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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether quality control circle (QCC) is associated with hospital staff's perceptions of patient safety culture (PSC). DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey in 12 public hospitals from October to December 2018 and a longitudinal survey in one public hospital from November 2017 to November 2018. SETTING: In 12 public hospitals from six provinces located in eastern, central and western of China, and one public hospital in eastern China. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 811 and 102 hospital staff participated in the cross-sectional survey and the longitudinal survey, respectively. These participants included doctors, nurses, medical technicians and administrative staff. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital staff's perceptions of PSC were measured by the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire. The association between QCC implementation and PSC was identified by univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that the staff from hospitals that had implemented QCC received significantly higher HSOPSC scores than those from hospitals where QCC had not been implemented (3.73 ± 0.61 vs. 3.57 ± 0.41, P < 0.05). The QCC implementation was a significant predictor in the established multiple linear regression model. One year after QCC implementation, the hospital involved in the longitudinal survey scored higher in HSOPSC than before (3.75 ± 0.42 vs. 3.60 ± 0.36, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: QCC implementation was positively associated with PSC and the former could promote the establishment of the latter. It is suggested that QCC can play an active role in enhancing PSC so as to further improve patient safety management.

2.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 331, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497584

RESUMO

Background: Sepsis-associated liver injury (SALI) is a risk factor of poor outcome in patients with sepsis. The early warning biomarkers for identifying SALI remain poorly defined. Aims: To identify the potential predictors of occurrence of SALI in pediatric patients with sepsis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the sepsis database based on the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Shanghai Children's Hospital from July 2014 to June 2018. Patients' demographics, co-morbidities and laboratory variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to explore risk factors of SALI, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate their predictive significances for SALI occurrence. Results: Of 1,645 eligible patients, 1,147 patients were included, and 105 cases had SALI. The indexes including AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), γ-GT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were independent risk factors for SALI. Moreover, APRI was powerful to predict SALI in children (AUC: 0.889, 95% CI: 0.851-0.927) with a sensitivity of 84.6 % and a specificity of 84.3 % at the cutoff point of 0.340. APRI was superior to LDH and not inferior to γ-GT for predicting SALI. Conclusion: APRI is an independent risk factor of SALI occurrence, and elevated APRI within 24 h after PICU admission (>0.340) is a potential predictor for SALI in children.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 70: 80-87, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785094

RESUMO

Alpha-MMC is a type I ribosome-inactivating protein purified from bitter gourd that has strong anti-tumour and antiviral activity. Alpha-MMC also has immunosuppressive effects, but the mechanism of these immunosuppressive effects remains unclear. It is reported that the binding of α-MMC to its specific cell membrane LRP1 receptor is key to its biological effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-MMC on cytotoxicity and cytokine release regulation in three immune cells, human monocyte THP-1 cells, B-lymphocyte WIL2 cells and T-lymphocyte H9 cells, and explored the correlation between this effect and LRP1 receptor distribution on these three cell types. We demonstrate that α-MMC has a significant effect of apoptosis induction and cytokine release in THP-1 cells but has no effect on WIL2-S and H9 cells. Specifically, at a non-cytotoxic dose (80 µg/ml), α-MMC regulates THP-1 cells by inhibiting IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-8, IL-9, IL-12, MIP-1α/ß, MCP-1 and TNF-α expression and enhancing IL-1ra and RANTES expression, resulting in the inhibition of cellular immune function. Subsequent experiments showed that the cytokine expression regulated by α-MMC can be blocked by silencing the LRP1 receptor of α-MMC. Further research indicated that phosphorylation of 9 signalling proteins of the MAPK pathway was significantly regulated by α-MMC and was blocked by LRP1 silencing. We conclude that the regulation of cytokine expression induced by α-MMC in monocyte THP-1 cells is mediated by the LRP1 receptor, likely via the MAPK signalling pathway. Our results suggest that the inhibition effect on monocytes/macrophages mediates the immunosuppressive function of α-MMC. Due to the selective cytotoxicity and cytokine release regulation of α-MMC in monocytes/macrophages, α-MMC may be used for killing Tumour-Associated Macrophages (M2 subtypes) or inhibiting their cytokine release in the tumour microenvironment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/metabolismo , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Monócitos/imunologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células THP-1 , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 22, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) minor criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are of unequal weight in predicting mortality, but the major problem associated with IDSA/ATS minor criteria might be a lack of consideration of weight in prediction in clinical practice. Would awarding different points to the presences of the minor criteria improve the accuracy of the scoring system? It is warranted to explore this intriguing hypothesis. METHODS: A total of 1230 CAP patients were recruited to a retrospective cohort study. This was tested against a prospective two-center cohort of 1749 adults with CAP. 2 points were assigned for the presence of PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 250 mmHg, confusion, or uremia on admission and 1 point for each of the others. RESULTS: The mortality rates, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores increased significantly with the numbers of IDSA/ATS minor criteria present and minor criteria scores. The correlations of the minor criteria scores with the mortality rates were higher than those of the numbers of IDSA/ATS minor criteria present. As were the correlations of the minor criteria scores with SOFA and PSI scores, compared with the numbers of IDSA/ATS minor criteria present. The pattern of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and Youden's index of scored minor criteria of ≥2 scores or the presence of 2 or more IDSA/ATS minor criteria for prediction of mortality was the best in the retrospective cohort, and the former was better than the latter. The validation cohort confirmed a similar pattern. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of scored minor criteria was higher than that of IDSA/ATS minor criteria in the retrospective cohort, implying higher accuracy of scored version for predicting mortality. The validation cohort confirmed a similar paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: Scored minor criteria orchestrated improvements in predicting mortality and severity in patients with CAP, and scored minor criteria of ≥2 scores or the presence of 2 or more IDSA/ATS minor criteria might be more valuable cut-off value for severe CAP, which might have implications for more accurate clinical triage decisions.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Estudos de Coortes , Confusão/etiologia , Confusão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Oxigênio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Padrões de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uremia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888067

