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1.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

RESUMO

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Osteoartrite , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
2.
Rice (N Y) ; 15(1): 47, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068333

RESUMO

The initiation of flowering in cereals is a critical process influenced by environmental and endogenous signals. Flowering Locus T-like (FT-like) genes encode the main signals for flowering. Of the 13 FT-like genes in the rice genome, Hd3a/OsFTL2 and RFT1/OsFTL3 have been extensively studied and revealed to be critical for flowering. In this study, a rice FT-like gene, OsFTL4, was functionally characterized. Specifically, osftl4 mutants were generated using a CRISPR/Cas9 system. Compared with the wild-type control (Guangluai 4), the osftl4-1 and osftl4-2 mutants flowered 9.6 and 5.8 days earlier under natural long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Additionally, OsFTL4 was mainly expressed in the vascular tissue, with the resulting OsFTL4 protein localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, OsFTL4 was observed to compete with Hd3a for the interaction with multiple 14-3-3 proteins. An analysis of the effects of simulated drought stress suggested that silencing OsFTL4 enhances drought tolerance by decreasing stomatal conductance and water loss. These results indicate that OsFTL4 helps integrate the flowering process and the drought response in rice.

3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4261329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060650

RESUMO

Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is a common malignant skin cancer. Early diagnosis could effectively reduce SKCM patient's mortality to a large extent. We managed to construct a model to examine the prognosis of SKCM patients. The methylation-related data and clinical data of The Cancer Gene Atlas- (TCGA-) SKCM were downloaded from TCGA database. After preprocessing the methylation data, 21,861 prognosis-related methylated sites potentially associated with prognosis were obtained using the univariate Cox regression analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Afterward, unsupervised clustering was used to divide the patients into 4 clusters, and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to construct coexpression modules. By overlapping the CpG sites between the clusters and turquoise model, a prognostic model was established by LASSO Cox regression and multivariate Cox regression. It was found that 9 methylated sites included cg01447831, cg14845689, cg20895058, cg06506470, cg09558315, cg06373660, cg17737409, cg21577036, and cg22337438. After constructing the prognostic model, the performance of the model was validated by survival analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the independence of the model was verified by univariate and multivariate regression. It was represented that the prognostic model was reliable, and riskscore could be used as an independent prognostic factor in SKCM patients. At last, we combined clinical data and patient's riskscore to establish and testify the nomogram that could determine patient's prognosis. The results found that the reliability of the nomogram was relatively good. All in all, we constructed a prognostic model that could determine the prognosis of SKCM patients and screened 9 key methylated sites through analyzing data in TCGA-SKCM dataset. Finally, a prognostic nomogram was established combined with clinical diagnosed information and riskscore. The results are significant for improving the prognosis of SKCM patients in the future.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Metilação , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 3691-3710, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046839

RESUMO

Background: In recent years, using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) for tumor therapy attracted increasing attention because HANPs were found to selectively suppress the growth of tumor cells but exhibit ignorable toxicity to normal cells. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the capacities of HANPs with different morphologies and particle sizes against two kinds of osteosarcoma (OS) cells, human OS 143B cells and rat OS UMR106 cells. Methods: Six kinds of HANPs with different morphologies and particle sizes were prepared by wet chemical method. Then, the antitumor effect of these nanoparticles was characterized by means of in vitro cell experiments and in vivo tumor-bearing mice model. The underlying antitumor mechanism involving mitochondrial apoptosis was also investigated by analysis of intracellular calcium, expression of apoptosis-related genes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the endocytosis efficiency of the particles in tumor cells. Results: Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo mice model evaluation revealed the anti-OS performance of HANPs depended on the concentration, morphology, and particle size of the nanoparticles, as well as the OS cell lines. Among the six HANPs, rod-like HANPs (R-HANPs) showed the best inhibitory activity on 143B cells, while needle-like HANPs (N-HANPs) inhibited the growth of UMR106 cells most efficiently. We further demonstrated that HANPs induced mitochondrial apoptosis by selectively raising intracellular Ca2+ and the gene expression levels of mitochondrial apoptosis-related molecules, and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential in tumor cells but not in MC3T3-E1, a mouse pre-osteoblast line. Additionally, the anti-OS activity of HANPs also linked with the endocytosis efficiency of the particles in the tumor cells, and their ability to drive oxidative damage and immunogenic cell death (ICD). Conclusion: The current study provides an effective strategy for OS therapy where the effectiveness was associated with the particle morphology and cell line.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Nanopartículas , Osteossarcoma , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Durapatita/química , Durapatita/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos
5.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(9): 853-857, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082716

