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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245276

RESUMO

Vascular plant one-zinc-finger (VOZ) transcription factor, a plant specific one-zinc-finger-type transcriptional activator, is involved in regulating numerous biological processes such as floral induction and development, defense against pathogens, and response to multiple types of abiotic stress. Six VOZ transcription factor-encoding genes (GmVOZs) have been reported to exist in the soybean (Glycine max) genome. In spite of this, little information is currently available regarding GmVOZs. In this study, GmVOZs were cloned and characterized. GmVOZ genes encode proteins possessing transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. GmVOZ1E, GmVOZ2B, and GmVOZ2D gene products were widely dispersed in the cytosol, while GmVOZ1G was primarily located in the nucleus. GmVOZs displayed a differential expression profile under dehydration, salt, and salicylic acid (SA) stress conditions. Among them, GmVOZ1G showed a significantly induced expression in response to all stress treatments. Overexpression of GmVOZ1G in soybean hairy roots resulted in a greater tolerance to drought and salt stress. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) soybean hairy roots suppressing GmVOZ1G were more sensitive to both of these stresses. Under drought treatment, soybean composite plants with an overexpression of hairy roots had higher relative water content (RWC). In response to drought and salt stress, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were observed in soybean composite seedlings with an overexpression of hairy roots. The opposite results for each physiological parameter were obtained in RNAi lines. In conclusion, GmVOZ1G positively regulates drought and salt stress tolerance in soybean hairy roots. Our results will be valuable for the functional characterization of soybean VOZ transcription factors under abiotic stress.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 123, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crop productivity is challenged by abiotic stresses, among which drought stress is the most common. NF-Y genes, especially NF-YA genes, regulate tolerance to abiotic stress. RESULTS: Soybean NF-Y gene GmNFYA5 was identified to have the highest transcript level among all 21 NF-YA genes in soybean (Glycine max L.) under drought stress. Drought-induced transcript of GmNFYA5 was suppressed by the ABA synthesis inhibitor naproxen (NAP). GmNFYA5 transcript was detected in various tissues at vegetative and reproductive growth stages with higher levels in roots and leaves than in other tissues, which was consist with the GmNFYA5 promoter: GUS fusion assay. Overexpression of GmNFYA5 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants caused enhanced drought tolerance in seedlings by decreasing stomatal aperture and water loss from leaves. Overexpression and suppression of GmNFYA5 in soybean resulted in increased and decreased drought tolerance, respectively, relative to plants with an empty vector (EV). Transcript levels of ABA-dependent genes (ABI2, ABI3, NCED3, LEA3, RD29A, P5CS1, GmWRKY46, GmNCED2 and GmbZIP1) and ABA-independent genes (DREB1A, DREB2A, DREB2B, GmDREB1, GmDREB2 and GmDREB3) in transgenic plants overexpressing GmNFYA5 were higher than those of wild-type plants under drought stress; suppression of GmNFYA5 transcript produced opposite results. GmNFYA5 probably regulated the transcript abundance of GmDREB2 and GmbZIP1 by binding to the promoters in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that overexpression of GmNFYA5 improved drought tolerance in soybean via both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968543

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salt, are major environmental stresses, affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Plant bZIP transcription factors (bZIPs) confer stress resistances in harsh environments and play important roles in each phase of plant growth processes. In this research, 15 soybean bZIP family members were identified from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of soybean, which were unevenly distributed across 12 soybean chromosomes. Promoter analysis showed that these 15 genes were rich in ABRE, MYB and MYC cis-acting elements which were reported to be involved in abiotic stress responses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that 15 GmbZIP genes could be induced by drought and salt stress. GmbZIP2 was significantly upregulated under stress conditions and thus was selected for further study. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the GmbZIP2 protein was located in the cell nucleus. qRT-PCR results show that GmbZIP2 can be induced by multiple stresses. The overexpression of GmbZIP2 in Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots could improve plant resistance to drought and salt stresses. The result of differential expression gene analysis shows that the overexpression of GmbZIP2 in soybean hairy roots could enhance the expression of the stress responsive genes GmMYB48, GmWD40, GmDHN15, GmGST1 and GmLEA. These results indicate that soybean bZIPs played pivotal roles in plant resistance to abiotic stresses.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1453, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803204

