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1.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 107(11): 2567-2575, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356723

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that lung injury can be caused by respiratory exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2 ), but whether pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis are related to the activation of the TGF-ß/Smad/p38MAPK/Wnt pathways remains unclear. In this study, mice were administrated nano-TiO2 by nasal instillation for nine consecutive months, and the molecular mechanisms of nano-TiO2 on the pulmonary toxicity of mice were examined. The findings suggested that nano-TiO2 caused pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the results also showed that an overproduction of reactive free radicals occurred in mouse lungs, and that the expression of TGF-ß/p38MAPK/Wnt pathway-related factors, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p-p38MAPK), small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2), extracellular matrix (ECM), Wingless/Integrated 3 (Wnt3), Wingless/Integrated 4 (Wnt4), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), ß-catenin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), c-Myc, Type I collage (collagen I), and Type collage III (collagen III) were remarkably elevated, while phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (p-GSK-3ß) expression was decreased. Those data implied that the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis caused by nano-TiO2 exposure may be involved in reactive free radical-mediated activation of the TGF-ß/Smad/p38MAPK/Wnt pathways.

2.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1900-1908, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183867

RESUMO

The quality of canola oil is affected by different extraction methods. The effect of cold-pressed canola oil (CPCO) diet and traditional refined bleached deodorized canola oil (RBDCO) diet on lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in mice were investigated. The body weight, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α concentration, serum lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress were increased in mice fed with CPCO diet, which had higher unsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids but lower saturated fatty acid than RBDCO, after 12 weeks,. Moreover, CPCO significantly increased tocopherols and phytosterols content in liver and reduced liver cholesterol contents and lipid vacuoles accumulation than RBDCO. Also, serum proinflammatory cytokines, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary coenzyme A reductase expression level, lipogenic enzymes, and transcriptional factors such as sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase in the liver were also markedly downregulated from CPCO diet mice. Overall, CPCO can reduce lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis by regulating oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in Kun Ming mice compared with RBDCO. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results suggested that more bioactive components were contained in cold-pressed canola oil (CPCO) rather than refined bleached deodorized canola oil (RBDCO). CPCO could lower the risk of obesity and hyperlipidemia, reduce lipid accumulation, and prevent hepatic steatosis. It could be considered as a kind of better edible oil than RBDCO.

3.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 15(3): 571-580, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165701

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is known to cause reductions of sperm numbers and quality in animals, and the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway has been demonstrated to play a key role in regulating spermatogenesis. However, whether the suppression of spermatogenesis induced by nano-TiO2 is related to regulatory disturbances of the cAMP-CREB/CREM signaling pathway is not well investigated. In the current study, male mice were exposed to nano-TiO2 at doses of 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kgbw via gavage instillation for 90 consecutive days and the molecular mechanisms underlying suppression of spermatogenesis caused by nano-TiO2 were investigated. Our findings showed that nano-TiO2 could cross the blood-testis barrier, and accumulated in mouse testes, thus inducing obvious pathological changes and decreasing sperm concentrations and motility, as well as increasing rate of sperm malformation. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 also induced significant reductions in protein expression including cyclic adenosine monophosphate content, protein kinase A, cAMP-responsive element modulator, p-cAMP-response element binding protein, lactate dehydrogenase-C, testis-specific protein kinase 1, and testicular specific CREM activator, and upregulation of protein expression including protein phosphatase, and transducer of regulated CREB 1, which may be associated with reductions of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. Together, the present study indicates that the reductions of FSH and LH concentrations and suppression of spermatogenesis in mice caused by nano-TiO2 may be associated with the dysfunctions of the cAMP-CREB/CREM signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Espermatogênese , Titânio , Animais , Modulador de Elemento de Resposta do AMP Cíclico , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(19): 5486-5495, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012315