RESUMO

Two new carbazole alkaloids (1,2) and six known carbazole alkaloids (3-8) were isolated from Clausena anisum-olens. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds (1-8) were evaluated for their anti-HIV effects on virus replication in MT-4 lymphocytes infected by HIV-1NL4-3 Nanoluc-sec virus, and new carbazole alkaloid 1 exhibited anti-HIV activity with an EC50 value of 2.4 µg/mL and SI of 7.1.

7.
Am J Med Sci ; 356(4): 329-334, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Infectious Disease Society of America/the American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) minor criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are of unequal weight in predicting mortality. It is unclear whether the patients with non-severe CAP meeting the minor criteria most strongly associated to mortality should have the priority for treatment and intensive care. It is warranted to explore this intriguing hypothesis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1230 patients with CAP was performed. This was tested against a prospective 2-center cohort of 1749 adults with CAP. RESULTS: The patients with CAP fulfilling the predictive findings most strongly associated to mortality, i.e. PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 250 mm Hg, confusion, and uremia, showed higher mortality rates than those not fulfilling the predictive findings in subgroup analyses of the retrospective cohort. The more the number of predictive findings present, the higher the mortality rates. The prospective cohort confirmed a similar pattern. Interestingly, the patients with non-severe CAP meeting the predictive findings demonstrated unexpectedly higher mortality rates compared with the patients with severe CAP not meeting the predictive findings in the prospective cohort (P = 0.003), although there only existed death of an uptrend in the retrospective cohort. Two similar and intriguing paradigms about sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores were confirmed in the 2 cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with non-severe CAP fulfilling the predictive findings most strongly associated to mortality demonstrated higher SOFA and PSI scores and mortality rates, and might have the priority for treatment and intensive care.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 43(7): 406-13, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Shenmen" (HT 7) - "Tongli" (HT 5) segment of the Heart Meridian on neuronal electrical activities of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in rats with myocardial ischemia (MI), so as to investigate its possible mechanism underlying improvement of MI. METHODS: Thirty-two SD rats were randomly divided into sham control, model, HT 7-HT 5 and "Taiyuan" (LU 9)- "Lieque" (LU 7) groups (n=8 in each group). EA preconditioning (2 Hz, 1 V, 20 min) was applied to bilateral HT 7-HT 5 and bilateral LU 9-LU 7, respectively, once everyday for 7 days. The electrical activities of the right PVN region were recorded by the implanted microelectrode array(2×4)and Plexon multi-channel acquisition system. Cluster analysis of neuronal signals was carried out by Offline Sorter software. The discharge waveforms, autocorrelation and cross-correlation of neuronal activities were analyzed by using Neuro Explorer software. RESULTS: Cluster analysis of neuronal signals showed that 2, 2, 1 and 1 interneuron in the sham, model, HT 7-HT 5, and LU 9-LU 7 groups, and 3 pyramidal neurons in the HT 7-HT 5 were acquired. Cross correlation analysis showed that the SPK 02 a and SPK 02 b neurons of the HT 7-HT 5 group had an inhibitory relationship. The total discharge frequency was significantly increased in the model group relevant to the sham group (P<0.01), and was markedly lower in the HT 7-HT 5 group than in the model group and LU 9-LU 7 group (P<0.01). Real-time spectrum analysis showed that the local field potential spectrum energy of the HT 7-HT 5 group was significantly lower than that of the model group and the LU 9-LU 7 group. CONCLUSION: EA of HT 7-HT 5 segment of the Heart Meridian can inhibit the electrical activity of interneuron and activate the electrical activity of pyramidal neuron in PVN region, and an inhibitory relationship exists between the interneuron and pyramidal neuron in MI rats, which may be a mechanism of EA in regulating activities of the ischemic heart.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Meridianos , Isquemia Miocárdica , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Hipotálamo , Neurônios , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Neural Regen Res ; 13(9): 1609-1618, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127122