RESUMO

Stress associated proteins (SAPs) containing A20/AN1 zinc finger domains have emerged as novel regulators of stress responses. In this study, 27 SAP genes were identified in soybean. The phylogenetic relationships, exon-intron structure, domain structure, chromosomal localization, putative cis-acting elements, and expression patterns of SAPs in various tissues under abiotic stresses were analyzed. Among the soybean SAP genes, GmSAP16 was significantly induced by water deficit stress, salt, and abscisic acid (ABA) and selected for further analysis. GmSAP16 was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The overexpression of GmSAP16 in Arabidopsis improved drought and salt tolerance at different developmental stages and increased ABA sensitivity, as indicated by delayed seed germination and stomatal closure. The GmSAP16 transgenic Arabidopsis plants had a higher proline content and a lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) content than wild type (WT) plants in response to stresses. The overexpression of GmSAP16 in soybean hairy roots enhanced drought and salt tolerance of soybean seedlings, with higher proline and chlorophyll contents and a lower MDA content than WT. RNA inference (RNAi) of GmSAP16 increased stress sensitivity. Stress-related genes, including GmDREB1B;1, GmNCED3, GmRD22, GmDREB2, GmNHX1, and GmSOS1, showed significant expression alterations in GmSAP16-overexpressing and RNAi plants under stress treatments. These results indicate that soybean SAP genes play important roles in abiotic stress responses.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775269

RESUMO

Plants have a series of response mechanisms to adapt when they are subjected to external stress. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in plants function against a variety of abiotic stresses. We screened 17 CDPKs from drought- and salt-induced soybean transcriptome sequences. The phylogenetic tree divided CDPKs of rice, Arabidopsis and soybean into five groups (I-V). Cis-acting element analysis showed that the 17 CDPKs contained some elements associated with drought and salt stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the 17 CDPKs were responsive after different degrees of induction under drought and salt stresses. GmCDPK3 was selected as a further research target due to its high relative expression. The subcellular localization experiment showed that GmCDPK3 was located on the membrane of Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Overexpression of GmCDPK3 improved drought and salt resistance in Arabidopsis. In the soybean hairy roots experiment, the leaves of GmCDPK3 hairy roots with RNA interference (GmCDPK3-RNAi) soybean lines were more wilted than those of GmCDPK3 overexpression (GmCDPK3-OE) soybean lines after drought and salt stresses. The trypan blue staining experiment further confirmed that cell membrane damage of GmCDPK3-RNAi soybean leaves was more severe than in GmCDPK3-OE soybean lines. In addition, proline (Pro) and chlorophyll contents were increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was decreased in GmCDPK3-OE soybean lines. On the contrary, GmCDPK3-RNAi soybean lines had decreased Pro and chlorophyll content and increased MDA. The results indicate that GmCDPK3 is essential in resisting drought and salt stresses.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726763

RESUMO

Pentatricopeptide-repeat (PPR) proteins were identified as a type of nucleus coding protein that is composed of multiple tandem repeats. It has been reported that PPR genes play an important role in RNA editing, plant growth and development, and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the functions of PPR proteins remain largely unknown in soybean. In this study, 179 DYW subgroup PPR genes were identified in soybean genome (Glycine max Wm82.a2.v1). Chromosomal location analysis indicated that DYW subgroup PPR genes were mapped to all 20 chromosomes. Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that DYW subgroup PPR genes were categorized into three distinct Clusters (I to III). Gene structure analysis showed that most PPR genes were featured by a lack of intron. Gene duplication analysis demonstrated 30 PPR genes (15 pairs; ~35.7%) were segmentally duplicated among Cluster I PPR genes. Furthermore, we validated the mRNA expression of three genes that were highly up-regulated in soybean drought- and salt-induced transcriptome database and found that the expression levels of GmPPR4 were induced under salt and drought stresses. Under drought stress condition, GmPPR4-overexpressing (GmPPR4-OE) plants showed delayed leaf rolling; higher content of proline (Pro); and lower contents of H2O2, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with the empty vector (EV)-control plants. GmPPR4-OE plants exhibited increased transcripts of several drought-inducible genes compared with EV-control plants. Our results provided a comprehensive analysis of the DYW subgroup PPR genes and an insight for improving the drought tolerance in soybean.