RESUMO

Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a group of B cells with negative immune regulation, which produce negative regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), transform growth factor ß (TGF- ß), or participate in immune regulation and inhibit inflammatory response by intercellular activities. B10 cells are a kind of Bregs that generates IL-10. In recent years, a large number of studies have reported that B10 cells are involved in the development of a variety of autoimmune diseases. Here, we make a systematic review of the origin and immune mechanism of B10 cells, their roles in autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and Sjogren's syndrome, etc.) and regulations, coupled with its applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.We also discussed the B10 cells as a potential method feasible for treating autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Autoimunes , Linfócitos B Reguladores , Citocinas , Humanos , Interleucina-10
6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 849, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endoprosthetic knee reconstruction using a current universal femoral stem might not be suitable for local population due to the anatomical difference between Chinese and Western populations. We measured the anatomical parameters of Chinese femurs as reference for stem design, and proposed a cementless, curved, short endoprosthesis stem for the reconstruction of distal femur. This study analyzed the biomechanical performance of the newly designed stem aimed at the identification of better operative strategy. METHODS: The CT-scanning data of femurs derived from 96 healthy Chinese volunteers were imported into the Mimics software, and a segmental measurement strategy was applied to evaluate the radius of curvature (ROC) of the femoral medullary cavity. Then, 4 kinds of endoprosthetic replacement models were created based on the measurement results. Model A: the distal tumor resected femora + straight stem A; Model B: the distal tumor resected femora + curved stem B; Model C: the distal tumor resected femora + curved stem C; Model D: the distal tumor resected femora + curved stem D. Finally, the mechanical difference among these models were compared by finite element analysis. RESULTS: The mean femoral ROC of Segment1, 2, 3, 4, 5 measured in the present study was 724.5 mm, 747.5 mm, 1016.5 mm, 1286.5 mm, and 1128 mm, respectively. Based on the femoral ROC of Segment2, the stem ROC of the curved stem B, C, and D was designed as 475 mm, 700 mm, and 1300 mm, respectively. Generally, all endoprosthetic replacement models showed a normal-like stress distribution on the femurs. However, compared to the straight stem, the biomimetic curved stem showed better biomechanical performance both in terms of reducing the extent of the stress shielding of the femur and in terms of minimizing the stress distribution of the implant. CONCLUSIONS: The uncemented, curved, short stem with suitable ROC can perfectly match the Chinese femoral canal morphology which has better mechanical properties than the conventional femoral stem. Thus, this newly designed femoral stem might be an optimized method for treatment of malignant femoral tumours in the Chinese populations in the case that the numerical results are supported by future experimental studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Femorais , Fêmur , China , Neoplasias Femorais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Femorais/cirurgia , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Desenho de Prótese
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 852, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip-preserved reconstruction for patients with ultrashort proximal femur segments following extensive femoral diaphyseal tumor resection is a formidable undertaking. A customized intercalary prosthesis with a rhino horn-designed uncemented stem was developed for the reconstruction of these extensive skeletal defects. METHODS: This study was designed to analyze and compare the differences in the biomechanical behavior between the normal femur and the femur with diaphyseal defects reconstructed by an intercalary prosthesis with different stems. The biomechanical behavior under physiological loading conditions is analyzed using the healthy femur as the reference. Five three-dimensional finite element models (healthy, customized intercalary prosthesis with four different stems implemented, respectively) were developed, together with a clinical follow-up of 12 patients who underwent intercalary femoral replacement. RESULTS: The biomechanical results showed that normal-like stress and displacement distribution patterns were observed in the remaining proximal femur segments after reconstructions with the rhino horn-designed uncemented stems, compared with the straight stem. Stem A showed better biomechanical performance, whereas the fixation system with Stem B was relatively unstable. The clinical results were consistent with the FEA results. After a mean follow-up period of 32.33 ± 9.12 months, osteointegration and satisfactory clinical outcomes were observed in all patients. Aseptic loosening (asymptomatic) occurred in one patient reconstructed by Stem B; there were no other postoperative complications in the remaining 11 patients. CONCLUSION: The rhino horn-designed uncemented stem is outstanding in precise shape matching and osseointegration. This novel prosthesis design may be beneficial in decreasing the risk of mechanical failure and aseptic loosening, especially when Stem A is used. Therefore, the customized intercalary prosthesis with this rhino horn-designed uncemented stem might be a reasonable alternative for the reconstruction of SSPF following extensive tumor resection.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Neoplasias , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Diáfises/cirurgia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Orthop Surg ; 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) arising from the popliteal fossa pose surgical challenges due to their proximity to critical neurovascular structures. This study aimed to investigate whether a novel 3D imaging technique highlighting these key anatomical structures could facilitate preoperative planning and improve surgical outcomes in STS. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, pilot study. Between November 2019 and December 2020, 27 patients with STS of the popliteal fossa undergoing limb-sparing procedures were enrolled and assigned to either a control or intervention group. Control patients underwent traditional preoperative planning with separate computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance hydrography. In the intervention group, 3D images were generated from these images, the tumor and skeletomuscular and neurovascular structures were revealed in three dimensions, and this was visualized on the surgeon's smartphone or computer. Primary endpoints were surgical margins and complications. Secondary endpoints included operative time, blood loss, serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, length of in-hospital stay, and limb function. Comparisons between groups were made using independent-sample t-tests for continuous data and the Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests for categorical data. RESULTS: There was a lower but not significantly different inadvertent positive margin rate (1/15 vs. 3/12, P = 0.294), significantly shorter hospital stay (P = 0.049), and less numbers ≥75th percentile of operative time (P = 0.037) and blood loss (P = 0.024) in the intervention group. Differences in surgical complications, operative time, blood loss, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels on the second postoperative day, and limb functional scores were statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: The novel 3D imaging technique facilitates complex preoperative planning and limb-salvage surgical procedures for patients with STS of the popliteal fossa, and this may affect how surgical planning is performed in the future.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129017

