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1.
Mater Horiz ; 8(2): 612-618, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821278

RESUMO

Cocatalyst design is a key approach to acquire high solar-energy conversion efficiency for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Here a new in situ vapor-phase (ISVP) growth method is developed to construct the cocatalyst of 2D PtS nanorectangles (a length of ∼7 nm, a width of ∼5 nm) on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets. The 2D PtS nanorectangles/g-C3N4 nanosheets (PtS/CN) show an unusual metal sulfide-support interaction (MSSI), which is evidenced by atomic resolution HAADF-STEM, synchrotron-based GIXRD, XPS and DFT calculations. The effect of MSSI contributes to the optimization of geometrical structure and energy-band structure, acceleration of charge transfer, and reduction of hydrogen adsorption free energy of PtS/CN, thus yielding excellent stability and an ultrahigh photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 1072.6 µmol h-1 (an apparent quantum efficiency of 45.7% at 420 nm), up to 13.3 and 1532.3 times by contrast with that of Pt nanoparticles/g-C3N4 nanosheets and g-C3N4 nanosheets, respectively. This work will provide a new platform for designing high-efficiency photocatalysts for sunlight-driven hydrogen generation.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(46): 55700-55711, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752083

RESUMO

Currently, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are assembled with polar electrolytes; thus, resulting SEI layers are dominated with organics. Herein, a low-polarity electrolyte is formulated with a low-polarity solvent (tetraethyl silicate, TEOS) and a non-polar inert shielding co-solvent (cyclohexane, CYH); solvation behaviors of lithium salt are investigated. The use of such a low-polarity solvent is found to improve the fraction of anions in the solvation sheath of Li+, and the presence of the non-polar co-solvent further shields the reductive decomposition of the solvent on the anode. The resulting SEI layer is relatively rich in LiF and has a 3D cross-linked Si-O network as a skeleton from the decomposition of TEOS molecules, which is more robust to tolerate the damage from the volume expansion of silicon. A Si-nanoparticle-based anode in such a low-polarity electrolyte delivers a capacity as high as 1491 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles, outperforming those in the commercial polar electrolytes.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837691

RESUMO

Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive malformation disorder. It is characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, urinary tract abnormalities and ambiguous genitalia. This condition is due to homozygous or heterozygous mutations in the FRAS1, FREM1, FREM2, and GRIP1 genes. In the present study, we recruited a Chinese family with Fraser syndrome. Two novel mutations c.7542_7543insG and c.2689C>T in the FREM2 gene were detected in this Fraser syndrome family by PCR-based sequencing. The next-generation sequencing-based single nucleotide polymorphism haplotyping method was applied to exclude these two mutations in 9 blastocysts obtained from the patient. After obtaining consent and informing the risk, the patient received in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment with an embryo carrying a heterozygous mutation. Finally, she delivered a healthy baby without any complications on March 17, 2019. In conclusion, we first reported two novel mutations in the FREM2 gene associated with the risk of Fraser syndrome. Moreover, we described a next-generation sequencing-based single nucleotide polymorphism haplotyping method to select the 'right' embryos from patients with Fraser syndrome for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment.

4.
FEBS Lett ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817071

RESUMO

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases with aging. However, the mechanism of aging-related NAFLD remains unclear. Herein, we constructed an aging-related hepatic steatosis model and analyzed the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in livers from young and old mice using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Five hundred and eighty-eight aging-related DEPs and novel pathways were identified. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2), the most significantly upregulated protein, promoted poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation in aging-related hepatic steatosis. Additionally, mice liver-specific O-GlcNAcase knockout promoted AIMP2 and PARP1 expression. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) overexpression and O-GlcNAcase inhibition by genetic or pharmaceutical manipulations increased AIMP2 and PARP1 levels in vitro. Mechanistically, O-GlcNAcylation increased AIMP2 protein stability, leading to its aggregation. Our study reveals O-GlcNAcylated AIMP2 as a novel pathogenic regulator of aging-related hepatic steatosis.