7.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156656

RESUMO

The TGA transcription factors, a subfamily of bZIP group D, play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of growth and development as well as responses to pathogens and abiotic stress. In this study, 27 TGA genes were identified in the soybean genome. The expression patterns of GmTGA genes showed that several GmTGA genes are differentially expressed under drought and salt stress conditions. Among them, GmTGA17 was strongly induced by both stress, which were verificated by the promoter-GUS fusion assay. GmTGA17 encodes a nuclear-localized protein with transcriptional activation activity. Heterologous and homologous overexpression of GmTGA17 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in both transgeinc Arabidopsis plants and soybean hairy roots. However, RNAi hairy roots silenced for GmTGA17 exhibited an increased sensitivity to drought and salt stress. In response to drought or salt stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants had an increased chlorophyll and proline contents, a higher ABA content, a decreased MDA content, a reduced water loss rate, and an altered expression of ABA- responsive marker genes compared with WT plants. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were more sensitive to ABA in stomatal closure. Similarly, measurement of physiological parameters showed an increase in chlorophyll and proline contents, with a decrease in MDA content in soybean seedlings with overexpression hairy roots after drought and salt stress treatments. The opposite results for each measurement were observed in RNAi lines. This study provides new insights for functional analysis of soybean TGA transcription factors in abiotic stress.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248195

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates that elongation factor 1α (EF1α) is involved in responses to various abiotic stresses in several plant species. Soybean EF1α proteins include three structural domains: one GTP-binding domain and two oligonucleotide binding domains that are also called as domain 2 and domain 3. In this study, 10 EF1α genes were identified in the soybean genome. We predicted structures of different domains and analyzed gene locations, gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, various cis-elements, and conserved domains of soybean EF1αs. The expression patterns of 10 EF1α genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Under drought stress, soybean EF1α genes were upregulated in varying degrees. In particular, GmEF4 was upregulated under drought and salt treatments. Compared to the drought- and salt-treated empty vector (EV)-control plants, drought- and salt-treated GmEF4-overexpressing (OE) plants had significantly delayed leaf wilting, longer root, higher biomass, higher proline (Pro) content, and lower H2O2, O2-, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Thus, this study provides a foundation for further functional genomics research about this important family under abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Tolerância ao Sal , Soja/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Elementos de Resposta , Soja/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/química , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875867

RESUMO

LIM proteins have been found to play important roles in many life activities, including the regulation of gene expression, construction of the cytoskeleton, signal transduction and metabolic regulation. Because of their important roles in many aspects of plant development, LIM genes have been studied in many plant species. However, the LIM gene family has not yet been characterized in foxtail millet. In this study, we analyzed the whole genome of foxtail millet and identified 10 LIM genes. All LIM gene promoters contain MYB and MYC cis-acting elements that are related to drought stress. Based on the presence of multiple abiotic stress-related cis-elements in the promoter of SiWLIM2b, we chose this gene for further study. We analyzed SiWLIM2b expression under abiotic stress and hormone treatments using qRT-PCR. We found that SiWLIM2b was induced by various abiotic stresses and hormones. Under drought conditions, transgenic rice of SiWLIM2b-overexpression had a higher survival rate, higher relative water content and less cell damage than wild type (WT) rice. These results indicate that overexpression of the foxtail millet SiWLIM2b gene enhances drought tolerance in transgenic rice, and the SiWLIM2b gene can potentially be used for molecular breeding of crops with increased resistance to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Setaria (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Setaria (Planta)/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717398