RESUMO

Our previous research showed that Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus were effective fungi for pretreatment of industrial hemp stalks to improve enzymatic saccharification. The secretomes of these two fungi were analyzed to search for the effective enzyme cocktails degrading hemp lignin during the pretreatment process. In total, 169 and 155 proteins were identified in Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively, and 50% of the proteins involved in lignocellulose degradation were CAZymes. Because most of the extracellular proteins secreted by fungi are glycosylated proteins, the N-linked glycosylation of enzymes could be mapped. In total, 27 and 24 N-glycosylated peptides were detected in Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus secretomes, respectively. N-Glycosylated peptides of laccase, GH92, exoglucanase, phenol oxidase, α-galactosidase, carboxylic ester hydrolase, and pectin lyase were identified. Deglycosylation could decrease enzymatic saccharification of hemp stalks. The activities of laccase, α-galactosidase, and phenol oxidase and the thermal stability of laccase were reduced after deglycosylation.


Assuntos
Cannabis/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Pleurotus/enzimologia , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Galactosidases/química , Galactosidases/genética , Galactosidases/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Lacase/química , Lacase/genética , Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/química , Peroxidases/genética , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Pleurotus/classificação , Pleurotus/genética , Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeo-Liase/química , Polissacarídeo-Liase/genética , Polissacarídeo-Liase/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 168: 146-153, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818175

RESUMO

CGRP, known as the most potent vasodilator substance, plays an important role in hypertension initiation and development. TRPV1 and TRPA1 are critical in promoting the synthesis and release of CGRP, thereby regulating the cardiovascular tone. Rutaecarpine exhibits potent vasodilator and hypertensive effects by stimulating CGRP synthesis and release via activation of TRPV1. And NO has been shown to react with H2S in vivo to form HNO, thereby activating HNO-TRPA1-CGRP pathway. Inspired by combination therapy, 11 rutaecarpine-furoxan hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The results demonstrated that most hybrids exerted comparable or improved vasodilator activities. Among which, 13a is the most potent both ex vivo (EC50 = 13.1 nM) and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that the vasodilator and anti-hypertensive effects of the hybrids might involve the promotion of CGRP release via dual activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1. This work suggests that dual-targeted hybrids might be an effective and promising approach to discover and develop novel anti-hypertensive drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/síntese química , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Oxidiazóis/química , Quinazolinas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vasodilatadores/síntese química , Vasodilatadores/química
6.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 15(4): 839-847, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841976

RESUMO

Numerous studies have suggested that nano-TiO2 can be translocated to the brain via the placental barrier and blood brain barrier, leading to brain damage and cognitive impairment in both mice and rat offspring. The mechanism of nanoTiO2-induced neurotoxicity is still unclear, as is its role in the inhibition of hippocampal development. In this experiment, nano-TiO2 was employed to investigate whether the inhibition of the hippocampal development of mice offspring involved the alterations in the Rho signaling pathway following consecutive gavage of female mice between 7-21 days postpartum. The results showed that nano-TiO2 particles were concentrated in the hippocampus of offspring, resulting in reduced hippocampal indices and in inhibited axonal and dendritic growth. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 downregulated expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR)1, NR2A, NR2B, RhoGTPase, Ras-related C1 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac1), cell division cycle42 (Cdc42), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB), p21-activated kinase (PAK) 3, and PAK1, LIMK (LIM kinase) 1, p-LIMK1, activated Cdc42 kinase (ACK), and myotonic dystrophic kinaseassociated Cdc42-binding kinase (MRCK) and increased expression of RhoA, Rho kinase (ROCK) 1 and cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk) 5 in offspring. In addition, nano-TiO2 disrupted the balance of RhoA/Rac1, RhoA/Cdc42, and Rac1/Cdc42 ratios in the hippocampus of mice offspring. Taken together, these data imply that maternal exposure to nano-TiO2 inhibited development of hippocampal axons and dendrites of offspring may be correlated with the dysfunction of the Rho pathway and that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) may also mediate nano-TiO2-Rho pathway interactions.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna , Animais , Feminino , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ratos , Titânio , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(9): 2709-2715, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701967

