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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 682-689, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380910

RESUMO

SNCA, GBA, and VPS35 are three common genes associated with Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown that these three genes may be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether these genes increase the risk of AD in Chinese populations. In this study, we used a targeted gene sequencing panel to screen all the exon regions and the nearby sequences of GBA, SNCA, and VPS35 in a cohort including 721 AD patients and 365 healthy controls from China. The results revealed that neither common variants nor rare variants of these three genes were associated with AD in a Chinese population. These findings suggest that the mutations in GBA, SNCA, and VPS35 are not likely to play an important role in the genetic susceptibility to AD in Chinese populations. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China on March 9, 2016 (approval No. 201603198).

2.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551193

RESUMO

AIM: The role of vascular dementia (VaD)-associated genes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive despite similar clinical and pathological features. We aimed to explore the relationship between these genes and AD in the Chinese population. METHODS: Eight VaD-associated genes were screened by a targeted sequencing panel in a sample of 3604 individuals comprising 1192 AD patients and 2412 cognitively normal controls. Variants were categorized into common variants and rare variants according to minor allele frequency (MAF). Common variant (MAF ≥ 0.01)-based association analysis was conducted by PLINK 1.9. Rare variant (MAF < 0.01) association study and gene-based aggregation testing of rare variants were performed by PLINK 1.9 and Sequence Kernel Association Test-Optimal (SKAT-O test), respectively. Age at onset (AAO) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) association studies were performed with PLINK 1.9. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and APOE ε4 status. RESULTS: Four common COL4A1 variants, including rs874203, rs874204, rs16975492, and rs1373744, exhibited suggestive associations with AD. Five rare variants, NOTCH3 rs201436750, COL4A1 rs747972545, COL4A1 rs201481886, CST3 rs765692764, and CST3 rs140837441, showed nominal association with AD risk. Gene-based aggregation testing revealed that HTRA1 was nominally associated with AD. In the AAO and MMSE association studies, variants in GSN, ITM2B, and COL4A1 reached suggestive significance. CONCLUSION: Common variants in COL4A1 and rare variants in HTRA1, NOTCH3, COL4A1, and CST3 may be implicated in AD pathogenesis. Besides, GSN, ITM2B, and COL4A1 are probably involved in the development of AD endophenotypes.

3.
Front Genet ; 12: 705284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335700

RESUMO

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a cerebral small vessel disease caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Archetypal disease-causing mutations are cysteine-affecting variants within the 34 epidermal growth factor-like repeat (EGFr) region of the Notch3 extracellular subunit. Cysteine-sparing variants and variants outside the EGFr coding region associated with CADASIL phenotype have been reported. However, the linkage between untypical variants and CADASIL is unclear. In this study, we investigated the spectrum of NOTCH3 variants in a cohort of 38 probands from unrelated families diagnosed as CADASIL. All coding exons of the NOTCH3 gene were analyzed, and clinical data were retrospectively studied. We identified 23 different NOTCH3 variants including 14 cysteine-affecting pathogenic variants, five cysteine-sparing pathogenic variants, two reported cysteine-sparing variants of unknown significance (VUS), and two novel VUS outside EGFr region. In retrospective studies of clinical data, we found that patients carrying cysteine-sparing pathogenic variants showed later symptom onset (51.36 ± 7.06 vs. 44.96 ± 8.82, p = 0.023) and milder temporal lobe involvement (1.50 ± 1.74 vs. 3.11 ± 2.32, p = 0.027) than patients carrying cysteine-affecting pathogenic variants. Our findings suggested that untypical variants comprise a significant part of NOTCH3 variants and may be associated with a distinctive phenotype.