RESUMO

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is involved in many developmental processes and responses to various abiotic stresses in plants. Most of the studies on melatonin focus on its functions and physiological responses in plants, while its regulation mechanism remains unknown. Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functions at a key step of the biosynthesis process of melatonin. In this study, a COMT-like gene, TaCOMT (Traes_1AL_D9035D5E0.1) was identified in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Transient transformation in wheat protoplasts determined that TaCOMT is localized in cytoplasm. TaCOMT in wheat was induced by drought stress, gibberellin (GA)3 and 3-Indoleacetic acid (IAA), but not by ABA. In TaCOMT transgenic Arabidopsis, melatonin contents were higher than that in wild type (WT) plants. Under D-Mannitol treatment, the fresh weight of the transgenic Arabidopsis was significantly higher than WT, and transgenic lines had a stronger root system compared to WT. Drought tolerance assays in pots showed that the survival rate of TaCOMT-overexpression lines was significantly higher than that of WT lines. this phenotype was similar to that the WT lines treated with melatonin under drought condition. In addition, the TaCOMT transgenic lines had higher proline content and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to WT lines after drought treatment. These results indicated that overexpression of the wheat TaCOMT gene enhances drought tolerance and increases the content of melatonin in transgenic Arabidopsis. It could be one of the potential genes for agricultural applications.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Expressão Gênica , Melatonina/biossíntese , Proteínas Sensíveis a N-Etilmaleimida/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Sensíveis a N-Etilmaleimida/química , Proteínas Sensíveis a N-Etilmaleimida/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562982

RESUMO

WRKYs are important regulators in plant development and stress responses. However, knowledge of this superfamily in soybean is limited. In this study, we characterized the drought- and salt-induced gene GmWRKY12 based on RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR. GmWRKY12, which is 714 bp in length, encoded 237 amino acids and grouped into WRKY II. The promoter region of GmWRKY12 included ABER4, MYB, MYC, GT-1, W-box and DPBF cis-elements, which possibly participate in abscisic acid (ABA), drought and salt stress responses. GmWRKY12 was minimally expressed in different tissues under normal conditions but highly expressed under drought and salt treatments. As a nucleus protein, GmWRKY12 was responsive to drought, salt, ABA and salicylic acid (SA) stresses. Using a transgenic hairy root assay, we further characterized the roles of GmWRKY12 in abiotic stress tolerance. Compared with control (Williams 82), overexpression of GmWRKY12 enhanced drought and salt tolerance, increased proline (Pro) content and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content under drought and salt treatment in transgenic soybean seedlings. These results may provide a basis to understand the functions of GmWRKY12 in abiotic stress responses in soybean.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Desidratação , Plântula/genética , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 320, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiotic stress severely influences plant growth and development. MYB transcription factors (TFs), which compose one of the largest TF families, play an important role in abiotic stress responses. RESULT: We identified 139 soybean MYB-related genes; these genes were divided into six groups based on their conserved domain and were distributed among 20 chromosomes (Chrs). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that GmMYB118 highly responsive to drought, salt and high temperature stress; thus, this gene was selected for further analysis. Subcellular localization revealed that the GmMYB118 protein located in the nucleus. Ectopic expression (EX) of GmMYB118 increased tolerance to drought and salt stress and regulated the expression of several stress-associated genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Similarly, GmMYB118-overexpressing (OE) soybean plants generated via Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A. rhizogenes)-mediated transformation of the hairy roots showed improved drought and salt tolerance. Furthermore, compared with the control (CK) plants, the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-transformed plants exhibited reduced drought and salt tolerance. The contents of proline and chlorophyll in the OE plants were significantly greater than those in the CK plants, whose contents were greater than those in the CRISPR plants under drought and salt stress conditions. In contrast, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly lower in the OE plants than in the CK plants, whose contents were lower than those in the CRISPR plants under stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that GmMYB118 could improve tolerance to drought and salt stress by promoting expression of stress-associated genes and regulating osmotic and oxidizing substances to maintain cell homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estresse Salino , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 259, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat stress is a severe environmental stress that affects plant growth and reduces yield. Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a cytoprotective protein that is involved in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BI-1 mutants atbi1-1 and atbi1-2 are hypersensitive to heat stress, and AtBI-1 overexpression rescues thermotolerance deficiency in atbi1 plants. Nevertheless, the mechanism of BI-1 in plant thermotolerance is still unclear. RESULTS: We identified a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) BI-1 gene, TaBI-1.1, which was highly upregulated in an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of heat-treated wheat. The upregulation of TaBI-1.1 under heat stress was further demonstrated by real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and ß-glucuronidase (GUS) staining. Compared with the wild type Col-0, the atbi1-2 mutant is hypersensitive to heat stress, and constitutive expression of TaBI-1.1 in atbi1-2 (35S::TaBI-1.1/ atbi1-2) rescued the deficiency of atbi1-2 under heat stress. Furthermore, we identified TaFKBP62 as a TaBI-1.1-interacting protein that co-localized with TaBI-1.1 on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and enhanced heat stress tolerance. Additionally, HSFA2, HSFB1, ROF1, HSP17.4B, HSP17.6A, HSP17.8, HSP70B, and HSP90.1 expression levels were suppressed in atbi1-2 plants under heat stress. In contrast, 35S::TaBI-1.1/atbi1-2 relieved the inhibitory effect of AtBI-1 loss of function. CONCLUSIONS: TaBI-1.1 interacted with TaFKBP62 and co-localized with TaFKBP62 on the ER membrane. Both TaBI-1.1 and AtBI-1 regulated the expression of heat-responsive genes and were conserved in plant thermotolerance.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Triticum/genética , Regulação para Cima
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 651, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093908