RESUMO

Exposure to nanosized titanium oxide (nano-TiO2) has been proven to suppress brain growth in mouse offspring; however, whether retardation of axonal or dendritic outgrowth is associated with activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway remains unclear. In the present study, pregnant mice were exposed to nano-TiO2 at 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg body weight, and the molecular mechanism of axonal or dendritic outgrowth retardation was investigated. The results suggested that nano-TiO2 crossed the blood-fetal barrier and blood-brain barrier and deposited in the brain of offspring, which retarded axonal and dendritic outgrowth, including the absence of axonal outgrowth, and decreased dendritic filament length, dendritic branching number, and dendritic spine density. Importantly, maternal exposure to nano-TiO2 increased phosphorylated (p)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2, +24.35% to +59.4%), p-p38 (+60.82% to 181.85%), and p-c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, +28.28% to 97.28%) expression in the hippocampus of the offspring. These findings suggested that retardation of axonal and dendritic outgrowth in mouse offspring caused by maternal exposure to nano-TiO2 may be related to excessive activation of the ERK1/2/MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore, the potential toxicity of nano-TiO2 is a concern, especially in pregnant woman or children who are exposed to nano-TiO2.


Assuntos
Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Axônios/fisiologia , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendritos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Nanopartículas , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Titânio/análise
8.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2018 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580603

RESUMO

The pollen of T. angustifolia, also known as Pu huang in Chinese, has been used for treatment of stranguria, hematuria, dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia and injuries in China for a long time. Extensive efforts have been directed toward its phytochemical and biological aspects. However, little is known about its anti-nociceptive implication and material basis. This work presented the investigation of the anti-nociceptive effect of Typhae Pollen using an effect-directed fractionation strategy, thereby leading to identification of isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidin (1) and typhaneoside (2), together with other minor flavonoid glycoside congeners, as the main anti-nociceptive constituents. This work not only unveils the anti-nociceptive potential of Typhae Pollen, but also establishes a method to enrich and identify the anti-nociceptive constitutes of Typhae Pollen. Moreover, this work is a successful example of effect-directed fractionation strategy, which represents a powerful tool in TCM-based drug discovery and development.

9.
Cancer Med ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402948

RESUMO

Purified vitexin compound 1 (VB1, a neolignan isolated and extracted from the seed of Chinese herb Vitex negundo) is an effective antitumor agent and exhibits promising clinical activity against various cancers including colorectal cancer. However, it remains unknown about the precise underlying mechanism associated with the antitumor effect of VB1 and how it triggers apoptosis in cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated that VB1 promoted apoptosis via p53-dependent induction of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and further to induce Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein) activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in colon cancer HCT-116 and LoVo cells. Deficiency in p53, PUMA, or Bax abrogated VB1-induced apoptosis and promoted cell survival in HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, the combination of VB1 with chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or NVP-BZE235 resulted in a synergistic antitumor effect via PUMA induction in HCT-116 cells. VB1 significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of wild-type (WT) HCT-116 and LoVo cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. The results indicate that p53/PUMA/Bax axis plays a critical role in VB1-induced apoptosis and VB1 may have valuable clinical applications in cancer therapy as a novel anticancer agent used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs.

10.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461191

RESUMO

Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano TiO2 ) is extensively applied in biological tissue engineering materials, food additives, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Numerous studies to date have demonstrated that nano TiO2 penetrates through the digestive system and possibly the blood circulation, leading to accumulation in the ovary and consequent reproductive toxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of nano TiO2 on the female reproductive system remain to be established. In this study, female mice were exposed to different doses of nano TiO2 (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg body weight) via intragastric administration for 60 consecutive days, followed by investigation of follicular development, regulation of TGF-ß-mediated signaling pathways, and expression of the pathway components. Subchronic exposure to nano TiO2 induced a decrease in the number of primordial, secondary, and antral follicles and corpus luteum and concomitant increase in atretic follicles. Furthermore, follicular development disorder induced by nano TiO2 was associated with upregulation of TGF-ß1, TGF-ßR1, PTEN, and Foxo3a involved in cell growth and apoptosis and downregulation of several growth factors (PI3K, AKT, p-mTOR, p70S6K, p-p70S6K1, rpS6, p-rpS6, TSC1, and TSC2) in mouse ovaries. Our data collectively implied that suppression of ovarian follicle development by nano TiO2 was triggered by dysfunction of the TGF-ß, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and AKT/p70S6K-rpS6/TSC/mTOR pathways. The adverse effects of nano TiO2 on follicular development highlights the necessity for caution in the use of nanomaterials in the food industry. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 2018.