4.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 69, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389718

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative dementias are a group of diseases with highly heterogeneous pathology and complicated etiology. There exist potential genetic component overlaps between different neurodegenerative dementias. Here, 1795 patients with neurodegenerative dementias from South China were enrolled, including 1592 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 110 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and 93 with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Genes targeted sequencing analysis were performed. According to the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) guidelines, 39 pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were identified in 47 unrelated patients in 14 different genes, including PSEN1, PSEN2, APP, MAPT, GRN, CHCHD10, TBK1, VCP, HTRA1, OPTN, SQSTM1, SIGMAR1, and abnormal repeat expansions in C9orf72 and HTT. Overall, 33.3% (13/39) of the variants were novel, the identified P/LP variants were seen in 2.2% (35/1592) and 10.9% (12/110) of AD and FTD cases, respectively. The overall molecular diagnostic rate was 2.6%. Among them, PSEN1 was the most frequently mutated gene (46.8%, 22/47), followed by PSEN2 and APP. Additionally, the age at onset of patients with P/LP variants (51.4 years), ranging from 30 to 83 years, was ~10 years earlier than those without P/LP variants (p < 0.05). This study sheds insight into the genetic spectrum and clinical manifestations of neurodegenerative dementias in South China, further expands the existing repertoire of P/LP variants involved in known dementia-associated genes. It provides a new perspective for basic research on genetic pathogenesis and novel guiding for clinical practice of neurodegenerative dementia.

5.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172279

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) overlap clinically and pathologically. However, the role of FTD-associated genes in patients with AD remained unclear. To explore the relationship between FTD-associated genes and AD risk, we investigated 14 FTD-associated genes via targeted next-generation sequencing panel or whole-genome sequencing in a total of 721 AD patients and 1391 controls. Common variant-based association analysis and gene-based association test of rare variants were performed by PLINK 1.9 and Sequence Kernel Association Test-Optimal (SKAT-O test) respectively. As a result, 2 common variants, UBQLN1 rs1044175 (p value = 2.76 × 10-4) and MAPT rs2258689 (p value = 5.71 × 10-4), differed significantly between AD patients and controls. Additionally, gene-based analysis aggregating rare variants demonstrated that HNRNPA1 reached statistical significance in the SKAT-O test (p value = 2.24 × 10-3). Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that UBQLN1, MAPT, and HNRNPA1 interacted with proteins encoded by well-recognized AD-associated genes. Our study indicated that UBQLN1, MAPT, and HNRNPA1 are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD in the mainland Chinese population.

6.
Pract Neurol ; 21(5): 452-455, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927058
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 11352-11362, 2021 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three polymorphisms in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T, A1298C, and A1793G) were reported associated with AD. However, their genotype distributions and associations with age at onset (AAO), homocysteine, and white matter lesions (WML) were unclear in the Chinese AD population. METHOD: We determined the presence of C677T, A1298C, and A1793G polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene using Sanger sequencing in a Chinese cohort comprising 721 AD patients (318 early-onset AD patients (EOAD) and 403 late-onset AD patients (LOAD)) and 365 elderly controls. Additionally, the homocysteine level and WML were evaluated in 121 AD patients. RESULTS: The frequency of allele T of C677T polymorphism was significantly higher in AD patients than in controls (P = 0.040), while no statistical difference was observed in A1298C and A1793G (P > 0.05). Besides, genotype distributions of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms statistically varied between AD patients and controls (P = 0.021, P = 0.012). Moreover, the AAO was significantly lower in CT/TT (C677T) genotypes carriers (P = 0.042) and higher in AC/CC (A1298C) and AG/GG (A1793G) genotypes carriers (P = 0.034, P = 0.009) in patients with LOAD. We also found that patients with CT/TT (C677T) genotypes were prone to present an increased homocysteine level (P = 0.036) and higher Fazekas score (P = 0.024). In comparison, patients with AG/GG genotypes (A1793G) had a significantly lower Fazekas score (P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: The genotype distributions of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with AD in the Chinese population. Moreover, AD patients with C677T polymorphism are prone to present an earlier onset, higher homocysteine level, and more severe WML.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homocisteína/sangue , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 56, 2021 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being a newly defined disease, RVCL-S is underrecognized by clinicians globally. It is an autosomal dominantly inherited small vessel disease caused by the heterozygous C-terminal frameshift mutation in TREX1 gene. RVCL-S is featured by cerebral dysfunction, retinopathy, and vasculopathy in multiple internal organs. Misdiagnosis may cause devastating consequences in patients, such as iatrogenic PML caused by misuse of immunosuppressants. Thus, increasing awareness of this disease is in urgent need. RESULTS: We uncovered a large Chinese origin RVCL-S pedigree bearing the TREX1 mutation. A comprehensive characterization combining clinical, genetic, and neuropathological analysis was performed. The Intrafamilial comparison showed highly heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. Mutation carriers in our pedigree presented with retinopathy (8/13), seizures (2/13), increased intracranial pressure (1/13), mild cognitive impairment (3/13), stroke-like episode (3/13), mesenteric ischemia (1/13), nephropathy (9/13), ascites (3/13), hypertension (9/13), hyperlipidemia (3/8), hypoalbuminemia (3/8), normocytic anemia (3/8), subclinical hypothyroidism (1/8), hyperfibrinogenemia (1/8), hyperparathyroidism (2/8), and abnormal inflammatory markers (4/8). The constellation of symptoms is highly varied, making RVCL-S a challenging diagnosis. Comparison with reported RVCL-S pedigrees further revealed that the mesenteric ischemia is a novel clinical finding and the MRS pattern of brain lesions is emulating neoplasm and tumefactive demyelination. CONCLUSION: Our reports characterize a highly heterogeneous RVCL-S pedigree, highlight the probability of misdiagnosis in clinical practice, and broaden the clinical spectrum of RVCL-S.