RESUMO

Plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) were reported to play important roles in plant resistance to abiotic stress. Foxtail millet cultivation "H138" was used for RNA-seq analysis. The data from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of foxtail millet showed that CDPKs were up- or down-regulated by drought to different degrees. In this study, 29 foxtail millet CDPKs were classified into four subgroups. These genes were unevenly distributed on nine foxtail millet chromosomes, and chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 contained the most SiCDPK members. Analysis of putative cis-acting elements showed that most foxtail millet CDPK genes contained the ABRE, LTR, HSE, MYB, MYC, DRE, CGTCA-motif, and TGACG-motif cis-acting elements, which could be activated by abiotic stresses. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that 29 SiCDPK genes experienced different degrees of induction under drought and ABA stresses. SiCDPK24 had the highest expression levels at 6 and 12 h of drought treatment and was chosen for further analysis. SiCDPK24 localized to the cell membrane and the nucleus of Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Western blot analysis showed that SiCDPK24 protein had autophosphorylation activity. Overexpression of SiCDPK24 in Arabidopsis enhanced drought resistance and improved the survival rate under drought stress. It also activated the expressions of nine stress-related genes, namely RD29A, RD29B, RD22, KIN1, COR15, COR47, LEA14, CBF3/DREB1A, and DREB2A. These genes are involved in resistance to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. These results indicate that foxtail millet CDPK genes play important roles in resisting drought stress.

