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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 262: 117930, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838808

RESUMO

In this paper, polyvinyl alcohol/starch composite films with p-coumaric acid modified chitosan (P-CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (P-CSNPs) at different concentrations were successfully prepared. The films were compared for their mechanical, thermal, physical, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxicity and optical barrier properties. The results suggested that P-CS could significantly increase the tensile strength (TS) of the film from 15.67 MPa to a maximum of 24.32 MPa. The compact structure of P-CSNPs film prevented water diffusion, reducing the water amount within. Both films showed a reduction in water solubility, the extent of swelling, and water vapor transmittance. Specifically, P-CSNPs films showed better thermal stability while P-CS films revealed higher antioxidant activity. Besides, the P-CS films exhibited excellent transparency and good ultraviolet-barrier at 200-280 nm. P-CSNPs films demonstrated higher antibacterial activity on both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, P-CS films were less cytotoxic compared to P-CSNPs films.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829416

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Renal fibrosis is a pathological state in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Early detection and treatment are vital to prolonging patient survival. Renal puncture examination is the gold standard for renal fibrosis, but it has several limitations. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a novel PET radiotracer, [68Ga]Ga-fibroblast activation protein inhibitor (FAPI)-04, which specifically images fibroblast activation protein (FAP) expression for renal fibrosis. METHODS: All patients underwent renal puncture before receiving [68Ga]Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT imaging. They then underwent [68Ga]Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT and immunochemistry examinations. The data obtained were analyzed. RESULTS: The [68Ga]Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT examination results demonstrated that almost all patients (12/13) exhibited increased radiotracer uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in patients with mild, moderate, and severe fibrosis was 3.92 ± 1.50, 5.98 ± 1.6, and 7.67 ± 2.23, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with renal puncture examination, non-invasive imaging of FAP expression through [68Ga]Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT quickly demonstrates bilateral kidney conditions with high sensitivity. [68Ga]Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT can facilitate the evaluation of disease progression, diagnosis, and the development of a treatment plan.

3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 441, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824395

RESUMO

High quality, well-validated antibodies are needed to mitigate irreproducibility and clarify conflicting data in science. We describe an epitope-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) production method that addresses issues of antibody quality, validation and utility. The workflow is illustrated by generating mAbs against multiple in silico-predicted epitopes on human ankyrin repeat domain 1 (hANKRD1) in a single hybridoma production cycle. Antigenic peptides (13-24 residues long) presented as three-copy inserts on the surface exposed loop of a thioredoxin carrier produced high affinity mAbs that are reactive to native and denatured hANKRD1. ELISA assay miniaturization afforded by novel DEXT microplates allowed rapid hybridoma screening with concomitant epitope identification. Antibodies against spatially distant sites on hANKRD1 facilitated validation schemes applicable to two-site ELISA, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The use of short antigenic peptides of known sequence facilitated direct epitope mapping crucial for antibody characterization. This robust method motivates its ready adoption for other protein targets.

4.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818676

RESUMO

Abnormal accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodative response (AC/A ratio) ratio is an important factor leading to myopia. This study aimed to examine the effect of refractive correction on the gradient of AC/A ratio with low-to-moderate myopia in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents aged 8-18 years, with low and moderate myopia, were divided into groups of myopia with no refractive correction and myopic continuous refractive correction of more than half a year. Then, in accordance with the myopia gradient, they were further divided into 0.00 to - 1.50, - 1.75 to - 3.00, - 3.25 to - 4.50, and - 4.75 to - 6.00 groups. Results showed that the AC/A ratio of the myopic group without refractive correction history was significantly higher than that with refractive correction history for more than half a year. The AC/A ratio increased with the deepening of myopia in the group without refractive history of myopia. However, it decreased significantly in the group with refractive history of myopia for more than half a year. Therefore, the AC/A ratio is related to the degree of uncorrected myopia, and it increases with the degree of uncorrected myopia.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25389, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still spreading around the world. Moxibustion, as a significant therapy in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used to treat COVID-19, especially in recovery period. The study will aim to assess the efficacy and safety of moxibustion for COVID-19 convalescence. METHODS: We will systematically search the relevant randomized controlled trials in the 7 databases from inception to February 2021, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Clinical Trials Database, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. No language and publication status restrictions will be applied. Two reviewers will independently conduct and screen all included studies and the meta-analysis will be performed with RevMan V5.3 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England). RESULTS: The study will provide a high-quality convincing assessment of the efficacy and safety of moxibustion for the treatment of COVID-19 convalescence, which will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Our study will give more comprehensive evidence of the effectiveness of moxibustion for COVID-19 convalescence. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021230364.