Assuntos
Leucoencefalopatias , Doenças Vasculares , China , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem
9.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(1): 93-105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104043

RESUMO

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an atypical parkinsonism with prominent 4R-tau neuropathology, and the classical clinical phenotype is characterized by vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, unprovoked falls, akinetic-rigid syndrome and cognitive decline. Though PSP is generally regarded as sporadic, there is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of common and rare genetic variants impact on sporadic and familial forms of PSP. To date, more than 10 genes have been reported to show a potential association with PSP. Among these genes, the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is the risk locus with the strongest effect size on sporadic PSP in the case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Additionally, MAPT mutations are the most common cause of familial PSP while the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a rare monogenic cause of PSP, and several other gene mutations may mimic the PSP phenotype, like the dynactin subunit 1 (DCTN1). In total, 15 MAPT mutations have been identified in cases with PSP, and the mean age at onset is much earlier than in cases carrying LRRK2 or DCTN1 mutations. GWAS have further identified several risk loci of PSP, proposing molecular pathways related to PSP. The present review focused on genetic studies on PSP and summarized genetic factors of PSP, which may help to elucidate the underlying pathogenesis and provide new perspectives for therapeutic strategies.

10.
Neurotoxicology ; 82: 100-107, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of chronic arsenic exposure on cognitive impairment has been explored broadly by previous studies. However, most of them focused mainly on children rather than adults. In addition, in China, studies in this field are not sufficient. To illustrate how long-term arsenic exposure affects cognitive function, we designed a cross-sectional study involving 1556 adults. METHODS: All of them came from three locations around the Realgar Plant. The cognitive function of the participants was evaluated using a Chinese version of the Mini-mental state Examination (MMSE). The participants' internal arsenic exposure status (hair arsenic concentrations) and the external arsenic exposure status (the distance between the participants' location of residence and the Realgar Plant) were measured. RESULTS: Our research revealed that both of hair arsenic concentrations and the prevalence of arsenicosis, two important indexes, were significantly higher in the cognitive-impaired (CI) group than in the cognitive-normal (CN) group (P < 0.05). In addition, distance from the Realgar Plant was positively correlated with the MMSE scores and was negatively correlated with the prevalence of cognitive impairment. Moreover, our results demonstrated that there was a negative correlation between hair arsenic concentrations and MMSE scores. We conducted a two-level Logistic regression analysis and further confirmed that even after adjusting for potential confounding variables, arsenicosis retained a risk factor for cognitive impairment (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that chronic arsenic exposure could impair adults' cognitive function in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, arsenicosis could be an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment.