11.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 14(12): 2124-2134, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305219

RESUMO

Nanosized titanium dioxide (Nano TiO2) has been widely used in daily lives, medicine, industry, and caused the potential reproduction toxicity for animals and human, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms for the reproductive toxicity of nano TiO2 are still largely unclear. In the present study, when primary cultured rat Sertoli cells (SCs) were exposed to nano TiO2, cell injury and alterations in wingless related MMTV integration site (Wnt) pathway-related factors including Wnt1, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt11, ß-catenin, and p-GSK-3ß expression were investigated. The results suggested that nano TiO2 could be translocated to cytoplasm or nucleus, and decreased cell viability, and impaired morphological structures of SCs, induced apoptosis and dead of primary cultured rat SCs. Furthermore, nano TiO2-induced the toxicity of primary cultured rat SCs was associated with increased expression of Wnt1, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt11, and ß-catenin and involved with reduced p-GSK-3ß expression. Therefore, this implies that nano TiO2-induced toxic effects on SCs may be associated with Wnt signaling pathways.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(44): 11767-11774, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269504

RESUMO

Nano titanium dioxide (Nano-TiO2) has been applied in food packaging systems and food additives, but it may cause potential neurotoxicity for human and animals. In our study, the effects of nano-TiO2 exposure during pregnancy/lactation on the development of the central nervous system in offspring mice were examined and its molecular mechanism involving Rho family was investigated. Our findings showed that pregnancy/lactation exposure to nano-TiO2 resulted in thinning of cerebral and cerebellar cortex, decrease in number of neurons per unit area of cerebrum, edema and nuclear condensation, dysplasia of neurites in hippocampal pyramidal cells, thinning in pyramidal cell layer in hippocampus, and decrease in learning and memory of offspring mice. Furthermore, expressions of Rac1 and Cdc42 involved in axon and dendritic development were decreased, whereas RhoA expression and ratio of RhoA/Rac1 were increased in offspring brain. It implies that exposure to nano-TiO2 during pregnancy/lactation could result in brain retardation and cognitive impairment in offspring mice, which was closely related to alterations in the expression of Rho protein family. Therefore, application of nano-TiO2 in daily life should be performed with caution.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(8): 785-791, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959604

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), used increasingly in the treatment of localized prostate cancer, is associated with substantial long-term adverse consequences, including incident diabetes. While previous studies have suggested that ADT negatively influences glycemic control in existing diabetes, its association with diabetes complications has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the association between ADT use and diabetes complications in prostate cancer patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer between 1995 and 2008, enrolled in three integrated health care systems. Men had radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy (curative intent therapy), existing type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and were followed through December 2010 (n = 5,336). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between ADT use and diabetes complications (any complication), and individual complications (diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic amputation or diabetic cataract) after prostate cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: ADT use was associated with an increased risk of any diabetes complication after prostate cancer diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR, 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.23) as well as an increased risk of each individual complication compared to non-use. CONCLUSION: ADT use in men with T2DM, who received curative intent therapy for prostate cancer, was associated with an increased risk of diabetes complications. These findings support those of previous studies, which showed that ADT worsened diabetes control. Additional, larger studies are required to confirm these findings and to potentially inform the development of a risk-benefit assessment for men with existing T2DM, before initiating ADT.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 218(10): 1541-1550, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893872