5.
PeerJ ; 9: e12430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760398

RESUMO

China's desert steppe is the transition zone between the grasslands in central China and the arid desert. Ecological security in this region has long been a subject of debate, both in the local and academic communities. Heavy metals and other pollutants are readily released during industrial production, combustion, and transportation, aggravating the vulnerability of the desert steppes. To understand the impact of industrial activiteis on the heavy metal content of dust fall in the desert steppe, a total of 37 dust fall samples were collected over 90 days. An inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (NexION 350X) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Co, and Zn in the dust. Using comprehensive pollution index and multivariate statistical analysis methods, we explored the characteristics and sources of heavy metal pollution. We also quantitatively assessed the carcinogenic risks of heavy metals resulting from dust reduction with the help of health risk assessment models. The heavy metals' comprehensive pollution index values in the study area's dust fall were ranked as follows: Zn > Cd > Pb > Mn > Cu > Co > Cr. Among these, Zn, Cd, and Pb were significant pollution factors in the study area, and were affected by industrial production and transportation. The high pollution index was concentrated in the north of the research industrial park and on both sides of a highway. The seven heavy metals' total non-carcinogenic risk index (HI) values were ranked as follows: Mn > Co > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cu > Cd (only the HI of Mn was greater than one). Excluding Mn, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk index values of the other six heavy metals were within acceptable ranges. Previous studies have also shown that industrial transportation and production have had a significant impact on the heavy metal content of dust fall in the desert steppe.

6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9929687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725566

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of regulated cell death dependent on iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It directly or indirectly affects the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) under the induction of small molecules, causing membrane lipid peroxidation due to redox imbalances and excessive ROS accumulation, damaging the integrity of cell membranes. Ferroptosis is mainly characterized by mitochondrial shrinkage, increased density of bilayer membranes, and the accumulation of lipid peroxidation. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) is an unavoidable risk event for acute myocardial infarction. Ferroptosis is closely associated with MIRI, and this relationship is discussed in detail here. This review systematically summarizes the process of ferroptosis and the latest research progress on the role of ferroptosis in MIRI to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of MIRI.

7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(24): e0175821, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613761

RESUMO

Nitroreductases (NTRs) catalyze the reduction of a wide range of nitro-compounds and quinones using NAD(P)H. Although the physiological functions of these enzymes remain obscure, a tentative function of resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the detoxification of menadione has been proposed. This suggestion is based primarily on the transcriptional or translational induction of an NTR response to menadione rather than on convincing experimental evidence. We investigated the performance of a fungal NTR from Aspergillus nidulans (AnNTR) exposed to menadione to address the question of whether NTR is really an ROS defense enzyme. We confirmed that AnNTR was transcriptionally induced by external menadione. We observed that menadione treatment generated cytotoxic levels of O2•-, which requires well-known antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxiredoxin to protect A. nidulans against menadione-derived ROS stress. However, AnNTR was counterproductive for ROS defense, since knocking out AnNTR decreased the intracellular O2•- levels, resulting in fungal viability higher than that of the wild type. This observation implies that AnNTR may accelerate the generation of O2•- from menadione. Our in vitro experiments indicated that AnNTR uses NADPH to reduce menadione in a single-electron reaction, and the subsequent semiquinone-quinone redox cycling resulted in O2•- generation. We demonstrated that A. nidulans nitroreductase should be an ROS generator, but not an ROS scavenger, in the presence of menadione. Our results clarified the relationship between nitroreductase and menadione-derived ROS stress, which has long been ambiguous. IMPORTANCE Menadione is commonly used as an O2•- generator in studies of oxidative stress responses. However, the precise mechanism through which menadione mediates cellular O2•- generation, as well as the way in which cells respond, remains unclear. Elucidating these events will have important implications for the use of menadione in biological and medical studies. Our results show that the production of Aspergillus nidulans nitroreductase (AnNTR) was induced by menadione. However, the accumulated AnNTR did not protect cells but instead increased the cytotoxic effect of menadione through a single-electron reduction reaction. Our finding that nitroreductase is involved in the menadione-mediated O2•- generation pathway has clarified the relationship between nitroreductase and menadione-derived ROS stress, which has long been ambiguous.