11.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 77(3): 273-285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185592

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To propose a diagnostic algorithm for improving the diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) thyroid nodules. METHODS: This study retrospectively enrolled 77 consecutive patients with 81 AUS/FLUS nodules who underwent preoperative BRAFV600E mutation analysis. A new diagnostic algorithm was proposed that BRAFV600E mutation analysis for the Fine-needle aspiration cytology specimen was firstly carried out, in which positive BRAFV600E mutation indicated malignancy and classification of the nodules with negative BRAFV600E mutation was further performed based on ultrasound pattern-based risk stratification of American Thyroid Association Guidelines. The diagnostic performance of the new diagnostic algorithm was evaluated. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of new diagnostic algorithm were 94.6%, 84.0%, 91.4%, 86.9%, 90.1%, and 0.893, respectively. The proposed diagnostic algorithm significantly increased the diagnostic performances (AUROC: 0.893 vs. 0.837 and 0.795), sensitivity (94.6% vs. 71.4% and 75.0%), and accuracy (90.1% vs. 79.0% and 77.8%) compared with BRAFV600E mutation analysis alone and ultrasound pattern-based risk stratification alone (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The proposed diagnostic algorithm is helpful for improving the diagnosis of AUS/FLUS nodules, which might be as a routine approach.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
12.
Front Neurol ; 11: 284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477232

RESUMO

Stiff limb syndrome (SLS) is a rare autoimmune-related central nervous system disorder, resulting in stiffness and spasms of limbs since onset with rare involvement of the truncal muscles. However, SLS patients will gain notable effects by appropriate therapy focusing on symptomatic treatment and immunotherapy. We reported on a 55-year-old female who showed typical painful spasms in both lower limbs and abduction of the right eyeball that partially responded to low-dose diazepam and had high-titer anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibody. Electromyography (EMG) only showed continuous motor unit activity (CMUA) in the anterior tibialis and right triceps. Eventually, our patient was diagnosed with SLS and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and glucocorticoid combined simultaneously. She obtained notable effects. We also review and summarize the current literature on clinical characteristics, coexisting disease, treatment, and outcome of 40 patients with SLS. We hope that this report will provide a basis for further understanding of SLS and promote the formation of more advanced diagnosis and treatment processes.

13.
Eur J Neurosci ; 52(8): 4009-4017, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506655

RESUMO

Recently, functional studies have demonstrated that legumain (LGMN) cleaves both amyloid ß-protein precursor and tau, promoting senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the genetic role of LGMN in AD has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we used Sanger sequencing to investigate the single independent (single-variant association test) and cumulative (gene-based association test) effects of variants in the LGMN gene as potential susceptibility factors for AD, in a cohort comprising 676 AD cases and 365 elderly controls from the Han population of South China. In single-variant association analysis, none of the common variants in LGMN were statistically significant. In gene-based analysis, the LGMN gene also showed no association with AD. The results of our replication study in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort also showed no association between LGMN and AD. These findings suggest that the LGMN gene may not be a critical factor for AD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , China , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
JCI Insight ; 5(4)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102983

RESUMO

Accumulation of amyloid ß protein (Aß) due to increased generation and/or impaired degradation plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this report, we describe the identification of rare coding mutations in the endothelin-converting enzyme 2 (ECE2) gene in 1 late-onset AD family, and additional case-control cohort analysis indicates ECE2 variants associated with the risk of developing AD. The 2 mutations (R186C and F751S) located in the peptidase domain in the ECE2 protein were found to severely impair the enzymatic activity of ECE2 in Aß degradation. We further evaluated the effect of the R186C mutation in mutant APP-knockin mice. Overexpression of wild-type ECE2 in the hippocampus reduced amyloid load and plaque formation, and improved learning and memory deficits in the AD model mice. However, the effect was abolished by the R186C mutation in ECE2. Taken together, the results demonstrated that ECE2 peptidase mutations contribute to AD pathogenesis by impairing Aß degradation, and overexpression of ECE2 alleviates AD phenotypes. This study indicates that ECE2 is a risk gene for AD development and pharmacological activation of ECE2 could be a promising strategy for AD treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Enzimas Conversoras de Endotelina/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enzimas Conversoras de Endotelina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Linhagem
15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 89: 142.e1-142.e7, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081467