6.
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(4): 306-311;315, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794626

RESUMO

Objective:This study aimed to explore the biomarkers in nasal secretion that can assist in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis(AR) and can be used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of AR. Methods:Thirty-three patients with AR and 21 healthy controls were included. The nasal secretion of healthy controls and patients with AR(before and after treatment) were collected. The cytology, the concentrations of cytokines(IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-33, IFN-γ) and inflammatory mediators(ECP, MPO) were detected. Then, we compared the differences of various biomarkers between healthy controls and AR patients(before and after treatment group). And analyzed the correlation between each biomarkers/biomarkers difference value/the percentage of biomarkers difference value and clinical symptom score/ score difference value / the percentage of score difference value. Results:Compared with normal controls, the levels of ECP, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and IFN-γ in nasal secretion of AR patients were significantly higher than those of normal controls(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in MPO. After treatment, ECP decreased significantly(P<0.01), inflammatory cell grade and eosinophil percentage are also decreased(P<0.01). However, MPO, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and IFN-γ did not change significantly. The difference value of ECP before and after treatment was correlated with the difference value of VAS score(r=0.348, P=0.047). The difference value of IL-5 was correlated with the difference value of VAS score and rhinorrhea, the correlation coefficients were 0.406(P=0.019) and 0.429(P=0.013), respectively. The difference value of eosinophil percentage in nasal secretion before and after treatment was correlated with nasal congestion, and the correlation coefficient was 0.383. The difference value of eosinophil percentage multiplied by inflammatory cell grade before and after treatment was correlated with VAS score(r=0.417, P=0.016) and nasal congestion difference value(r=0.519, P=0.002). The percentage of difference value of IFN-γ before and after treatment was correlated with the percentage of difference value of VAS score / rhinorrhea / sneeze / total nasal symptom score. Conclusion:ECP, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-33 in nasal secretion are expected to be objective biomarkers for auxiliary diagnosis of AR. And ECP, IL-5, IFN-γ, eosinophil percentage multiplied by grade is expected to be an objective index to judge the improvement of patients' symptoms after treatment.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica , Biomarcadores , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Inflamação , Mucosa Nasal , Nariz , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4841, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649373

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS), a critical post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, expands gene expression patterns, thereby leading to increased protein diversity. Indeed, more than 95% of human genes undergo alternative splicing events (ASEs). In this study, we drew an all-around AS profile of thyroid cancer cells based on RNA-seq data. In total, there were 45,150 AS in 10,446 thyroid cancer cell genes derived from 506 patients, suggesting that ASEs is a common process in TC. Moreover, 1819 AS signatures were found to be significantly associated with the overall survival (OS) of TC patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses suggested that seven types of ASEs were associated with poor prognosis of TC (P < 0.05). Among them, exon skipping (ES) was the most common, with alternate promoter (AP) and alternate terminator (AT) coming second and third, respectively. Our results indicated that acceptor sites (AA) (AUC: 0.937), alternate donor sites (AD) (AUC: 0.965), AT (AUC: 0.964), ES (AUC: 0.999), mutually exclusive exons (ME) (AUC: 0.999), and retained intron (RI) (AUC: 0.837) exhibited an AUC greater than 0.6. In addition, age and risk score (All) were risk factors for TC patients. We also evaluated whether TC-ASEs are regulated by various splicing factors (SFs). We found that the expression of 90 SFs was associated with 469 ASEs and OS of TC patients. Our findings provide an insight into the role of spliceosomes in TC, which may offer novel perspectives in tumor research.

8.
Exp Brain Res ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646327

RESUMO

The classification of inhibitory control and the relationship between the subcomponents of inhibitory control have been the focus of many studies. This study mainly explored the influence of response inhibition training on interference control through event-related potential data. Forty college students were randomly divided into a training group and a control group. Two response inhibition tasks were used as training tasks and the Stroop and go/no-go tasks were used with electroencephalogram monitoring to evaluate students' abilities in the two kinds of inhibitory control. The results showed that the conflict effect of the training group significantly improved after training compared with those of the control group. In the training group, the N2 effect was enhanced not only in the no-go stimulation in the training task but also in the incongruent stimulation in the untrained Stroop task and there was a correlation in the enhancement of the N2 effect between the two tasks. To some extent, this study provided neuroscientific evidence that response inhibition training can transfer to interference control.