8.
Reprod Sci ; 28(12): 3397-3405, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664219

RESUMO

In the current in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer protocol, the 8 blastomeres in the day-3 embryo are selected for transfer because these embryos can produce high rates of blastocyst formation and clinical pregnancy. However, the relationship between the blastomere number in day-2 embryos and the rate of blastocyst formation or clinical pregnancy remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study is to explore the relationship between the blastomere number in day-2 embryos and the rate of blastocyst formation or clinical pregnancy. From January 2015 to April 2020, we collected 8126 day-3 embryos (8 blastomeres) from 2282 patients. These embryos were classified into 8 groups (1 blastomere, 2 blastomeres, 3 blastomeres, 4 blastomeres, 5 blastomeres, 6 blastomeres, 7 blastomeres, and 8 blastomeres) based on their blastomeres number on day 2 after insemination. Of these groups, the 4 blastomeres group accounted for the largest proportion (74.44%). The 1 blastomere group accounted for the smallest proportion (0.22%). A total of 3554 day-3 embryos (8 blastomeres) from 1648 patients developed into blastocysts. The rate of blastocyst formation from the 4 blastomeres group was the highest (94.06%). Finally, 800 patients received single day-3 embryos (8 blastomeres) transfer. The rate of clinical pregnancy from 4 blastomeres group was the highest (51.98%). In conclusion, our data provide evidence that the number of blastomeres in day-2 embryos affects the rate of blastocyst formation and clinical pregnancy.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658135

RESUMO

Defects have been found to enhance the electrocatalytic performance of NiFe-LDH for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Nevertheless, their specific configuration and the role played in regulating the surface reconstruction of electrocatalysts remain ambiguous. Herein, cationic vacancy defects are generated via aprotic-solvent-solvation-induced leaking of metal cations from NiFe-LDH nanosheets. DFT calculation and in situ Raman spectroscopic observation both reveal that the as-generated cationic vacancy defects tend to exist as VM (M=Ni/Fe); under increasing applied voltage, they tend to assume the configuration VMOH , and eventually transform into VMOH-H which is the most active yet most difficult to form thermodynamically. Meanwhile, with increasing voltage the surface crystalline Ni(OH)x in the NiFe-LDH is gradually converted into disordered status; under sufficiently high voltage when oxygen bubbles start to evolve, local NiOOH species become appearing, which is the residual product from the formation of vacancy VMOH-H . Thus, we demonstrate that the cationic defects evolve along with increasing applied voltage (VM → VMOH → VMOH-H ), and reveal the essential motif for the surface restructuration process of NiFe-LDH (crystalline Ni(OH)x → disordered Ni(OH)x → NiOOH). Our work provides insight into defect-induced surface restructuration behaviors of NiFe-LDH as a typical precatalyst for efficient OER electrocatalysis.

10.
Malar J ; 20(1): 396, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eliminating malaria and preventing re-establishment of malaria transmission in border areas requires universal coverage of malaria surveillance and a rapid response to any threats (i.e. malaria cues) of re-establishing transmission. MAIN TEXT: Strategy 1: Intensive interventions within 2.5 km-wide perimeter along the border to prevent border-spill malaria. The area within 2.5 km along the international border is the travel radius of anopheline mosquitoes. Comprehensive interventions should include: (1) proactive and passive case detection, (2) intensive vector surveillance, (3) evidence-based vector control, and (4) evidence-based preventative treatment with anti-malarial drugs. Strategy 2: Community-based malaria detection and screening of migrants and travellers in frontier townships. Un-permitted travellers cross borders frequently and present in frontier townships. Maintenance of intensified malaria surveillance should include: (1) passive malaria detection in the township hospitals, (2) seek assistance from villager leaders and health workers to monitor cross border travellers, and refer febrile patients to the township hospitals and (3) the county's Centre for Disease Control and Prevention maintain regular proactive case detection. Strategy 3: Universal coverage of malaria surveillance to detect malaria cues. Passive detection should be consolidated into the normal health service. Health services personnel should remain vigilant to ensure universal coverage of malaria detection and react promptly to any malaria cues. Strategy + 1: Strong collaborative support with neighbouring countries. Based on the agreement between the two countries, integrated control strategies should be carried out to reduce malaria burden for both countries. There should be a clear focus on the border areas between neighbouring countries. CONCLUSION: The 3 + 1 strategy is an experience summary of border malaria control and elimination, and then contributed to malaria elimination in Yunnan's border areas, China. Nevertheless, Yunnan still has remaining challenges of re-establishment of malaria transmission in the border areas, and the 3 + 1 strategy should still be carried out.