RESUMO

Recently, the (GGC)n repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene has been identified to be associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). Given the clinical overlap of dementia-dominant NIID with neurodegenerative dementia, we therefore hypothesized that the NOTCH2NLC repeat expansion might also contribute to these diseases. In the present study, repeat primed polymerase chain reaction (RP-PCR) and GC-rich PCR were conducted to detect the repeats of NOTCH2NLC in a cohort of 1004 patients with neurodegenerative dementias from mainland China. As a result, 4 sporadic patients were found to carry the NOTCH2NLC repeats expansion, totally accounting for 0.4% of all dementia individuals, and the accurate repeated sizes were 110, 133,120 and 76 respectively. Of 4 mutation carriers, three and one were clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) respectively. In addition, 3 out of them revealed leukoencephalopathy in T2-Flair imaging. This study revealed that although rare, the NOTCH2NLC repeat expansions may be associated with AD or FTD-like phenotype as well as leukoencephalopathy.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Receptor Notch2/genética , Idoso , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(5): 549-554, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and image features for 12 patients of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarct and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL).
 Methods: A total of 12 CADASIL patients were collected in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2013 to December 2018. The clinical manifestation, risk factors, MRI imaging data and NOTCH3 mutations were analyzed retrospectively.
 Results: The mean age of 12 patients was (47.25±9.49) years. The clinical manifestation was most common in cognitive impairment (75%) and stroke events (58.3%), and 2 cases showed cerebral hemorrhage. Migraine was only seen in 25% patients. All MRI showed white matter hyperintensity (WMH), lacune and enlarged perivascular space (PVS). WMH mainly occurred in the frontal parietal lobe (100%), temporal lobe (83.3%), external capsule (66.7%), occipital lobe (41.6%), callosum 41.6% and the temporal pole (33.3%), while lacune mainly appeared in frontal lobe (91.6%), parietal lobe(83.3%), temporal lobe(66.7%), basal ganglia (66.7%), brain stem (41.6%), occipital lobe (33.3%), cerebellum (8.3%). Enlarged PVS located in the basal ganglia (100%), partly under the cortex (45.4%). WMH of the patient with intracerebral hemorrhage was mild (Fezakas score 1-2), which was not found in external capsule. 16.7% of the patients had intracranial arterial stenosis. In 12 patients, 8 different Notch3 mutations were detected. The c1013G>c p.(Cys338Ser) located in exon 6, which was a new pathogenic mutation of CADASIL.
 Conclusion: The patients with cerebral hemorrhage have mild WMH and specific genotype, indicating that the clinical characteristics of CADASIL with cerebral hemorrhage may be related to image features and genotype.


Assuntos
CADASIL , Infarto Cerebral , Leucoencefalopatias , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lobo Temporal
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 166-176, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178126

RESUMO

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease characterized by eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in the nervous system and multiple visceral organs. The clinical manifestation of NIID varies widely, and both familial and sporadic cases have been reported. Here we have performed genetic linkage analysis and mapped the disease locus to 1p13.3-q23.1; however, whole-exome sequencing revealed no potential disease-causing mutations. We then performed long-read genome sequencing and identified a large GGC repeat expansion within human-specific NOTCH2NLC. Expanded GGC repeats as the cause of NIID was further confirmed in an additional three NIID-affected families as well as five sporadic NIID-affected case subjects. Moreover, given the clinical heterogeneity of NIID, we examined the size of the GGC repeat among 456 families with a variety of neurological conditions with the known pathogenic genes excluded. Surprisingly, GGC repeat expansion was observed in two Alzheimer disease (AD)-affected families and three parkinsonism-affected families, implicating that the GGC repeat expansions in NOTCH2NLC could also contribute to the pathogenesis of both AD and PD. Therefore, we suggest defining a term NIID-related disorders (NIIDRD), which will include NIID and other related neurodegenerative diseases caused by the expanded GGC repeat within human-specific NOTCH2NLC.


