Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 352
Filtrar
1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805859

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play a critical role in plant responses to stress. However, the interplay of BRs and reactive oxygen species signaling in cold stress responses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a partial loss of function in the BR biosynthesis gene DWARF resulted in lower whilst overexpression of DWARF led to increased levels of C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) transcripts. Exposure to cold stress increased BR synthesis and led to an accumulation of brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1), a central component of BR signaling. Mutation of BZR1 compromised the cold- and BR-dependent increases in CBFs and RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG 1(RBOH1) transcripts, as well as preventing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the apoplast. Cold- and BR-induced BZR1 bound to the promoters of CBF1, CBF3 and RBOH1 and promoted their expression. Significantly, suppression of RBOH1 expression compromised cold- and BR-induced accumulation of BZR1 and related increases in CBF transcripts. Moreover, RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production regulated BZR1 accumulation and the levels of CBF transcripts by influencing glutathione homeostasis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that crosstalk between BZR1 and reactive oxygen species mediates cold- and BR-activated CBF expression, leading to cold tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

2.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793934

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) are phytohormones with crucial roles in plant defense. Plants accumulate JAs in response to wounding or herbivore attack, but how JA biosynthesis is triggered remains poorly understood. Here we show that herbivory by cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) induced both ethylene (ET) and JA production in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Using RNA-seq, ET mutants, and inhibitors of ET signaling, we identified ET-induced ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR 15 (ERF15) and ERF16 as critical regulators of JA biosynthesis in tomato plants. Transcripts of ERF15 and ERF16 were markedly upregulated and peaked at 60 and 15 min, respectively, after simulated herbivore attack. While mutation in ERF16 resulted in the attenuated expression of JA biosynthetic genes and decreased JA accumulation 15 min after the simulated herbivory treatment, these changes were not observed in erf15 mutants until 60 min after treatment. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and dual-luciferase assays demonstrated that both ERFs15 and 16 are transcriptional activators of LIPOXYGENASE D, ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE, and 12-OXO-PHYTODIENOIC ACID REDUCTASE 3, key genes in JA biosynthesis. Furthermore, JA-activated MYC2 and ERF16 also function as the transcriptional activators of ERF16, contributing to dramatic increases in ERF16 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ET signaling is involved in the rapid induction of the JA burst. ET-induced ERF15 and ERF16 function as powerful transcriptional activators that trigger the JA burst in response to herbivore attack.

3.
Pharm Stat ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793044

RESUMO

Incorporating historical data has a great potential to improve the efficiency of phase I clinical trials and to accelerate drug development. For model-based designs, such as the continuous reassessment method (CRM), this can be conveniently carried out by specifying a "skeleton," that is, the prior estimate of dose limiting toxicity (DLT) probability at each dose. In contrast, little work has been done to incorporate historical data into model-assisted designs, such as the Bayesian optimal interval (BOIN), Keyboard, and modified toxicity probability interval (mTPI) designs. This has led to the misconception that model-assisted designs cannot incorporate prior information. In this paper, we propose a unified framework that allows for incorporating historical data into model-assisted designs. The proposed approach uses the well-established "skeleton" approach, combined with the concept of prior effective sample size, thus it is easy to understand and use. More importantly, our approach maintains the hallmark of model-assisted designs: simplicity-the dose escalation/de-escalation rule can be tabulated prior to the trial conduct. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed method can effectively incorporate prior information to improve the operating characteristics of model-assisted designs, similarly to model-based designs.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 124(7): 1301-1311, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic protein translation elongation factor 1α2 (EEF1A2) is an oncogene that promotes the progression of breast and pancreatic cancer. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the oncogenic function of EEF1A2 in the metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and western blot were used to study EEF1A2 expression levels in LUAD tissues and cells, respectively. The role of EEF1A2 in LUAD progression were investigated in vitro and in vivo. We identified potential EEF1A2-binding proteins by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. Protein-protein interactions were determined by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP). RESULTS: In this study, we report that EEF1A2 mediates the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), to promote the metastasis of LUAD cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EEF1A2 interacts with HSP90AB1 to increase TGFß Receptor (TßR)-I, and TßRII expression, followed by enhanced SMAD3 and pSMAD3 expression and nuclear localisation, which promotes the EMT of LUAD cells. Overexpression of EEF1A2 in cancer tissues is associated with poor prognosis and short survival of patients with LUAD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the molecular functions of EEF1A2 in LUAD metastasis and indicate that EEF1A2 represents a promising target in the treatment of aggressive LUAD.