11.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5079-5094, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675589

RESUMO

Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe respiratory disease with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Many mediators regarding endogenous or exogenous are involved in the pathophysiology of ALI. Here, we have uncovered the involvement of integrins and matrix metalloproteinases, as critical determinants of excessive inflammation and endothelial permeability, in the regulation of ALI. Methods: Inflammatory cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR for mRNA levels and ELISA for secretion levels. Endothelial permeability assay was detected by the passage of rhodamine B isothiocyanate-dextran. Mice lung permeability was assayed by Evans blue albumin (EBA). Western blot was used for protein level measurements. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated using a cell-permeable probe, DCFH-DA. Intratracheal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice was conducted to establish the lung injury model. Results: Exogenous MMP-9 significantly aggravated the inflammatory response and permeability in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) treated by LPS, whereas knockdown of MMP-9 exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Knockdown of integrin ß3 or ß5 in LPS-treated PMVECs significantly downregulated MMP-9 expression and decreased inflammatory response and permeability in the presence or absence of exogenous MMP-9. Additionally, the interaction of MMP-9 and integrin ß5 was impaired by a ROS scavenger, which further decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and endothelial leakage in PMVECs subjected to co-treatment (LPS with exogenous MMP-9). In vivo studies, exogenous MMP-9 treatment or knockdown ß3 integrin significantly decreased survival in ALI mice. Notably, knockdown of ß5 integrin alone had no remarkable effect on survival, but which combined with anti-MMP-9 treatment significantly improved the survival by ameliorating excessive lung inflammation and permeability in ALI mice. Conclusion: These findings support the ß3/5 integrin-MMP-9 axis as an endogenous signal that could play a pivotal role in regulating inflammatory response and alveolar-capillary permeability in ALI.

12.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(5): nwaa277, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691642

RESUMO

Allopolyploidy is an important process in plant speciation, yet newly formed allopolyploid species typically suffer from extreme genetic bottlenecks. One escape from this impasse might be homoeologous meiotic pairing, during which homoeologous exchanges (HEs) generate phenotypically variable progeny. However, the immediate genome-wide patterns and resulting phenotypic diversity generated by HEs remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the genome composition of 202 phenotyped euploid segmental allopolyploid individuals from the fourth selfed generation following chromosomal doubling of reciprocal F1 hybrids of crosses between rice subspecies, using whole-genome sequencing. We describe rampant occurrence of HEs that, by overcoming incompatibility or conferring superiority of hetero-cytonuclear interactions, generate extensive and individualized genomic mosaicism across the analyzed tetraploids. We show that the resulting homoeolog copy number alteration in tetraploids affects known-function genes and their complex genetic interactions, in the process creating extraordinary phenotypic diversity at the population level following a single initial hybridization. Our results illuminate the immediate genomic landscapes possible in a tetraploid genomic environment, and underscore HE as an important mechanism that fuels rapid phenotypic diversification accompanying the initial stages of allopolyploid evolution.

13.
J Physiol Biochem ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472033

RESUMO

Stroke, also known as cerebral stroke or cerebrovascular accident, refers to acute ischemic or hemorrhagic encephalopathy caused by a disturbance to cerebral blood flow. Ischemic stroke is the most common type of cerebral stroke, accounting for approximately 80% of the total incidence of clinical stroke. High morbidity, disability, and mortality rates place heavy burdens on the families of patients and society. An increasing number of studies have shown that histone modification plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but most studies on histone modification focus on acetylation, and studies on the role of histone methylation in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke are limited. Here, we review the role of histone methylation and related histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitors in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and related HMT inhibitors in the treatment of ischemic stroke, which may open up a new avenue to the study of ischemic stroke.