RESUMO

Correction for 'State-of-the-art advancements of atomically thin two-dimensional photocatalysts for energy conversion' by Wa Gao et al., Chem. Commun., 2022, 58, 9594-9613, https://doi.org/10.1039/D2CC02708A.

10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 113382, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116546

RESUMO

Beta-cypermethrin (ß-CYP) is a highly effective broad-spectrum insecticide that can potentially affect female reproduction. However, little is known about the effect of ß-CYP on uterine decidualisation, which is a vital process by which the uterus provides a suitable microenvironment for pregnancy maintenance. Therefore, we focused on the effect and mechanism of ß-CYP on endometrial decidualisation during early pregnancy in mice. The results indicated that the expression levels of HOXA10, BMP2, and IGFBP1 was significantly downregulated in the decidual tissue and primary endometrial stromal cells of pregnant and pseudopregnant mice following ß-CYP treatment. Serum E2 concentration was significantly increased, whereas P4 concentration and oestrogen receptor (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PRA) expression were significantly downregulated following ß-CYP exposure. The number of polyploid decidual cells was lower in the ß-CYP-treated group. Furthermore, ß-CYP significantly downregulated the protein expression levels of CDK4 and CDK6, and the mRNA expression levels of cyclin D3 and p21. The number of foetuses per female in the first litter was markedly reduced following exposure to ß-CYP. In summary, early pregnancy exposure to ß-CYP may result in defective endometrial decidualisation via compromised proliferation of uterine stromal cells and reduced expressions of cyclin D3, CDK4/6, and p21 in mice.