15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 29(7): 2269-2276, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039665

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to examine the differences of soil microbial diversity across different land use patterns in montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The relationships between soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial diversity in five different land use types, including Quercus mongolic forest, shrubland, Larix gmelinii plantation, Pinus koraiensis plantation, and Zea mays cropland were analyzed by Biolog-Eco method. The results showed that both soil total C and N contents were the highest in the Q. mongolica forest, which were 57.74 and 4.40 g·kg-1, followed by shrubland, but only 17.46 and 1.31 g·kg-1 in the Z. mays cropland, respectively. There were significant differences in microbial utilization rate of different land use types. The carbon utilization capacity by soil microbial communities was following the order of Q. mongolica forest > shrubland > L. gmelinii plantation > P. koraiensis plantation > Z. mays cropland, indicating that soil microbial metabolism and activity in Z. mays cropland were the lowest. The Shannon diversity index (2.997), Simpson diversity index (0.942) and McIntosh diversity index (5.256) of soil microbial community in the Z. mays cropland were significantly lower than those in other ecosystems. The average absorbance value (AWCD) was associated with Simpson diversity index and McIntosh diversity index. Esters, alcohols and amines were the primary carbon sources for the differentiation, which might be due to a joint action of many factors such as litter, soil nutrients, and specific soil microorganisms. The soil nutrient and soil microbial community diversity in forest land after reclamation sharply decreased, causing the loss of soil fertility and productivity. The region should keep the Q. mongolica forest, which could help restore soil fertility.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Carbono , China , Florestas , Solo
16.
Yi Chuan ; 40(4): 327-338, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704378

RESUMO

Myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants. They play an important role in plant development, defense response processes, and non-biological stresses, i.e., drought stress. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), originated in China, is resistant to drought and low nutrition stresses and has been regarded as an ideal material for studying abiotic stress resistance in monocotyledon. In this study, we ran a transcription profile analysis of zheng 204 under low-nitrogen conditions and identified a MYB-like transcription factor SiMYB42, which was up-regulated under low-nitrogen stress. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SiMYB42 belongs to R2R3-MYB subfamily and has two MYB conserved domains. Expression pattern analysis showed that SiMYB42 was significantly up-regulated under various stress conditions, including low-nitrogen stress, high salt, drought and ABA conditions. The results of subcellular localization, quantitative real-time PCR and transcriptional activation analysis indicated that SiMYB42 protein localizes to the nucleus and cell membrane of plant cells, mainly expressed in the leaf or root of foxtail millet, and has transcription activation activity. Functional analysis showed that there was no significant difference between transgenic SiMYB42 Arabidopsis and wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis under normal conditions; however, under low-nitrogen condition, the root length, surface area and seedling fresh weight in transgenic SiMYB42 Arabidopsis, were significantly higher than their counterparts in WT. These results suggest that SiMYB42 transgenic plants exhibit higher tolerance to low-nitrogen stress. Expression levels of nitrate transporters genes NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5, which are the transcriptional targets of SiMYB42, were higher in transgenic SiMYB42 Arabidopsis plants than those in WT; the promoter regions of NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 all have MYB binding sites. These results indicate that SiMYB42 might enhance foxtail millet tolerance to low-nitrogen condition through regulating the expression of nitrate transporter genes. This study reveals the possible functions of SiMYB42 in a low-nitrogen stress response pathway, and provides a foundation for further understanding the entire regulation network of foxtail millet in response to low-nitrogen stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/classificação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitrogênio/análise , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/classificação , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 20, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403525

RESUMO

Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident cell death suppressor evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. The ability of BI-1 to inhibit the biotic and abiotic stresses have been well-studied in Arabidopsis, while the functions of wheat BI-1 are largely unknown. In this study, the wheat BI-1 gene TaBI-1.1 was isolated by an RNA-seq analysis of Fusarium graminearum (Fg)-treated wheat. TaBI-1.1 expression was induced by a salicylic acid (SA) treatment and down-regulated by an abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Based on ß-glucuronidase (GUS) staining, TaBI-1.1 was expressed in mature leaves and roots but not in the hypocotyl or young leaves. Constitutive expression of TaBI-1.1 in Arabidopsis enhanced its resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection and induced SA-related gene expression. Additionally, TaBI-1.1 transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited an alleviation of damage caused by high concentrations of SA and decreased the sensitivity to ABA. Consistent with the phenotype, the RNA-seq analysis of 35S::TaBI-1.1 and Col-0 plants showed that TaBI-1.1 was involved in biotic stresses. These results suggested that TaBI-1.1 positively regulates SA signals and plays important roles in the response to biotic stresses. In addition, TaBI-1.1 interacted with the aquaporin TaPIP1, and both them were localized to ER membrane. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TaPIP1 was up-regulated by SA treatment and TaPIP1 transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to Pst DC3000 infection. Thus, the interaction between TaBI-1.1 and TaPIP1 on the ER membrane probably occurs in response to SA signals and defense response.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 905, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634481

