk from unpolluted area. Positive correlation of Pb was observed between milk and silage, and As in milk was positively correlated with As in water. Content of As in milk was slightly (r = 0.09) correlated with As in silage, even though strong positive correlation (r = 0.78) was observed between silage and water. Positive correlations were observed for Cr and Cd between milk and silage, as well as milk and soil. Positive correlations were observed in Pb-protein, Cr-protein, and Cd-lactose; other positive correlation coefficients were nearly equal to zero. The results suggest that industrial activities lead to possible Pb and Cd contamination in milk. Drinking water could be the main source of As contamination in cows. No clear relationship was found between milk composition and heavy metals contents in milk. Water and soil on the farm had a partial contribution to heavy metal contamination in milk.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Silagem/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Água/química , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Bovinos , China , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Chumbo/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica
5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(2): 156-9, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture combined with phacoemulsification for cataract with glaucoma. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with cataract and angle-closure glaucoma were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 34 cases in each one. The patients in the control group were treated with phacoemulsification. Based on the treatment in the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with tuina and acupuncture at acupoints around eyes; the treatment was given once every other day, and 15-day treatment constituted a course, and 2 courses (60 days) were given. The intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, pain severity, aqueous outflow (F value) and clinical symptoms were observed in the two groups before treatment and after 1 d, 7 d, 30 d and 60 d of treatment. RESULTS: The IOP after 1 d, 7 d, 30 d and 60 d of treatment in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (all P<0.05), while the visual acuity after 7 d, 30 d and 60 d of treatment in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (all P<0.05). Compared before treatment, the IOP was significantly decreased after 1 d, 7 d, 30 d and 60 d of treatment in the two groups, and the visual acuity was significantly increased after 7 d, 30 d and 60 d of treatment in the two groups (all P<0.05). The pain scores and F value after 7 d, 30 d and 60 d of treatment in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (all P<0.05). Compared before treatment, the pain scores and F value after 7 d, 30 d and 60 d of treatment were significantly reduced in the two groups (all P<0.05). After 60 d of treatment, the number of patients who presented general clinical symptoms in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on phacoemulsification, acupuncture and tuina could significantly reduce the IOP and F value, relieve pain and improve visual acuity in patients with cataract and glaucoma.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Catarata , Glaucoma , Facoemulsificação , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/terapia , Glaucoma/complicações , Glaucoma/terapia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 2): 3054-3061, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373082

RESUMO

This large scale study investigated the spatial variability of Pb, As, and Cd contents in raw milk within and between the 10 main milk producing areas in China. A total of 997 raw milk samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean values of Pb, As, and Cd in milk were 1.75 µg/L, 0.31 µg/L, and 0.05 µg/L, respectively. The highest level of Pb and As was present in area C, and Cd was highest in area J. The standard deviation suggested a higher heterogeneity of milk heavy metal contamination within area than between areas. Levels of Pb, As, and Cd showed significant differences between studied areas. The estimated root mean squared standardised error obtained by the cross-validation suggested a differentiated quality of Pb, As, and Cd modelling between areas: the predictions obtained were sometimes overestimated or underestimated. These results can be used to define a more appropriate sampling procedure for heavy metal contaminate distribution in raw milk for improved future control of milk contamination by heavy metals in the studied areas. The significant positive correlations between concentrations of Pb-Cd, As-Cd, and Pb-As were observed in nine, six and five areas, respectively. No significant negative correlations were observed. The observed variability of correlation values suggested a different pollution source for Pb, As, and Cd in milk between areas. Further studies are required to clarify the relationships between the contamination of raw milk by heavy metals and the herd environment.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , China , Geografia , Análise Espacial
8.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 183(1): 92-101, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825229