11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(11): 10846-10863, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124572

RESUMO

Among many epidemic prevention measures, isolation is an important method to control the spread of infectious disease. Scholars rarely study the impact of isolation on disease dissemination from a quantitative perspective. In this paper, we introduce an isolation ratio and establish the corresponding model. The basic reproductive number and its biological explanation are given. The stability conditions of the disease-free and endemic equilibria are obtained by analyzing its distribution of characteristic values. It is shown that the isolation ratio has an important influence on the basic reproductive number and the stability conditions. Taking the COVID-19 in Wuhan as an example, isolating more than 68% of the population can control the spread of the epidemic. This method can provide precise epidemic prevention strategies for government departments. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the results.

12.
J Plant Physiol ; 277: 153807, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095952

RESUMO

Annual ryegrass is a widely cultivated forage grass with rapid growth and high productivity. However, drought is one of the abiotic stresses affecting ryegrass growth and quality. In this study, we compared the physiological and transcriptome responses of Chuansi No.1 (drought-tolerant, DT) and Double Barrel (drought-sensitive, DS) under drought stress simulated by PEG-6000 for 7 days. The results showed that Chuansi No. 1 had stronger physiological and biochemical parameters such as root properties, water content, osmotic adjustment ability and antioxidant ability. In addition, RNA-seq was used to elucidate the molecular mechanism of root drought resistance. We identified 8588 differentially expressed genes related to drought tolerance in root, which were mainly enriched in oxidation-reduction process, carbohydrate metabolic process, apoplast, arginine and proline metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways. The expression levels of DEGs were consistent with physiological changes of ryegrass under drought stress. We found that genes related to sucrose and starch synthesis, root development, osmotic adjustment, ABA signal regulation and specifically up-regulated transcription factors such as WRKY41, WRKY51, ERF7, ERF109, ERF110, NAC43, NAC68, bHLH162 and bHLH148 in Chuansi No. 1 may be the reason for its higher drought tolerance. This study revealed the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of root response to drought stress in ryegrass and provided some new candidate genes for breeding rye drought tolerant varieties.

13.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080327

RESUMO

The roots of Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep., a traditional Chinese medicine, is known as Shan Dou Gen in the Miao ethnopharmacy. A large number of previous studies have suggested the usage of S. tonkinensis in the folk treatment of lung, stomach, and throat diseases, and the roots of S. tonkinensis have been produced as Chinese patent medicines to treat related diseases. Existing phytochemical works reported more than 300 compounds from different parts and the endophytic fungi of S. tonkinensis. Some of the isolated extracts and monomer compounds from S. tonkinensis have been proved to exhibit diverse biological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and so on. The research progress on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of S. tonkinensis have been systematically summarized, which may be useful for its further research.


Assuntos
Sophora , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fungos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sophora/química
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(36): e30531, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ANRIL, also called CDKN2B antisense RNA 1, is an important genetic susceptibility locus for cardiovascular diseases and associated with numerous pathologies, including several human cancers. OBJECTIVE: The relationship between ANRIL and the clinical outcome or prognosis of cancer patients was analyzed in this meta-analysis. METHODS: One thousand seven hundred eight cancer patients were selected in 23 studies from 3 databases (Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE). RESULTS: A fixed-effects model indicated that the high expression of ANRIL is obviously linked to poor overall survival (OS) (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57-2.00, P < .00001); the random-effects model revealed poor disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.46-2.37, P < .00001). A high level of ANRIL expression was also associated with the tumor size (small vs large, odds ratio [OR] = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.39-0.83, P = .003), TNM stage (I + II vs III + IV; OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24-0.69, P = .0008), and lymph node metastasis (LNM) (Yes vs No, OR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.46-9.17, P = .006). ANRIL was not related significantly to histologic differentiation compared to poor with moderate + well; the OR value is 0.74, 95% CI: 0.26-2.12, P = .58. In addition, evidence suggested that a high level of ANRIL was positively associated with human cancer type, follow-up time, and sample size. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that ANRIL may be a valuable biomarker for predicting poor prognosis in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , RNA Longo não Codificante , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
15.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 384, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104322