5.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 91-101, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439726

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using novel Bayesian adaptive designs has great potential to improve the efficiency of early-phase clinical trials. A major barrier for clinical researchers to adopt novel designs is the lack of easy-to-use software. Our purpose is to develop a user-friendly software platform to implement novel clinical trial designs that address various challenges in early-phase dose-finding trials. METHODS: We used R Shiny to develop a web-based software platform to facilitate the use of recent novel adaptive designs. RESULTS: We developed a web-based software suite, called Bayesian optimal interval (BOIN) suite, which includes R Shiny applications to handle various clinical settings, including single-agent phase I trials with and without prior information, trials with late-onset toxicity, trials to find the optimal biological dose based on risk-benefit trade-off, and drug combination trials to find a single maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or the MTD contour. The applications are built using the same software architecture to ensure the best and a uniform user experience, and they are developed using a proven software development standard operating procedure to ensure accuracy, robustness, and reproducibility. The suite is freely available with internet access and a web browser without the need of installing any other software. CONCLUSION: The BOIN suite allows clinical researchers to design various types of early-phase clinical trials under a unified framework. This work is extremely important because it not only advances the clinical research and drug development by facilitating the use of novel trial designs with optimal performance but also enhances collaborations between biostatisticians and clinicians by disseminating novel statistical methodology to broader scientific communities through user-friendly software. The BOIN suite establishes a KISS principle: keep it simple, but smart.

6.
J Exp Bot ; 72(7): 2627-2641, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377142

RESUMO

Starch is the major storage carbohydrate in plants, and its metabolism in chloroplasts depends mainly on light. However, the mechanism through which photoreceptors regulate starch metabolism in chloroplasts is unclear. In this study, we found that the cryptochrome 1a (CRY1a)-mediated blue light signal is critical for regulating starch accumulation by inducing starch degradation through the transcription factor HY5 in chloroplasts in tomato. cry1a mutants and HY5-RNAi plants accumulated more starch and presented lower transcript levels of starch degradation-related genes in their leaves than wild-type plants. Blue light significantly induced the transcription of starch degradation-related genes in wild-type and CRY1a- or HY5-overexpressing plants but had little effect in cry1a and HY5-RNAi plants. Dual-luciferase assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR revealed that HY5 could activate the starch degradation-related genes PWD, BAM1, BAM3, BAM8, MEX1, and DPE1 by directly binding to their promoters. Silencing of HY5 and these starch degradation-related genes in CRY1a-overexpressing plants led to increased accumulation of starch and decreased accumulation of soluble sugars. The findings presented here not only deepen our understanding of how light controls starch degradation and sugar accumulation but also allow us to explore potential targets for improving crop quality.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283133

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For immunotherapy, such as checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, where the efficacy does not necessarily increase with the dose, the maximum tolerated dose may not be the optimal dose for treating patients. For these novel therapies, the objective of dose-finding trials is to identify the optimal biologic dose (OBD) that optimizes patients' risk-benefit trade-off. METHODS: We propose a simple and flexible Bayesian optimal interval phase I/II (BOIN12) trial design to find the OBD that optimizes the risk-benefit trade-off. The BOIN12 design makes the decision of dose escalation and de-escalation by simultaneously taking account of efficacy and toxicity and adaptively allocates patients to the dose that optimizes the toxicity-efficacy trade-off. We performed simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the BOIN12 design. RESULTS: Compared with existing phase I/II dose-finding designs, the BOIN12 design is simpler to implement, has higher accuracy to identify the OBD, and allocates more patients to the OBD. One of the most appealing features of the BOIN12 design is that its adaptation rule can be pretabulated and included in the protocol. During the trial conduct, clinicians can simply look up the decision table to allocate patients to a dose without complicated computation. CONCLUSION: The BOIN12 design is simple to implement and yields desirable operating characteristics. It overcomes the computational and implementation complexity that plagues existing Bayesian phase I/II dose-finding designs and provides a useful design to optimize the dose of immunotherapy and targeted therapy. User-friendly software is freely available to facilitate the application of the BOIN12 design.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373308