9.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(3): 781-795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767588

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistance is a major challenge to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment, and the over-expression or deletion of microRNA (miRNA) expression is closely related to the drug-resistant properties of various cell lines. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. CCK-8, EdU, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to determine cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, autophagic flow, and nanoparticle characterization, respectively. In this study, the results showed that the expression of miR-26b was downregulated following doxorubicin treatment in human HCC tissues. An miR-26b mimic enhanced HCC cell doxorubicin sensitivity, except in the absence of p53 in Hep3B cells. Delivery of the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-26b on the level of p53 following doxorubicin treatment. Tenovin-1 (an MDM2 inhibitor) protected p53 from ubiquitination-mediated degradation only in HepG2 cells with wild type p53. Tenovin-1 pretreatment enhanced HCC cell resistance to doxorubicin when transfected with an miR-26b mimic. Moreover, the miR-26b mimic inhibited doxorubicin-induced autophagy and the autophagy inducer, rapamycin, eliminated the differences in the drug sensitivity effect of miR-26b. In vivo, treatment with sp94dr/miR-26b mimic nanoparticles plus doxorubicin inhibited tumor growth. Our current data indicate that miR-26b enhances HCC cell sensitivity to doxorubicin through diminishing USP9X-mediated p53 de-ubiquitination caused by DNA damaging drugs and autophagy regulation. This miRNA-mediated pathway that modulates HCC will help develop novel therapeutic strategies.

10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1155: 338351, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766323

RESUMO

Rapid and sensitive detection of Hg2+ in the environment and drinking water is vital because of its non-degradability, bioaccumulation, and high toxicity. Herein, we report a portable evanescent wave optofluidic biosensor (EWOB) for simple sensitive detection of Hg2+ using fluorescence labeled poly-A DNA strand (CY-A14) and quencher labeled poly-T DNA strand (BQ-T14) as signal reporter and biorecognition element, respectively. Both CY-A14 and Hg2+ can competitively bind with BQ-T14 based on DNA hybridization and the specifical binding of Hg2+ and T bases of DNA to form T-Hg2+-T mismatch structure, respectively. Higher concentration of Hg2+ lead to less CY-A14 bound to BQ-T14 and thus a higher fluorescence intensity. The influence of several key environmental factors on Hg2+ biosensor, such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength, was investigated in details because they were essential for practical applications of Hg2+ biosensor. Under optimal conditions, a detection cycle for a single sample, including the measurement and regeneration, was less than 10 min with a Hg2+ detection limit of 8.5 nM. The high selectivity of the biosensor was showed by evaluating its response to various potentially interfering metal ions. Our results clearly demonstrated that the portable EWOB could serve as a powerful tool for rapid and sensitive on-site detection of Hg2+ in real water samples. The EWOB is also potentially applicable to detect other heavy metal ions or small molecule targets for which DNA/aptamers could be applied as specific biosensing probes.

11.
Opt Lett ; 46(6): 1474-1477, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720215

RESUMO

Pump-probe microscopy is an emerging nonlinear imaging technique based on high repetition rate lasers and fast intensity modulation. Here, we present new methods for pump-probe microscopy that keep the beam intensity constant and instead modulate the inter-pulse time delay or the relative polarization. These techniques can improve image quality for samples that have poor heat dissipation or long-lived radiative states and can selectively address nonlinear interactions in the sample. We experimentally demonstrate this approach and point out the advantages over conventional intensity modulation.

12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1154: 338317, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736811

RESUMO

By the employment of a homogeneous biorecognition reaction to induce the assembled formation of DNA nanostructures at an electrode, herein we develop a novel biosensing method for the ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of kanamycin (Kana) antibiotic. A DNA complex consisting of Kana-aptamer and a hairpin DNA with an exposed 3'-end was first designed for conducting the homogeneous reaction with Kana in the presence of exonuclease I (Exo I). It resulted in the production of a hairpin DNA with a blunt terminus, which could be used for triggering the assembled formation of a layer of DNA nanostructures with orderly distribution and abundant biotin sites at a gold electrode. Then, high-content methylene blue and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-functionalized gold nanotags would be captured onto the electrode to realize the electrocatalytic signal transduction. Due to the Exo I and HRP-assisted dual signal amplification, a very low detection limit of 9.1 fg mL-1 was obtained for the Kana assay along with a very wide linear range over five-order of magnitude. Considering the excellent performance of the method, it exhibits a promising prospect for practical applications.