RESUMO

The object of this study is to analyze the levels of seven toxic elements residues in raw bovine milk in China and assess the potential health risk of those residues. The 178 raw bovine milk samples were collected from eight main milk-producing provinces and from three types of milk stations in China, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and nickel (Ni) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, and As were detected in 47.8, 29.2, 28.1, 23.6, 12.4, and 9.0% of total milk samples, respectively, and Cd were not detected in all samples. The raw bovine milk samples with high levels of toxic elements were found in industrial areas, such as Heilongjiang and Shanxi. Nemerow pollution index analysis showed that the levels were lower in the samples from the processing plants than that from the large-scale farms and small farm cooperatives. The margin of exposure (MOE) values suggest that the levels of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Al, and Ni in the raw milk samples are not causing a health risk for Chinese consumers, including adults and children. Nevertheless, the risk of Pb for infant and young children was more serious than adult.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Medição de Risco
9.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 2128, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163416

RESUMO

Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) may evade screening strategies used in routine diagnostics. Bacteria that have evolved to evade diagnostic tests may have a selective advantage in the nosocomial environment. Evasion of resistance detection can result from the following mechanisms: low-level expression of resistance genes not resulting in detectable resistance, slow growing variants, mimicry of wild-type-resistance, and resistance mechanisms that are only detected if induced by antibiotic pressure. We reviewed reports on hospital outbreaks in the Netherlands over the past 5 years. Remarkably, many outbreaks including major nation-wide outbreaks were caused by microorganisms able to evade resistance detection by diagnostic screening tests. We describe various examples of diagnostic evasion by several HRMOs and discuss this in a broad and international perspective. The epidemiology of hospital-associated bacteria may strongly be affected by diagnostic screening strategies. This may result in an increasing reservoir of resistance genes in hospital populations that is unnoticed. The resistance elements may horizontally transfer to hosts with systems for high-level expression, resulting in a clinically significant resistance problem. We advise to communicate the identification of HRMOs that evade diagnostics within national and regional networks. Such signaling networks may prevent inter-hospital outbreaks, and allow collaborative development of adapted diagnostic tests.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1914, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051750

RESUMO

Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands (n = 445, 2012-2013) and Germany (n = 242, 2012). Healthy individuals from the Dutch community (n = 400, 2010-2012) were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL-Escherichia coli and VRE. Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1%) admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL-E. coli, three pAmpC-E. coli, one ESBL-Enterobacter cloacae, and one pAmpC-Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae) from 17 patients (7.7%) were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75%) were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL-E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene) and one pAmpC E. coli. Six Dutch (1.3%) and four German (3.9%) hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) was found between two ESBL-E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region. Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch-German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL-E. coli and VRE seems unlikely based on cgMLST analysis, however continuous monitoring is necessary to control their spread and stay informed about their epidemiology.

11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 176(1): 120-129, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550154

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to measure the concentrations of elements in raw milk by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and evaluate differences in element concentrations among animal species and regions of China. Furthermore, drinking water and feed samples were analyzed to investigate whether the element concentrations in raw milk are correlated with those in water and feed. All samples were analyzed by ICP-MS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. The mean recovery of the elements was 98.7 % from milk, 103.7 % from water, and 93.3 % from a certified reference material (cabbage). Principal component analysis results revealed that element concentrations differed among animal species and regions. Correlation analysis showed that trace elements Mn, Fe, Ni, Ga, Se, Sr, Cs, U in water and Co, Ni, Cu, Se, U in feed were significantly correlated with those in milk (p < 0.05). Toxic and potential toxic elements Cr, As, Cd, Tl, Pb in water and Al, Cr, As, Hg, Tl in feed were significantly correlated with those in milk (p < 0.05). Results of correlation analysis revealed that elements in water and feed might contribute to the elements in milk.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Leite/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , China , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Cabras , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Pharm Biol ; 53(8): 1149-54, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25693637