RESUMO

Combing brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and virtual reality (VR) is a novel technique in the field of medical rehabilitation and game entertainment. However, the limitations of BCI such as a limited number of action commands and low accuracy hinder the widespread use of BCI-VR. Recent studies have used hybrid BCIs that combine multiple BCI paradigms and/or the multi-modal biosensors to alleviate these issues, which may become the mainstream of BCIs in the future. The main purpose of this review is to discuss the current status of multi-modal BCI-VR. This study first reviewed the development of the BCI-VR, and explored the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating eye tracking, motion capture, and myoelectric sensing into the BCI-VR system. Then, this study discussed the development trend of the multi-modal BCI-VR, hoping to provide a pathway for further research in this field.

9.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 945, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144579

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in human tumorigenesis. By using publicly available expression profiling data from lung adenocarcinoma and integrating bioinformatics analysis, we screened a lncRNA, LINC00472. LINC00472 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues was significantly lower and tightly associated with patient prognosis and TNM clinical stages in lung adenocarcinoma. LINC00472 also inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell migration and invasion and increased cell stiffness and adhesion. RNA pull down and RIP assays identified that LINC00472 interacted with the transcription factor Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1), which partially reversed the inhibition of cell migration and invasion and increased LINC00472-induced cell stiffness and adhesion. LINC00472 also regulated the density and integrity of F-actin in A549 and PC-9 cells possibly via YBX1. LINC00472 inhibited the cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes via the modulation of YBX1. These results indicated that LINC00472 inhibited the cell EMT process by binding to YBX1, and affected the mechanical properties of the cell, ultimately inhibited its ability to invade and metastasize. Collectively, the present study provides the first evidence that LINC00472 changes the mechanical properties and inhibits the invasion and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(21): 21904-21922, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been associated with several types of cancer. However, little is known about their role in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). RESULTS: LINC00968 was significantly differentially expressed in LUAD tissues. Downregulated LINC00968 was associated with clinicopathological features of LUAD. LINC00968 inhibited cell growth and metastasis by regulating the Hippo signaling pathway We demonstrated that LINC00968 acts as a ceRNA to consume miR-21-5p, enhancing the accumulation of SMAD7, a miR-21-5p target. CONCLUSIONS: LINC00968 limits LUAD progression via the miR-21-5p/SMAD7 axis and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for LUAD. METHODS: We conducted comprehensive data mining on LINC00968 based on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The expression of LINC00968 in LUAD cells was determined using in situ hybridization. We detected LINC00968 function in LUAD cells using the MTT, clone formation, and transwell assays, and tumor xenografts. Label-free quantitative proteomics, western blotting, a dual-luciferase reporter assay, immunofluorescence, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were used to determine the correlations among LINC00968, miR-21-5p, and SMAD7. Gain- and loss-function approaches were used to explore the effects of LINC00968, miR-21-5p, and SMAD7 on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 579629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102485