RESUMO

The hippocampus is involved in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, together with the hypothalamus and brainstem nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus and nucleus tractus solitarius. The vagus nerve-nucleus tractus solitarius pathway has an important role in cardiovascular reflex regulation. Myocardial ischemia has been shown to cause changes in the autonomic nervous system, affecting the dynamic equilibrium of the sympathetic and vagal nerves. However, it remains poorly understood how the hippocampus communicates with brainstem nuclei to regulate the autonomic nervous system and alleviate myocardial ischemic tissue damage. A rat model of acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) was made by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Three days before ischemia, the hippocampal CA1 region was damaged. Then, 3 days after ischemia, electroacupuncture (EA) at Shenmen (HT7)-Tongli (HT5) was performed (continuous wave, 1 mA, 2 Hz, duration of 30 minutes). Cluster analysis of firing patterns showed that one type of neuron was found in rats in the sham and AMI groups. Three types of neurons were observed in the AMI + EA group. Six types of neurons were found in the AMI + EA + Lesion group. Correlation analysis showed that the frequency of vagus nerve discharge in each group was negatively correlated with heart rate (HR) (P < 0.05, r = -0.424), and positively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P < 0.05, r = 0.40987) and the rate-pressure product (RPP) (P < 0.05, r = 0.4252). The total frequency of the nucleus tractus solitarius discharge in each group was positively correlated with vagus nerve discharge (P < 0.01, r = 0.7021), but not with hemodynamic index (HR: P > 0.05, r = -0.03263; MAP: P > 0.05, r = -0.08993; RPP: P > 0.05, r = -0.03263). Some neurons (Neuron C) were negatively correlated with vagus nerve discharge, HR, MAP and RPP in the AMI + EA group (vagus nerve discharge: P < 0.05, r = -0.87749; HR: P < 0.01, r = -0.91902; MAP: P < 0.05, r = -0.85691; RPP: P < 0.01, r = -0.91902). Some neurons (Neurons C, D and E) were positively correlated with vagus nerve discharge, HR, MAP and RPP in the AMI + EA + Lesion group (vagus nerve discharge: P < 0.01, r = 0.8905, P < 0.01, r = 0.9725, P < 0.01, r = 0.9054; HR: P < 0.01, r = 0.9347, P < 0.01, r = 0.9089, P < 0.05, r = 0.8247; MAP: P < 0.05, r = 0.8474, P < 0.01, r = 0.9691, P < 0.01, r = 0.9027; RPP: P < 0.05, r = 0.8637, P < 0.01, r = 0.9407, P < 0.01, r = 0.9027). These findings show that the hippocampus-nucleus tractus solitarius-vagus nerve pathway is involved in the cardioprotective effect of EA at the heart meridian. Some interneurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius may play a particularly important role in the cardiomodulatory process.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507590

RESUMO

We investigated the hippocampus-paraventricular nucleus- (PVN-) sympathetic nerve pathway in electroacupuncture (EA) at the heart meridian for the treatment of myocardial ischemia by observing PVN neuronal discharge, sympathetic nerve discharge, and hemodynamics parameters. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Model + EA, and Model + EA + Lesion. The model rat was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Changes in the sympathetic nerve discharge and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The Model + EA exhibited a significantly lower discharge frequency of PVN neurons compared with the Model. The Model + EA + Lesion had a significantly higher discharge frequency compared with the Model + EA. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons and interneurons were positively correlated with the sympathetic nerve discharge. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons was positively correlated with heart rate (HR) and negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) and rate pressure product (RPP). The discharge frequency of interneurons was positively correlated with HR and negatively correlated with MAP and RPP. The hippocampus-PVN-sympathetic nerve pathway is involved in electroacupuncture at the heart meridian and interneurons are the key neurons in PVNs.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 218: 45-50, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454914