RESUMO

Background: In the RV144 trial, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 gp120 V1V2 antibodies correlated inversely with risk of HIV-1 infection; however, the titers waned quickly. We hypothesized that a more potent adjuvant might enhance the magnitude and durability of V1V2 antibodies. Methods: We examined archived sera from a phase I randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, conducted in HIV-1-uninfected individuals, vaccinated with HIV-1SF-2 rgp120 either adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (aluminum hydroxide arm) or encapsulated in liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL®) and then adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (liposomal arm). Results: The median immunoglobulin G antibody titers across weeks 10-112 were higher in the liposomal arm against subtypes B (2- to 16-fold), AE (4- to 8-fold), and C (4- to 16-fold) V1V2 proteins. High titers were maintained even at 10 months after last boost in the liposomal compared with the aluminum hydroxide arm. The antibodies exhibited antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and α4ß7-integrin receptor inhibition-binding functions. Conclusions: Inclusion of 2 adjuvants in the vaccine formulation, aluminum hydroxide, and liposomal MPL®, induced robust, durable, and functional antibodies. Based on the magnitude of antibody responses and the percentage of coiled and ß-sheet in the predicted V2/V3-peptide structure, we speculate that liposomal gp120 was presented in a conformation that favored the induction of robust antibody responses.

15.
J Org Chem ; 83(15): 8322-8330, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925228

RESUMO

A CuII-catalyzed radical annulation/C3-functionalization cascade of tryptamine derivatives with aryl ethylene is reported. The mild catalytic system enables the facile construction of 3a-benzoylmethylpyrrolidino[2,3- b]indolines with excellent chemo- and regioselectivities. Remarkably, this novel method utilizes earth-abundant and inexpensive cupric salt as the catalyst and air as the co-oxidant, rendering the process highly environmentally friendly and atom economic. Presumably, the reaction proceeds through CuII-initiated formation of pyrrolidino[2,3- b]indolines radical intermediate I, which is successively trapped by aryl ethylene and O2 to form the product. An 18O2-labeling experiment and several control experiments were designed to support the mechanistic proposal.

16.
PeerJ ; 6: e4737, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761053

RESUMO

Background: Vitexin is a kind of lignan compound which has been shown to possess a variety of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer activities. However the effect of vitexin on hair regeneration has not been elaborated. Methods: The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) was examined by cell counting and continuous cell culture after vitexin compound 1 (VB-1) was treated. The expression of lef1, wnt5a, bmp2, bmp4, alpl and vcan was examined by RT-PCR. The expression of dkk1, tgf-ß1, active-ß-Catenin, and AXIN2 was examined by RT-PCR or immunoblotting. Hair shaft growth was measured in the absence or presence of VB-1. Results: We demonstrated that VB-1 significantly promotes the proliferation of hDPCs in a concentration-dependent manner within a certain concentration range. Among the hair growth-related genes investigated, dkk1 was clearly down-regulated in hDPCs treated with VB-1. The increased active ß-Catenin and decreased AXIN2 protein levels suggest that VB-1 facilitates Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in hDPCs in vitro. The expression of DP signature genes was also upregulated after VB-1 treatment. Our study further indicated that VB-1 promotes human hair follicle (HF) growth by HF organ culture assay. Discussion: VB-1 may exert hair growth-promoting effects via augmenting Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in hDPCs.

17.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600732

RESUMO

Macrocyclic glycosides with unique 22-membered dimeric lactone skeleton, are rare occurring natural products. There are only ten compounds reported so far. Herein we reported the isolation and characterisation of five macrocyclic glycosides from Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, including three new compounds (Schoenopolide A-C, 1-3) and two known ones, Berchemolide (4) and Clemoarmanoside B (5). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of Berchemolide (4) against H2O2-induced of renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells was also evaluated.