RESUMO

The oncogenesis of cervical cancer is a multi-factor and multi-step process, and major risk factors include oncogene activation with tumor suppressor gene inactivation, viral factors, and immune factors. For example, the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to the occurrence of cervical cancer. At present, the pathogenesis of cervical cancer remains unclear. Fra-1 (Fos-related antigen 1, also known as FOSL1) is a member of the Fos family and an important nuclear transcription factor that regulates normal cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the present study, we found that Fra-1 inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells while also promoting apoptosis and affecting cell cycle distribution. Moreover, Fra-1 up-regulated STAT1 expression and modulated p53 signal pathway activity in cervical cancer cells. Overexpression of Fra-1 inhibited cell senescence by altering sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in HeLa cells, and Fra-1 overexpression restored mitochondrial disorder and suppressed metabolic reprogramming in HeLa cells. Silencing of STAT1 impaired the inhibitory effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer cell growth, while knock-down of STAT1 reversed the effect on cell senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Fra-1 in HeLa cells. Silencing of STAT1 also recovered metabolic reprogramming in cervical cancer cells. In summary, our results show that Fra-1 inhibited cervical cancer cell growth and the Warburg effect via STAT1-mediated regulation of the p53 signaling pathway.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 917, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancer is necessary for improving precision medicine. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important regulatory role in tumor initiation and progression. The lncRNA LOC284454 is distinctly expressed in various head and neck cancers (HNCs), as demonstrated by our previous bioinformatics analysis. However, the expression levels and functions of LOC284454 in cancer are still unclear. METHODS: We investigated the dysregulation of lncRNAs in HNCs using the GEO database and found that LOC284454 was highly expressed in HNCs. Serum samples from 212 patients with HNCs and 121 normal controls were included in this biomarker study. We measured the expression of LOC284454 in the sera of HNC patients and normal controls using RT-qPCR. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis is an important statistical method that is widely used in clinical diagnosis and disease screening. ROC was used to analyze the clinical value of LOC284454 in the early diagnosis of HNCs. RESULTS: LOC284454 was significantly upregulated in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, oral cancer, and thyroid cancer. LOC284454 upregulation had good clinical diagnostic value in these cancers, as evaluated by area under the ROC curve values of 0.931, 0.698, and 0.834, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LOC284454 may be a valuable serum biomarker for HNCs facilitating the early diagnosis of malignant cancers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the involvement of LOC284454 in HNCs. This study provides the first evidence that LOC284454 may be a serum biomarker for HNCs.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(17): 17681-17693, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931453

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumor types worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important epigenetic effects, including altering the proliferation and metastasis of malignant tumors. We used gene chip technology to search for lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in GC and metastatic lymph node tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. The lncRNA Loc490 and the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) were downregulated in GC tissues and lymph node metastases compared with normal tissues, and the levels of these two genes correlated positively with one another. Loc490 expression correlated negatively with lymph node metastasis and vein/nerve invasion, while it correlated positively with overall and disease-free survival. In vitro, Loc490 post-translationally enhanced the expression of QKI and suppressed the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related molecules. Overexpression of Loc490 inhibited GC cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and exerted strong antitumor effects in vivo, while silencing of QKI antagonized these effects. A potential binding site between Loc490 and QKI was detected through bioinformatics analysis and confirmed through RNA immunoprecipitation and mutant analyses. Our results suggest that lncRNA Loc490 inhibits GC cell proliferation and metastasis by upregulating RNA-binding protein QKI.

14.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 28(10): 2113-2122, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833638

RESUMO

This study aims to find an effective method to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive training of spatial memory under a virtual reality environment, by classifying the EEG signals of subjects in the early and late stages of spatial cognitive training. This study proposes a new EEG signal analysis method based on Multivariate Permutation Conditional Mutual Information-Multi-Spectral Image (MPCMIMSI). This method mainly considers the relationship between the coupled features of EEG signals in different channel pairs and transforms the multivariate permutation conditional mutual information features into multi-spectral images. Then, a convolutional neural networks (CNN) model classifies the resultant image data into different stages of cognitive training to objectively assess the efficacy of the training. Compared to the multi-spectral image transformation method based on Granger causality analysis (GCA) and permutation conditional mutual information (PCMI), the MPCMIMSI led to better classification performance, which can be as high as 95% accuracy. More specifically, the Theta-Beta2-Gamma-band combination has the best accuracy. The proposed MPCMIMSI method outperforms the multi-spectral image transformation methods based on GCA and PCMI in terms of classification performance. The MPCMIMSI feature in the Theta-Beta2-Gamma band is an effective biomarker for assessing the efficacy of spatial memory training. The proposed EEG feature-extraction method based on MPCMIMSI offers a new window to characterize spatial information of the noninvasive EEG recordings and might apply to assessing other brain functions.