13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687523

RESUMO

Pheretima is a common and valuable animal-derived medication used in traditional Chinese medicine. There are four species of Pheretima specified in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 edition), i.e. Pheretima aspergillum, P. vulgaris, P. guillelmi, and P. pectinifera. A recent report revealed ~ 55% of Pheretima in the commercial marketplace may be adulterated by other species, contrary to the Pharmacopoeia standard. The safety, efficacy, and authenticity of Pheretima is an important issue. Currently, the availability of specific quality-markers for the various species and effective identification methods are still limited. In this study, label-free quantification proteomics of species from Pheretima and Amynthas was carried out using nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS), and marker peptides were identified based on their ion intensities using multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and supervised partial least-squares discriminant analysis). A total of 48,476 peptides with high confidence corresponding to 13,397 proteins were identified from all samples. The marker peptides were validated by comparison with synthetic peptide reference standards using LC-MS/MS operating in a multiple-reaction monitoring mode. A multiple-peptide identification strategy was proposed for the authentication of Pheretima and subsequently applied to samples obtained from retail outlets in various regions of China. The results showed that eight out of the 15 samples tested were deemed authentic Pheretima.

14.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 24(4): 599-607, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play a crucial role in inflammation regulation; however, their relationship with inflammation in acute gouty arthritis has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we conducted a study to explore the regulatory roles of miR-223-3p and miR-22-3p in gouty-associated inflammation. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to examine the molecular mechanisms of miRNA regulation in gouty inflammation. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the direct target of miR-223-3p and miR-22-3p. RESULTS: We found that miR-223-3p and miR-22-3p interacted with the 3' untranslated region segment of NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat [NLR] and pyrin domain containing receptor 3) and inhibited its expression. A decreased expression of miR-223-3p and miR-22-3p was observed in both mice air pouch synovium and phorbol myristrate acetate-treated THP-1 cells stimulated with monosodium urate (P < .05). Compared with the negative control group, NLRP3 expression at the transcript and protein level in miR-223-3p and miR-22-3p overexpression group significantly decreased after 6 hours of monosodium urate treatment in vivo and in vitro (P < .05). The results of the dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-223-3p and miR-22-3p directly targeted NLRP3. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study show that miR-223-3p and miR-22-3p can reduce the inflammatory effects of gout by inhibiting the expression of NLRP3.

15.
Med Image Anal ; 70: 101918, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676100

RESUMO

Tumor classification and segmentation are two important tasks for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using 3D automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. However, they are challenging due to the significant shape variation of breast tumors and the fuzzy nature of ultrasound images (e.g., low contrast and signal to noise ratio). Considering the correlation between tumor classification and segmentation, we argue that learning these two tasks jointly is able to improve the outcomes of both tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-task learning framework for joint segmentation and classification of tumors in ABUS images. The proposed framework consists of two sub-networks: an encoder-decoder network for segmentation and a light-weight multi-scale network for classification. To account for the fuzzy boundaries of tumors in ABUS images, our framework uses an iterative training strategy to refine feature maps with the help of probability maps obtained from previous iterations. Experimental results based on a clinical dataset of 170 3D ABUS volumes collected from 107 patients indicate that the proposed multi-task framework improves tumor segmentation and classification over the single-task learning counterparts.

16.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(1): 104-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The worldwide exclusive breastfeeding rate is suboptimal and this study aims to evaluate effects on infant immune development of formula feeding. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study including 221 infants fed with breast milk or formula was conducted. At 3-month and 9-month, the concentrations of total immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, interleukin (IL)-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte transformation testing were conducted. Furthermore, the occurrence of infantile diarrhea, respiratory infections and allergic diseases were questioned. RESULTS: The levels of total IgG (Z=-3.21, p=0.001), IgG1 (Z=-2.12, p=0.034), IFN-γ (t=-2.09, p=0.039) and NK cell activity (t=-2.14, p=0.034) were significant higher in formula-fed infants compared to breast-fed after 3 months. At 9-month, the levels of total IgG (Z=-4.34, p<0.001), IgA (Z=-2.05, p=0.041) and TNF-α (t=-2.10, p=0.037) of formula-fed infants were higher, but the lymphocyte stimulation index (t=2.76, p=0.007) was lower than breast-fed infants. While, no significant differences were found in the incidences of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This investigation suggested that formula- and breast-feeding have different contributions to infant immune development, but the formula feeding would not cause significantly increase of diarrhea and respiratory infections.