RESUMO

Transcription factors play vital roles in plant growth and in plant responses to abiotic stresses. The RAV transcription factors contain a B3 DNA binding domain and/or an APETALA2 (AP2) DNA binding domain. Although genome-wide analyses of RAV family genes have been performed in several species, little is known about the family in soybean (Glycine max L.). In this study, a total of 13 RAV genes, named as GmRAVs, were identified in the soybean genome. We predicted and analyzed the amino acid compositions, phylogenetic relationships, and folding states of conserved domain sequences of soybean RAV transcription factors. These soybean RAV transcription factors were phylogenetically clustered into three classes based on their amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the soybean RAV proteins were located in the nucleus. The expression patterns of 13 RAV genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Under drought stresses, the RAV genes expressed diversely, up- or down-regulated. Following NaCl treatments, all RAV genes were down-regulated excepting GmRAV-03 which was up-regulated. Under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of all of the soybean RAV genes increased dramatically. These results suggested that the soybean RAV genes may be involved in diverse signaling pathways and may be responsive to abiotic stresses and exogenous ABA. Further analysis indicated that GmRAV-03 could increase the transgenic lines resistance to high salt and drought and result in the transgenic plants insensitive to exogenous ABA. This present study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the RAV transcription factors in soybean.

19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44050, 2017 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281578

RESUMO

Cold shock proteins (CSPs) enhance acclimatization of bacteria to adverse environmental circumstances. The Escherichia coli CSP genes CspA and CspB were modified to plant-preferred codon sequences and named as SeCspA and SeCspB. Overexpression of exogenous SeCspA and SeCspB in transgenic Arabidopsis lines increased germination rates, survival rates, and increased primary root length compared to control plants under drought and salt stress. Investigation of several stress-related parameters in SeCspA and SeCspB transgenic wheat lines indicated that these lines possessed stress tolerance characteristics, including lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lower water loss rates, lower relative Na+ content, and higher chlorophyll content and proline content than the control wheat plants under drought and salt stresses. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that overexpression of SeCsp could enhance the expression of stress-responsive genes. The field experiments showed that the SeCspA transgenic wheat lines had great increases in the 1000-grain weight and grain yield compared to the control genotype under drought stress conditions. Significant differences in the stress indices revealed that the SeCspA transgenic wheat lines possessed significant and stable improvements in drought tolerance over the control plants. No such improvement was observed for the SeCspB transgenic lines under field conditions. Our results indicated that SeCspA conferred drought tolerance and improved physiological traits in wheat plants.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Proteínas e Peptídeos de Choque Frio/genética , Secas , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Temperatura
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 27(7): 2197-2204, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737127

RESUMO

With secondary forest in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province as research object, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution and scale effect of Gleason richness index, Simpson dominance index, Shannon diversity index and Pielou evenness index in a 4 hm2 plot. The results showed that spatial distributions of the four diversity indices showed higher spatial heterogeneity. Variance of the four diversity indices varied with increasing scale. Coefficients of variation of the four diversity indices decreased with increasing scale. The four diversity indices of the tree layer were higher than those of the shrub layer, and the variation tendency varied with increasing scale. The results indicated that sampling scale should be taken into account when studying species diversity in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , China , Dispersão Vegetal , Análise Espacial , Árvores
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