14.
Adv Mater ; 33(42): e2103338, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477248

RESUMO

To reach the full potential of polymer dielectrics in advanced electronics and electrified transportation, it calls for efficient operation of high-energy-density dielectric polymers under high voltages over a wide temperature range. Here, the polymer composites consisting of the boron nitride nanosheet/polyetherimide and TiO2 nanorod arrays/polyetherimide layers are reported. The layered composite exhibits a much higher dielectric constant than the current high-temperature dielectric polymers and composites, while simultaneously retaining low dielectric loss at elevated temperatures and high applied fields. Consequently, the layered polymer composite presents much improved capacitive performance than the current dielectric polymers and composites over a temperature range of 25-150 °C. Moreover, the excellent capacitive performance of the layered composite is achieved at an applied field that is about 40% lower than the typical field strength of the current polymer composites with the discharged energy densities of >3 J cm-3 at 150 °C. Remarkable cyclability and dielectric stability are established in the layered polymer nanocomposites. This work addresses the current challenge in the enhancement of the energy densities of high-temperature dielectric polymers and demonstrates an efficient route to dielectric polymeric materials with high energy densities and low loss over a broad temperature range.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17493, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471194

RESUMO

Desert steppe soil security issues have been the focus of attention. Therefore, to understand the impact of industrial activities on the soil quality of desert grasslands, this experiment investigated the Gaoshawo Industrial Concentration Zone in Yanchi County. Based on the distance and direction from the industrial park, sample plots were established at intervals of 1-2 km. A total of 82 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) representing different pollution sources were collected. The samples were analysed for pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter, copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The desert steppe soil quality was analysed based on the integrated fertility index (IFI) and the Nemerow pollution index (PN), followed by the calculation of the comprehensive soil quality index (SQI), which considers the most suitable soil quality indicators through a geostatistical model. The results showed that the IFI was 0.393, indicating that the soil fertility was relatively poor. Excluding the available potassium, the nugget coefficients of the fertility indicators were less than 25% and showed strong spatial autocorrelation. The average values of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were 21.64 ± 3.26, 0.18 ± 0.02, 44.99 ± 21.23, 87.18 ± 25.84, and 86.63 ± 24.98 mg·kg-1, respectively; the nugget coefficients of Cr, Pb and Zn were 30.79-47.35%. Pb was the main element causing heavy metal pollution in the study area. Higher PN values were concentrated north of the highway in the study area, resulting in lower soil quality in the northern region and a trend of decreasing soil quality from south to north. The results of this research showed that the average SQI was 0.351 and the soil quality was extremely low. Thus, industrial activities and transportation activities in the Gaoshawo Industrial Zone significantly impact the desert steppe soil quality index.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500869

RESUMO

The development of high-energy-density electrostatic capacitors is critical to addressing the growing electricity need. Currently, the widely studied dielectric materials are polymer nanocomposites incorporated with high-dielectric-constant nanoparticles. However, the introduction of high-dielectric-constant nanoparticles can cause local electric field distortion and high leakage current, which limits the improvement in energy density. In this work, on the basis of conventional polymer nanocomposites containing high-dielectric-constant nanoparticles, oriented boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) are introduced as an extra filler phase. By changing the volume ratios of barium titanate (BT) and BNNSs, the dielectric property of polymer nanocomposites is adjusted, and thus the capacitive energy storage performance is optimized. Experimental results prove that the oriented BNNSs can suppress the propagation of charge carriers and decrease the conduction loss. Using poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) as the polymer matrix, the P(VDF-HFP)/BNNS/BT nanocomposite has a higher discharged energy density compared with the conventional nanocomposite with the freely dispersed BT nanoparticles.