RESUMO

CONTEXT: 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) has been reported to possess cardiovascular pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether DHAP could improve endothelial function in obese rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, obesity, and DHAP groups and fed a normal, high-fat, and high-fat plus DHAP (10 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) diet, respectively, for 8 weeks. Endothelial-dependent vasodilatation was assessed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells were determined. Nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression and superoxide production in aorta were evaluated. RESULTS: DHAP treatment significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (0.94 ± 0.31 mmol/l versus 1.36 ± 0.29 mmol/l, p < 0.05) and free fatty acids (0.53 ± 0.15 mmol/l versus 0.99 ± 0.24 mmol/l, p < 0.05), reduced serum tumor necrosis factor α (35.56 ± 9.28 pg/ml versus 68.3 ± 10.24 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (2.94 ± 0.58 pg/ml versus 6.45 ± 0.70 pg/ml, p < 0.05), and increased serum adiponectin levels (164.5 ± 34.5 µg/l versus 84.5 ± 20.4 µg/l, p < 0.05). DHAP enhanced endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and improved endothelial function in obese rats (p < 0.05). eNOS activity and NO production in endothelial cells significantly decreased and NF-κB activation and superoxide production in aorta significantly increased in obese rats compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, DHAP treatment significantly up-regulated the eNOS-NO pathway and decreased NF-κB activation and superoxide production (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: DHAP improved endothelial function in obese rats. This beneficial effect may be associated with up-regulation of the eNOS-NO pathway by improving lipid metabolism and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation activity.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
13.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 971-4, 2013 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24343084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk and protective factors of kidney calculi in order to put forward theoretical basis for preventive and control measures. METHODS: A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed using data from a hospital in Beijing. The case group included 100 inpatients who were diagnosed kidney calculi using B ultrasonic, X-ray and intravenous pyelography during the survey while other 100 urolithiasis and endocrine disease excluded inpatients who shared the same sex, within five years gap to the case group inpatients were for the control group. A face-to-face survey was conducted with self-made questionnaires which covered demographic characteristics, water issues, dietary habits, genetic and medical history. Epidata 3.0 was used to build the database and SPSS 19.0 for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In the univariate Logistic regression analysis, ten variables were found showing statistical significance. For the multivariate Logistic regression analysis, variables left in the model were labor intensity (OR=0.622, 95%CI: 0.435-0.889), preferring to drink after dinner (OR=0.316, 95%CI: 0.122-0.815), loving drinking (OR=0.232, 95%CI: 0.084-0.642), drinking tea regularly (OR=1.463, 95%CI: 1.033-2.071), eating more vegetables (OR=0.571, 95%CI: 0.328-0.993), the history of the urolithiasis (OR=2.127, 95%CI: 1.065-90.145). CONCLUSION: Drinking tea regularly, urolithiasis history and brain work are the risk factors of kidney calculi while loving drinking and eating more vegetables for the protection.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Chá , Urolitíase/complicações , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 2(1): 24, 2013 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24025668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nowadays Enterococcus faecium has become one of the most emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors in haematology patients who are at risk of an Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infection (BSI) and should be considered for pre-emptive glycopeptide treatment. With these identified risk factors a prediction model can be developed for clinical use. METHODS: Retrospectively clinical and microbiological data in 33 patients with an E. faecium BSI were compared to 66 control patients during a 5-year period at the haematology ward. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the independent risk factors and a prediction model was developed to determine the risk of an E. faecium BSI. RESULTS: E. faecium BSIs were found to be associated with high mortality rates. Independent risk factors for E. faecium BSI were colonization with E. faecium 30 days prior to blood culture (OR 5.71; CI 1.7-18.7), combination of neutropenia and abdominal focus (4.37; 1.4-13.4), age > 58 years (4.01; 1.3-12.5), hospital stay prior to blood culture > 14 days (3.55; 0.98-12.9) and CRP (C-reactive protein) level >125 mg/L (4.37; 1.1-10.2). CONCLUSION: Using data from this study, risk stratification for the development of an E. faecium BSI in patients with haematological malignancies is possible. Pre-emptive treatment should be considered in those patients who are at high risk. Using a prediction model as designed in this study, antibiotic stewardship in terms of prudent use of glycopeptides can be improved and might be helpful in controlling further spread of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococci).

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