15.
Plant Cell Environ ; 43(11): 2712-2726, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799321

RESUMO

The induction of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) is crucial for plant survival at low temperatures. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate CBF transcription is vital for the future development of crops with increased cold tolerance. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5)-MYB15-CBFs transcriptional cascade that plays a crucial role in the cold response in tomato. The exposure of tomato plants to cold (4°C) increased the levels of HY5, MYB15 and CBFs transcripts. Moreover, mutations in HY5 or MYB15 decreased the levels of CBF transcripts. In contrast, overexpression of HY5 or MYB15 increased CBF transcript abundance. Crucially, the HY5 transcription factor activated the expression of MYB15 by directly binding to the promoter region, while both HY5 and MYB15 activated the expression of CBF1, CBF2 and CBF3. Taken together, these data show that HY5 can directly regulate CBF transcript levels, and also influence CBF expression indirectly via MYB15. The coordinated action of HY5 and MYB15 allows precise regulation of CBF expression and subsequent cold tolerance. These findings provide an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms affording transcriptional regulation of CBFs, which can be exploited in the future to enhance cold tolerance in crops.

16.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 28(8): 1702-1709, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746302

RESUMO

The convolutional neural network (CNN) model is an active research topic in the field of EEG signals analysis. However, the classification effect of CNN on EEG signals of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not ideal. Even if EEG signals are transformed into multispectral images that are more closely matched with the model, the best classification performance can not be achieved. Therefore, to improve the performance of CNN toward EEG multispectral image classification, a multi-view convolutional neural network (MVCNN) classification model based on inceptionV1 is designed in this study. This model mainly improves and optimizes the convolutional layers and stochastic gradient descent (SGD) in the convolutional architecture model. Firstly, based on the discreteness of EEG multispectral image features, the multi-view convolutional layer structure was proposed. Then the learning rate change function of the SGD was optimized to increase the classification performance. The multi-view convolutional nerve was used in an EEG multispectral classification task involving 19 aMCI with T2DM and 20 normal controls. The results showed that compared with the traditional classification models, MVCNN had a better stability and accuracy. Therefore, MVCNN could be used as an effective feature classification method for aMCI with T2DM.

17.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14079, 2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713039

RESUMO

Although azathioprine (AZA) combined with corticosteroids remains the first-line therapy to treat patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), there are increasing reports of AZA-induced leukopenia, which provides the rationale for monitoring the blood cell count and testing the genotypes at the thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and the nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X-type motif 15 (NUDT15) genes. Here, we reported a case of persistent refractory PV in a Chinese patient with three runs of AZA-corticosteroids treatment. In the first two runs he received AZA-corticosteroids at standard or slightly reduced doses and developed leukopenia. In the third run of treatment, he was found to have NUDT15 mutation (rs116855232) and wild-type homozygous TPMT*3C (rs1142345), treatment with minimal doses of AZA and prednisone resulted in a complete remission of PV without any side effects including leukopenia. Our observations not only highlight the benefits of testing the TPMT and NUDT15 genotypes and monitoring the dynamic changes of the white blood cell count in guiding the AZA therapy, but also suggest the potential of using the AZA-corticosteroids combination at very low doses in the treatment of refractory PV.

18.
Plant Physiol ; 184(2): 1181-1193, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665333

RESUMO

Optimizing the photoprotection of different leaves as a whole is important for plants to adapt to fluctuations in ambient light conditions. However, the molecular basis of this leaf-to-leaf communication is poorly understood. Here, we used a range of techniques, including grafting, chlorophyll fluorescence, revers transcription quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, to explore the complexities of leaf-to-leaf light signal transmission and activation of the photoprotective response to light fluctuation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We established that light perception in the top leaves attenuated the photoinhibition of both PSII and PSI by triggering photoprotection pathways in the bottom leaves. Local light promoted the accumulation and movement of LONG HYPOCOTYL5 from the sunlit local leaves to the systemic leaves, priming the photoprotective response of the latter to light fluctuation. By directly activating the transcription of PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 and VIOLAXANTHIN DE-EPOXIDASE, LONG HYPOCOTYL5 induced cyclic electron flow, the xanthophyll cycle, and energy-dependent quenching. Our findings reveal a systemic signaling pathway and provide insight into an elaborate regulatory network, demonstrating a pre-emptive advantage in terms of the activation of photoprotection and, hence, the ability to survive in a fluctuating light environment.