18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 149: 148-169, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500940

RESUMO

The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a highly reserved G-protein coupled 7-transmembrane (TM) chemokine receptor which consists of 352 amino acids. CXCR4 has only one endogenous chemokine ligand of CXCL12, besides several other natural nonchemokine ligands such as extracellular ubiquitin and noncognate ligand of MIF. CXCR4 strongly binds to CXCL12 and the resulting CXCLl2/CXCR4 axis is the molecular basis of their various biological functions, which include: (1) mediating immune and inflammatory response; (2) regulation of hematopoietic stem cell migration and homing; (3) an essential co-receptor for HIV entry into host cells; (4) participation in the process of embryonic development; (5) malignant tumor invasion and metastasis; (6) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and acute kidney injury. Correspondingly, CXCR4 antagonists find potential therapeutic applications in HIV infection, as well as hematopoietic stem cell migration, inflammation, immune-related diseases, tumor and ischemic diseases. Recently, great achievements have been made and a number of non-peptide CXCR4 antagonists with diversity scaffolds have been discovered. In this review, the discovery of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists focused on the structures, activities, evolution and development of representative CXCR4 antagonists is comprehensively described. The central role of CXCR4 in diverse cellular signaling pathways and its involvement in several diseases progressions are discussed as well.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Receptores CXCR4/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Tratamento Farmacológico/tendências , Humanos , Ligantes , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo
19.
Transl Behav Med ; 8(2): 156-165, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425377

RESUMO

As many as 40% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer have low-risk disease, which results in the need to decide whether to undergo active treatment (AT) or active surveillance (AS). The treatment decision can have a significant effect on general and prostate-specific quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to assess the QOL among men with low-risk prostate cancer during the first year following diagnosis. In a prospective cohort study, we conducted pretreatment telephone interviews (N = 1,139; 69.3% response rate) with low-risk PCa patients (PSA ≤ 10, Gleason ≤ 6) and a follow-up assessment 6-10 months postdiagnosis (N = 1057; 93%). We assessed general depression, anxiety, and physical functioning, prostate-specific anxiety, and prostate-specific QOL at both interviews. Clinical variables were obtained from the medical record. Men were 61.7 (SD = 7.2) years old, 82% white, 39% had undergone AT (surgery or radiation), and 61.0% had begun AS. Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up, the AS group reported significantly better sexual, bowel, urinary, and general physical function (compared to AT), and no difference in depression. However, the AS group did report greater general anxiety and prostate-specific anxiety at follow-up, compared to AT. Among men with low-risk PCa, adjusting for pretreatment functioning, the AS group reported better prostate-related QOL, but were worse off on general and prostate-specific anxiety compared to men on AT. These results suggest that, within the first year postdiagnosis, men who did not undergo AT may require additional support in order to remain comfortable with this decision and to continue with AS when it is clinically indicated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Ansiedade , Tratamento Conservador , Seguimentos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Plant Dis ; 102(2): 428-436, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673519

RESUMO

Botrytis cinerea usually produces grayish mycelia and conidia as well as black-colored sclerotia (BS) due to accumulation of melanin. An isolate (XN-1) of B. cinerea producing orange-colored sclerotia (OS) on agar media was obtained from an orange-colored apothecium of an uncultured soil fungus. Whether or not the OS B. cinerea occurs on plants and how they differ from the BS isolates in melanogensis and ecological fitness remained unknown. This study, for the first time, confirmed the presence of the OS B. cinerea in strawberry and tomato plants that were surveyed in Hubei Province of China. Only five OS isolates were obtained from a total of 2,031 isolates surveyed from the two crops. The OS isolate XN-1 was compared and contrasted with the BS isolate B05.10 in sclerotial melanogenesis and ecological fitness. Sclerotial melanogenesis was evident in B05.10 but was deficient in XN-1. The OS were more susceptible to the two mycoparasites Trichoderma koningiopsis and Clonostachys rosea than the BS. The percentage of viable sclerotia after the mycoparasitism study was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in OS (21%) than in BS (48%). This study also reaffirmed the importance of melanization for survival of B. cinerea sclerotia.


Assuntos
Botrytis/fisiologia , Fragaria/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Botrytis/genética , Melaninas/química , Melaninas/deficiência , Mutação , Pigmentação , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia
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