Assuntos
Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Receptores Notch/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Prion ; 13(1): 116-123, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122137

RESUMO

Background: Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare autosomal-dominant inherited prion disease characterized clinically by severe sleep disorder, motor signs, dysautonomia and abnormal behaviour. FFI is caused by a missense mutation at codon 178 of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Our study is aimed to explore typical clinical and genetic features of two Chinese pedigrees with FFI and review the related literatures. Methods: Two FFI cases with family histories were recruited in our study. The main clinical features, genetic features and possible pathophysiologic mechanisms of these two FFI cases were analysed. Results: The foremost symptoms seemed to be sleep disturbances and psychosis. Progressive sympathetic symptoms, movement disturbances and memory loss were frequently observed as well. Electroencephalography (EEG) showed a minor slowing without periodic triphasic waves. Polysomnography (PSG) showed reduction in total sleep time and disturbance of sleep-related respiratory. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not reveal obvious abnormality. Genetic analysis disclosed the prion protein gene mutation at codon 178 (D178N), with methionine (Met) homozygosity at the polymorphic position 129 (Met129Met). Conclusions: The major clinical features of Chinese FFI are sleep dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms and sympathetic symptoms. Our patients have similar clinical characteristics as that of the typical FFI cases.


Assuntos
Insônia Familiar Fatal/genética , Insônia Familiar Fatal/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Priônicas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insônia Familiar Fatal/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Mutação Puntual , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 34(3): 165-171, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952578

RESUMO

Valproic acid (VPA) is used as one of the first-line antiepileptic drugs to control seizure in epilepsy patients. However, one third of patients do not respond to VPA. This study is to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multidrug transporters on VPA responses in Han Chinese epilepsy patients on VPA monotherapy. Twelve SNPs involved in VPA transport pathways, including ABCC2, ABCC4, ABCG2, MCT1, MCT2 and OATP2B1 were genotyped in 153 Han Chinese epilepsy patients. We found that among all the patients, MCT1 rs60844753 CC carriers have higher incidence of VPA-resistance than CG carriers (P = 0.05), and in subgroup of generalized seizure, ABCC2 rs3740066 CC carriers had higher frequency of VPA resistance than TC + TT carriers (P = 0.03). Although other SNPs were not correlated with VPA resistance, significant ethnic difference was found in minor allele frequency of these SNPs, indicating that the influence of these SNPs on VPA efficacy should be broadly investigated in other ethnic populations. This study provides nominal evidence that SNPs of genes involved in the transport of VPA contribute to interpatient variation in VPA response. Although the associations were abolished after Bonferroni correction, the results provide an incentive for further research in sufficiently large samples.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Simportadores/genética , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Valproico/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Genet ; 10: 139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881383

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common forms of hereditary intellectual disability. It is also a well-known monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Repetitive trinucleotide expansion of CGG repeats in the 5'-UTR of FMR1 is the pathological mutation. Full mutation CGG repeats epigenetically silence FMR1 and thus lead to the absence of its product, fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is an indispensable translational regulator at synapsis. Loss of FMRP causes abnormal neural morphology, dysregulated protein translation, and distorted synaptic plasticity, giving rise to FXS phenotypes. Non-coding RNAs, including siRNA, miRNA, and lncRNA, are transcribed from DNA but not meant for protein translation. They are not junk sequence but play indispensable roles in diverse cellular processes. FXS is the first neurological disorder being linked to miRNA pathway dysfunction. Since then, insightful knowledge has been gained in this field. In this review, we mainly focus on how non-coding RNAs, especially the siRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs, are involved in FXS pathogenesis. We would also like to discuss several potential mechanisms mediated by non-coding RNAs that may be shared by FXS and other related disorders.

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