RESUMO

CircRNAs have critical effects on tumor development and progression. However, circPGD effect on gastric cancer (GC) is still elusive. Nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractionation, and RNA-FISH assay examined the localization of circPGD in MGC-803 cells. qRT-PCR was conducted to detect the expression and prognostic significance of circPGD, miR-16-5p, and ABL2 within GC tissues. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR, luciferase reporter assays, rescue, and western blotting assays confirmed the interactions between circPGD, miR-16-5p, and ABL2. Transwell, wound healing, and colony-formation assays, as well as CCK-8 and cell apoptosis assays, analyzed the functions of circPGD, miR-16-5p, ABL2, as well as PGD-219aa within GC cells. Western blotting and cell immunofluorescence experiments detected the differences in the expression of the related proteins. Finally, xenograft and metastatic mouse models were used to investigate circPGD function in vivo. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the existence of PGD-219aa in MGC-803 cells. CircPGD was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of MGC-803 cells. Compared with the control, circPGD and ABL2 expression increased within GC tissues and cells, and the miR-16-5p level was decreased. Functionally, circPGD promoted cell proliferation, migration and suppressed apoptosis in vitro. Mechanistically, circPGD sponged miR-16-5p for relieving miR-16-5p suppression on the corresponding target ABL2 via the SMAD2/3 and YAP signaling pathways. In addition, circPGD encodes a novel PGD-219aa protein that can enhance the growth and migration of GC cells, while inhibiting GC cells apoptosis via the SMAD2/3 and YAP signaling pathways. Furthermore, circPGD overexpression enhanced tumor aggressiveness, while circPGD knockdown inhibited tumor growth. Overall, circPGD has a novel oncogenic effect on GC cells, indicating the potential of circPGD as the tumorigenic factor and a promising diagnostic marker for GC.

16.
J Org Chem ; 87(18): 12019-12035, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053185

RESUMO

Efficient palladium-catalyzed vinylic C-H alkenylation and allenylation of gem-disubstituted ethylenes with N-tosylhydrazones of aryl alkyl and diaryl ketones were achieved to access trisubstituted 1,3-dienes and tetrasubstituted allenes, respectively. An aryl to vinyl 1,4-palladium migration/carbene insertion/ß-hydride elimination sequence proceeded to switch the chemo- and regioselectivities to give structurally diverse products. Use of 2-FC6H4OH additive enables enhancement of the reaction efficiency through accelerating the key 1,4-palladium migration process.

17.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(16)2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013635

RESUMO

The moisture transport of axial-compression-damaged mortar and concrete was experimentally and analytically studied in this paper. Five stress levels, i.e., 25%, 40%, 55%, 70%, and 85%, of the corresponding ultimate compressive strengths were selected for mortar and concrete specimens with the water cement ratio (w/c) of 0.5. Porosities and sorptivities of mortar or concrete before and after axial compression were measured and compared. Based on the Lucas-Washburn equation on absorption, the relationship between sorptivity and pore size distribution as well as porosity was established. A damage-representative radius was proposed to simply quantify the variation of pore characteristics of damaged mortar and concrete, and the moisture transport of axial-compression-damaged mortar and concrete could be predicted by summing the contributions to water absorption from the original pore system and the pore-equivalent microcrack system. It is shown that the porosities of mortar and concrete only slightly increase with the damage level, but the sorptivities are sensitive to axial compression damage, i.e., increasing nearly monotonically with the stress level from 0.3326 to 0.3533 mm/min0.5 for damaged mortar specimens (w/c = 0.5) and from 0.1970 to 0.2226 mm/min0.5 for damaged concrete specimens (w/c = 0.5). The increase trend became more apparent for both materials after a threshold of 40-55% of the corresponding ultimate compressive strengths, which is within the service load of structures, indicating that damage should be considered for chloride ions and water transport in concrete in the tidal zone. The predicted moisture diffusivities of damaged mortar and concrete show marginal difference from those of sound materials because the damage-representative radius could be underestimated due to elastic recovery of materials after unloading.