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chong-lou (Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis or P. polyphylla var. chinensis) is traditionally used as an anticancer medicine in China. It is also the material basis of some Chinese patent anticancer medicines, such as Gan-Fu-Le capsules, Bo-Er-Ning capsules, Lou-Lian capsules, Ruan-Jian oral liquid, and Qi-Zhen capsules. P. forrestii, a substitute for Chong-lou, is planted at a large scale in the Yunnan Province of China. AIM OF THE STUDY: To clarify the active chemical constituents of P. forrestii and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of the total saponins from P. forrestii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total saponins of P. forrestii were extracted and separated to yield pure compounds by chromatographic techniques, and the structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The cytotoxicity of the crude extracts, total saponins, and chemical constituents were evaluated using an MTS assay. In vivo antitumor activities of the total saponins from P. forrestii were measured using H22 tumor-bearing mice by intraperitoneal (ip) administration. RESULTS: Eight compounds, including polyphyllin D (1), formosanin C (2), dioscin (3), diosgenin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (4), paris saponin H (5), pennogenin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (6), pariposide A (7), and crustecdysone (8), were isolated from the total saponins of P. forrestii. The total saponins and compounds 1-6 showed significant inhibitory activity against the growth of the HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 cell lines. The total saponins from P. forrestii had a tumor-inhibitory effect in H22 tumor-bearing mice upon ip (2.25 mg/kg dose) administration, with an inhibition rate of 42.6% compared with cisplatin (ip, 2 mg/kg dose, 53.9% inhibition rate). CONCLUSION: The results support that P. forrestii could be a substitute for P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis as an anticancer medicine.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Melanthiaceae , Saponinas , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Rizoma , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 85, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311663

RESUMO

Type I interferons (IFN), best known for their anti-viral functions, have been shown to impair host resistance to intracellular bacteria in mice. However, the precise role of type I IFN signaling in bacterial infection in humans is unclear. Here, we show that genetic variation in the human IFNAR1 gene is associated with decreased susceptibility to tuberculosis and an increased risk of viral hepatitis in Chinese populations. Receptor mutagenesis and cell signaling studies establish that the IFNAR1 mutation corresponding to a proline deletion in the hinge region of the membrane-proximal domain of IFNAR1 decreases the binding affinity of IFNAR1 to IFN-ß, impeding type I IFN signaling. Our findings suggest that IFNAR1 signaling underlies an increased risk of tuberculosis in humans and reveals a function for the IFNAR1 inter-domain region in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signal transduction.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , China/epidemiologia , Células HEK293 , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon beta/sangue , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia
13.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 73(5): 322-329, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28796581

RESUMO

This study was conducted to analyze the effects of health promotion efforts in relation to a workplace accreditation program and differing workplace sizes. The research population for the study consisted of 966 employees working at a total of 84 different worksites located in Taipei, Taiwan. The survey instructions used were developed by the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (WHP). The results indicate that accredited workplaces have better WHP quality than nonaccredited workplaces (p < .001) and commonly implement health promotion measures related to specific health issues. It is recommended that the government provide more health-related resources in workplaces, especially those of small and medium companies.


Assuntos
Acreditação/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 23: 837-851, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28930575

RESUMO

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is an IgA-mediated disorder that most commonly occurs in children. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown. In recent years, numerous studies have pointed to a dysfunction of T cells in the pathogenesis of HSP. Here, we will review the epidemiology, clinical and molecular characteristics of HSP, as well as abnormalities of Th cell subsets in this disorder. Finally, we will discuss the key factors that are involved in Th cell differentiation as potential novel targets for the prevention and treatment of HSP.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Opt Express ; 25(22): 26875-26884, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092171

RESUMO

We demonstrated a cavity-dumped burst-mode 1.06 µm side-pumped Nd:YAG laser and its dual-stage dual-pass amplified laser performance. The cavity dumping process has been theoretically studied and the output performance has been experimentally investigated. At the pumping duration of 2 ms and pumping frequency of 10 Hz, burst energy, peak power and pulse width of the amplified laser reached 1.89 J, 2.87 MW and 3.1 ± 0.3 ns, respectively, at the Q-switch repetition rate of 100 kHz. The maximum energy extraction efficiency reaches to 30%.