17.
Shock ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The response to glucocorticoids treatment may be different between Covid-19 and SARS. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched studies on Medline, Embase, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP from 2002 to October 7, 2020. We used fixed-effects and random-effects models to compute the risk ratio of death in the group receiving glucocorticoids treatment and the control group for COVID-19 and SARS, respectively. RESULTS: Ten trials and 71 observational studies, with a total of 45,935 patients, were identified. Glucocorticoids treatment, was associated with decreased all-cause mortality both in COVID-19 (risk ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.94; I2 = 26%) and SARS (0.48; 0.29 to 0.79; 10%), based on high quality evidence, as well as decreased all-cause mortality-including composite outcome of COVID-19 (0.89; 0.82 to 0.98; 0%). In subgroup analyses, all-cause mortality was significantly lower among COVID-19 patients being accompanied by severe ARDS but not mild ARDS, taking low-dose or pulse glucocorticoids, being critically severe but not only severe, being of critical severity and old but not young, being of critical severity and men but not women, non-early taking glucocorticoids, taking dexamethasone or methylprednisolone, and with the increased inflammatory state; but for SARS, lower mortality was observed among those who were taking medium-high dose glucocorticoids, being severe or critically severe, early taking glucocorticoids, and taking methylprednisolone or prednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoids treatment reduced mortality in COVID-19 and SARS patients of critical severity; however, different curative effects existed between the two diseases among subpopulations, mainly regarding sex- and age-specific effects, optimal doses and use timing of glucocorticoids.

18.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576799

RESUMO

Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells that act as barriers against biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the formation of trichomes on hairy organs is well studied, the molecular mechanisms of trichome inhibition on smooth organs is still largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the CINCINNATA (CIN)-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors inhibit the formation of trichomes on cotyledons in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tcp2/3/4/5/10/13/17 septuple mutant produces cotyledons with ectopic trichomes on the adaxial sides. The expression patterns of TCP genes are developmentally regulated during cotyledon development. TCP proteins directly interact with GLABRA3 (GL3), a key component of the MYB transcription factor/basic helix-loop-helix domain protein/WD40-repeat proteins (MYB-bHLH-WD40, MBW) complex essential for trichome formation, to interfere with the transactivation activity of the MBW complex in cotyledons. TCPs also disrupt the MBW complex-R3 MYB negative feedback loop by directly promoting the expression of R3 MYB genes, which enhances the repression of the MBW complex. Our findings reveal a molecular framework in which TCPs suppress trichome formation on adaxial sides of cotyledons by repressing the activity of the MBW complex at the protein level and the transcripts of R3 MYB genes at the transcriptional level.

19.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576060

RESUMO

AIMS: Recently, letrozole has been used off-label to treat short pubertal boys. The experience on letrozole effectiveness and safety has been obtained primarily from Caucasian children. A simple extrapolation of the data to Chinese paediatric populations is questionable because of the substantial ethnic differences between the two populations. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of letrozole use in Chinese short pubertal boys as well as to establish an exposure-response relationship. METHODS: Forty-one Chinese boys were included in the study. Patients were given letrozole tablets (2.5 mg) once daily in combination with growth hormone, and follow-up visits were made after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Plasma samples were taken from clinical examinations and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. RESULTS: After 1 year of treatment, 35 (88%) boys showed increased predicted adult heights. However, possible adverse drug reactions were seen in nine boys (22%). Predicted adult heights increased significantly from 168.4 ± 3.7 to 173.0 ± 4.2 cm, while oestrogen levels dropped from 33.2 ± 7.4 to 21.6 ± 7.3 pg/mL. Increments in predicted adult height were significantly correlated with trough letrozole concentrations (r = 0.39, P = .01). CONCLUSION: Letrozole treatment in Chinese pubertal populations should be further optimized, and more personalized therapies should be developed.

20.
J Food Biochem ; 45(3): e13649, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587297

RESUMO

In this study, volatile compounds of camellia seed oil (CSO) prepared by different preheat treatments (microwave, frying, roasting, and steaming) were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). A total of 107 volatile compounds were identified in CSO samples, including aldehydes (16), alcohols (6), ketones (3), heterocyclic compounds (26), esters (23), hydrocarbons (15), and others (17). Among them, untreated CSO is mainly hydrocarbons, roasting and steaming CSO are mainly aldehydes and alcohols, while microwave and roasting CSO are dominated by aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds. Fourteen volatile compounds with high relative odor activity value (ROAV ≥ 1) were selected as key aroma compounds (KACs). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were performed on 14 KACs, which determined that there were 3, 3, 3, 7, and 6 characteristic aroma compounds (CACs) in untreated, microwaved, frying, roasting, and steaming CSO. Additionally, the potential formation pathways and mechanism of KACs were discussed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Flavor is an important factor for consumers to choose edible oils, and it is also one of the indicators of oil quality. Different flavors of CSO can cater to the needs of different consumers. CSO manufactories can choose different preheat treatments to produce CSO with various flavors to meet different customers' need. CSO with new flavor can extend its market share and increase its value.

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