18.
Insects ; 13(8)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005359

RESUMO

The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is one of the most destructive lepidopteran pests of cruciferous vegetables, and insights into regulation of its physiological processes contribute towards the development of new pesticides against it. Thus, we investigated the regulatory functions of its ß-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (PxOctß3). The open reading frame (ORF) of PxOctß3 was phylogenetically analyzed, and the levels of expression of the receptor mRNA were determined. This ORF was also cloned and expressed in HEK-293 cells. A series of octopamine receptor agonists and antagonists were tested against PxOctß3. We showed that the receptor is a member of the Octß3 protein family, and an analysis using quantitative PCR showed that it was expressed at all developmental stages of P. xylostella. Octopamine activated PxOctß3, resulting in increased levels of intracellular cAMP. Furthermore, the agonists naphazoline, clonidine, 2-phenethylamine, and amitraz activated the PxOctß3 receptor, and naphazoline was the most effective. Only metoclopramide and mianserin had significant antagonistic effects on PxOctß3, whereas yohimbine, phentolamine, and chlorpromazine lacked obvious antagonistic effects. The injection of double-stranded RNA in an RNA interference assay indicated that PxOctß3 regulates development in P. xylostella. This study demonstrated the pharmacological properties and functions of PxOctß3 in P. xylostella, thus, providing a theoretical basis for the design of pesticides that target octopamine receptors.

19.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT), resection (LR), and ablation (LA) are three curative-intent treatment options for patients with early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to develop a prognostic calculator to compare the long-term outcomes following each of these therapies. METHODS: A total of 976 patients with HCC within the Milan criteria who underwent LT, LR, and LA between 2009 and 2019 from four institutions were evaluated. Multistate competing risks prediction models for recurrence-free survival (RFS), recurrence within the Milan criteria (RWM), and HCC-specific survival (HSS) were derived to develop a prognostic calculator. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 51 months, 420 (43%) patients developed recurrence. In the multivariate analysis, larger tumor size, multinodularity, older age, male, higher alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), higher albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, and the presence of portal hypertension were significantly associated with higher recurrence and decreased survival rates. The RFS and HSS were both significantly higher among patients treated by LT than by LR or LA and significantly higher between patients treated by LR than by LA (all p < 0.001). For multinodular HCC ≤3 cm, although LT had better RFS and HSS than LR or LA, LA was noninferior to LR. An online prognostic calculator was then developed based on the preoperative clinical factors that were independently associated with outcomes to evaluate RFS, RWM, and HSS at different time intervals for all three treatment options. CONCLUSIONS: Although LT resulted in the best recurrence and survival outcomes, LR and LA also offered durable long-term alternatives. This prognostic calculator is a useful tool for clinicians to guide an informed and personalized discussion with patients based on their tumor biology and liver function.

20.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(16)2022 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36009736

RESUMO

Amphibians, including Andrias davidianus, are declining worldwide partly due to infectious diseases. The Myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene is a typical interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) involved in the antiviral immunity. Therefore, knowledge regarding the antiviral immunity of A. davidianus can be used for improved reproduction in captivity and protection in the wild. In this study, we amplified and characterized four different A. davidianus&nbsp;Mx genes (adMx) and generated temporal mRNA expression profiles in healthy and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) infected A. davidianus by qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The four adMx genes ranged in length from 2008 to 2840 bp. The sequences revealed conserved protein domains including the dynamin superfamily signature motif and the tripartite guanosine-5-triphosphate (GTP)-binding motif. Gene and deduced amino acid sequence alignment revealed relatively high sequence identity with the Mx genes and proteins of other vertebrates. In phylogenetic analysis, the adMx genes clustered together, but also clustered closely with those of fish species. The four adMx genes were broadly expressed in healthy A. davidianus, but were differentially expressed in the spleen during the GSIV infection. Our results show that the adMx genes share major structural features with their homologs, suggesting similar functions to those in other species.

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