19.
Oncologist ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608142

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Treatment with the Aurora kinase A inhibitor yields often durable disease control, but limited tumor regression, in heavily pretreated patients with unresectable malignant pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma. In a limited sample size, MYC copy-number gain or gene amplification, a candidate predictive biomarker for alisertib, did not correlate with improved response numbers or patient outcomes. BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive disease for which few effective therapies are available. The Aurora family kinases are critical for mitotic fidelity and highly expressed in mesothelioma, wherein their inhibition leads to growth arrest in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy of alisertib, an Aurora A kinase inhibitor, in relapsed malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with previously treated, unresectable pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma were enrolled on a single-arm, single-institution phase II trial of alisertib at a dosage of 50 mg twice daily for 7 of every 21 days. The primary endpoint was 4-month disease control rate. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate, progression free survival, overall survival, safety/toxicity, and correlation of endpoints with MYC copy number. RESULTS: Of the 25 evaluable patients treated on study, 8 (32%) experienced 4-month disease control, surpassing the futility endpoint. There were no confirmed partial or complete responses. Median progression-free and overall survival were 2.8 months and 6.3 months, respectively. No associations between MYC copy number and outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION: Alisertib has modest activity in this unselected malignant mesothelioma population. Several patients achieved durable disease control. Although the study did meet its prespecified futility endpoint, the sponsor elected to close the trial at the interim analysis.

20.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20: 194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508530

RESUMO

Background: Lung cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the world. The Whole-proteome microarray showed that ubiquitin ligase chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit B (CHAF1B) expression in A549/DDP cells is higher than in A549 cells. Our study explored the molecular mechanism of CHAF1B affecting cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods: Proteome microarray quantify the differentially expressed proteins between LUAD cell line A549 and its cisplatin-resistant strain A549/DDP. Quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) confirmed the CHAF1B expression. Public databases analyzed the prognosis of LUAD patients with varied LUAD expression followed by the substrates prediction of CHAF1B. Public databases showed that nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) may be substrates of CHAF1B. WB detected that CHAF1B expression affected the expression of NCOR2. Cell and animal experiments and clinical data detected function and integrating mechanism of CHAF1B compounds. Results: Proteome chips results indicated that CHAF1B, PPP1R13L, and CDC20 was higher than A549 in A549/DDP. Public databases showed that high expression of CHAF1B, PPP1R13L, and CDC20 was negatively correlated with prognosis in LUAD patients. PCR and WB results indicated higher CHAF1B expression in A549/DDP cells than that in A549 cells. NCOR2 and PPP5C were confirmed to be substrates of CHAF1B. CHAF1B knockdown significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in A549/DDP cells and the upregulated NCOR2 expression. CHAF1B and NCOR2 are interacting proteins and the position of interaction between CHAF1B and NCOR2 was mainly in the nucleus. CHAF1B promotes ubiquitination degradation of NCOR2. Cells and animal experiments showed that under the action of cisplatin, after knockdown of CHAF1B and NCOR2 in A549/DDP group compared with CHAF1B knockdown alone, the cell proliferation and migratory ability increased and apoptotic rate decreased, and the growth rate and size of transplanted tumor increased significantly. Immunohistochemistry suggested that Ki-67 increased, while apoptosis-related indicators caspase-3 decreased significantly. Clinical data showed that patients with high expression of CHAF1B are more susceptible to cisplatin resistance. Conclusion: Ubiquitin ligase CAHF1B can induce cisplatin resistance in LUAD by promoting the ubiquitination degradation of NCOR2.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...