16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(7): 642-648, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the employers' and promoters' perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. METHODS: We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. RESULTS: In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P < 0.001) of all criteria. The small-medium accredited workplace employers had a slightly higher perspective than non-accredited ones. Nevertheless, there were no differences between the perspectives of health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It seems that employers' perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small-medium workplaces.


Assuntos
Atitude , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas , Acreditação , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Desenvolvimento de Programas/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Empresa de Pequeno Porte , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(21): 17500-17510, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593548

RESUMO

Airborne carbonyls were characterized from emitted indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. Eleven of 19 types of samples (58%) demonstrated formaldehyde concentrations higher than the World Health Organization exposure limit (a 30-min average of 100 µg m-3). Different positive significant correlations between glyoxal/methylglyoxal and formaldehyde/acetaldehyde concentrations were observed, suggesting possible different characteristics in emissions between two pairs of carbonyl compounds. A sample in the highest inhalation risk shows 29.2 times higher risk than the lowest sample, suggesting different coal sampling locations could contribute to the variation of inhalation risk. Inhabitants in Xuanwei also tend to spend more time cooking and more days per year indoors than the national average. The calculated cancer risk ranged from 2.2-63 × 10-5, which shows 13 types of samples at high-risk level. Cumulative effect in combination with different carbonyls could have contributed to the additive actual inhalation cancer risk. There is a need to explicitly address the health effects of environmentally relevant doses, considering life-long exposure in indoor dwellings.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Formaldeído , China , Carvão Mineral , Gases , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Medição de Risco
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27828002

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre-test knowledge scores on universal precautions were relatively high. Correct answers about universal precautions improved significantly from pre-test (83.71%) to post-test (89.58%; χ² = 25.00, p = 0.00). After the intervention, nurses' attitude scores improved significantly from pre-test (3.80 ± 0.79) to post-test (4.06 ± 0.75; t = 3.74, p = 0.00). Conclusions: Integrated educational interventions enhance nurses' knowledge of risk reduction for occupationally acquired HIV infections and improve the observance of universal precautionary procedures. This enhancement allows nurses to assume a teaching role for prevention and management of HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/enfermagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/educação , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/enfermagem , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Educação em Enfermagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Precauções Universais
20.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 41(6): 515-20, 2016 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071894

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of the Heart Meridian on electrical activities of neck sympathetic and vagal nerves in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats. METHODS: Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, sham operation (sham), model and EA(n=10 rats in each group). The left anterior descending branch (LADB) of the coronary artery was occluded to make an acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) model.For rats of the sham group, a surgical suture was simply threaded beneath the LADB without ligation. EA stimulation (2 Hz, 1 mA)was applied to bilateral "Shenmen" (HT 7), "Tongli" (HT 5) and the middle-point between HT 7 and HT 5 for 20 min. The electrical activities of the left cervical sympathetic and vagal nerves were recorded using a bipolar platinum wire electrodes and a BIOPAC MPl 50 system, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) of the standard limb lead Ⅱ was recorded simultaneously. The AMI severity was evaluated by using J-spot height of ECG. RESULTS: After AMI, the heart rate (HR), J-spot of ECG, and the discharge frequency of the cervical sympathetic nerve were significantly increased in the model group compared with the sham group (P<0.01), while the discharge frequency of vagal nerve was obviously decreased (P<0.01). Following EA stimulation, the increased levels of HR, J-spot height and discharge frequency of sympathetic nerve, and the decreased discharge frequency of vagus were significantly suppressed at time-points of 1, 3, 5 and 15 min after EA (P<0.01). In addition, the ratio of discharge frequencies of vagal/sympathetic nerves was notably down-regulated after AMI (P<0.01). After EA stimulation, the ratios of vagal/sympathetic discharge at the time-points of 1, 3, 5 and 15 min following EA were significantly increased (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: EA stimulation of the Heart Meridian may improve AMI by inhibiting sympathetic discharges and elevating vagal discharges in AMI rats, i.e., coordinating activities of the autonomic nerve systems.


Assuntos
Vias Autônomas/fisiopatologia , Eletroacupuntura , Meridianos , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Doença Aguda/terapia , Animais , Coração/inervação , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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