17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570217

RESUMO

Interpreting the molecular mechanism of genomic variations and their causal relationship with diseases/traits are important and challenging problems in the human genetic study. To provide comprehensive and context-specific variant annotations for biologists and clinicians, here, by systematically integrating over 4TB genomic/epigenomic profiles and frequently-used annotation databases from various biological domains, we develop a variant annotation database, called VannoPortal. In general, the database has following major features: (i) systematically integrates 40 genome-wide variant annotations and prediction scores regarding allele frequency, linkage disequilibrium, evolutionary signature, disease/trait association, tissue/cell type-specific epigenome, base-wise functional prediction, allelic imbalance and pathogenicity; (ii) equips with our recent novel index system and parallel random-sweep searching algorithms for efficient management of backend databases and information extraction; (iii) greatly expands context-dependent variant annotation to incorporate large-scale epigenomic maps and regulatory profiles (such as EpiMap) across over 33 tissue/cell types; (iv) compiles many genome-scale base-wise prediction scores for regulatory/pathogenic variant classification beyond protein-coding region; (v) enables fast retrieval and direct comparison of functional evidence among linked variants using highly interactive web panel in addition to plain table; (vi) introduces many visualization functions for more efficient identification and interpretation of functional variants in single web page. VannoPortal is freely available at http://mulinlab.org/vportal.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544876

RESUMO

Aspergillus fumigatus is a human opportunistic pathogen showing emerging resistance against a limited repertoire of antifungal agents available. The GTPase Rho1 has been identified as an important regulator of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway that regulates the composition of the cell wall, a structure that is unique to fungi and serves as a target for antifungal compounds. Rom2, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor to Rho1, contains a C-terminal citron homology (CNH) domain of unknown function that is found in many other eukaryotic genes. Here, we show that the Rom2 CNH domain interacts directly with Rho1 to modulate ß-glucan and chitin synthesis. We report the structure of the Rom2 CNH domain, revealing that it adopts a seven-bladed ß-propeller fold containing three unusual loops. A model of the Rho1-Rom2 CNH complex suggests that the Rom2 CNH domain interacts with the Rho1 Switch II motif. This work uncovers the role of the Rom2 CNH domain as a scaffold for Rho1 signaling in fungal cell wall biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/química , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/química , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética
19.
ACS Omega ; 6(31): 20130-20138, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395965

RESUMO

The large-scale and controllable synthesis of novel N-doped three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanocage-decorated carbon skeleton sponges (Co-NCMS) is introduced. These Co-NCMS were highly active and durable non-noble metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This hybrid electrocatalyst showed high ORR activity with a diffusion-limiting current of 5.237 mA·cm-2 in 0.1 M KOH solution through the highly efficient 4e- pathway, which was superior to that of the Pt/C catalyst (4.99 mA·cm-2), and the ORR Tafel slope is ca. 67.7 mV·dec-1 at a high potential region, close to that of Pt/C. Furthermore, Co-NCMS exhibited good ORR activity in acidic media with an onset potential comparable to that of the Pt/C catalyst. Most importantly, the prepared catalyst showed much higher stability and better methanol tolerance in both alkaline and acidic solutions. The power density obtained in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell was as high as 0.37 W·cm-2 at 0.19 V compared with 0.45 W·cm-2 at 0.56 V for the Pt/C catalyst. In Co-NCMS, the N-doped carbon nanocages facilitated the diffusion of the reactant, maximizing the exposure of active sites on the surface and protecting the active metallic core from oxidation. This made Co-NCMS one of the best non-noble metal catalysts and potentially offers an alternative approach for the efficient utilization of active transition metals in electrocatalyst applications.

20.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379979

RESUMO

Two-dimensional layered materials commonly face hindered electron transfer and poor structure stability, thus limiting their application in high-rate and long-term sodium ion batteries. In the current study, we adopt finite element simulation to guide the rational design of nanostructures. By calculating the von Mises stress distribution of a series of carbon materials, we find that the hollow biconcave structure could effectively alleviate the stress concentration resulting from expansion. Accordingly, we propose a biconcave-alleviated strategy based on the Aspergillus niger-derived carbon (ANDC) to construct ANDC/MoS2 with a hollow biconcave structure. The ANDC/MoS2 is endowed with an excellent long-term cyclability as an anode of sodium ion batteries, delivering a discharge capacity of 496 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at 1 A g-1. A capacity retention rate of 94.5% is achieved, an increase of almost seven times compared with the bare MoS2 nanosheets. Even at a high current density of 5 A g-1, a reversible discharge capacity around 400 mAh g-1 is maintained after 300 cycles. ANDC/MoS2 could also be used for efficient lithium storage. By using in situ TEM, we further reveal that the hollow biconcave structure of ANDC/MoS2 has enabled stable and fast sodiation/desodiation.

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