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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3150-3155, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467707

RESUMO

In recent years, only a small number of new Chinese medicines have been approved for marketing, which has embodied the bottleneck in the development of the Chinese medicine industry. To tackle this problem, the National Medical Products Administration has issued a series of regulations and technical requirements. In the context of new regulations, this study deeply explored the research and development strategies of new Chinese medicines under the guidance of the new classification of drug registration, and discussed the key technical issues in the research and development.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pesquisa
2.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 10(10): 1566-1572, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062777

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the speed of visual recovery following myopic thin-flap LASIK with four femtosecond lasers. METHODS: Eighty-eight eyes of 46 patients who were consecutively scheduled for bilateral LASIK with the IntraLase FS60 (Group 1), Femto LDV Crystal Line (Group 2), Wavelight FS200 (Group 3) and VisuMax (Group 4) femtosecond lasers were enrolled in. Monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), best-corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), refraction, contrast sensitivity and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were evaluated at 1, 3d, 1wk and 1mo postoperatively. RESULTS: Sixteen eyes (72.7%) achieved 20/16 and 8 eyes (36.4%) were 20/12.5 at 1d in Group 2, which was significantly more than other 3 groups. At 1wk, 20 eyes (90.9%) achieved 20/16 in Groups 2 and 4. At 1mo, 20 eyes (90.9%) achieved 20/16 in Group 2 and Group 4, which were significantly more than other two groups. While by 1 mo, the difference of the residual spherical equivalent (SE) was not statistically significant among 4 groups (P=0.121). The induction of spherical aberration (SA) were significantly less for Groups 2, 3, 4 than for Group 1 one day after surgery (P=0.015). The differences among 4 groups were not statistically significant before and after surgery on every time points (all P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The thin-flap LASIK procedure using the Femto LDV Crystal Line and VisuMax femtosecond laser show faster visual performance recovery.

3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 130(18): 2234-2240, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875960

RESUMO

Background:: Localized macular edema and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning have been reported shortly after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in adults. However, it is still unclear how LASIK affects the retina of children. This study aimed to investigate the macular retina and RNFL thickness in children with refractive amblyopia who underwent femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK). Methods:: In this study, we included 56 eyes of 32 patients with refractive amblyopia who underwent FS-LASIK in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2016. Foveal (foveal center retinal, parafoveal retinal, and perifoveal), macular inner retinal (superior and inferior), and peripapillary RNFL thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) were measured using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography before surgery and 1 day, 3 days, and 1 week after surgery. We divided these patients into three groups based on their refractive error: High myopic group with 22 eyes (equivalent sphere, >6.00 D), mild myopic group with 19 eyes (equivalent sphere, 0-6.00 D), and hyperopic group with 15 eyes (equivalent sphere, >+0.50 D). We compared the macular retina and RNFL thickness before and after LASIK. A paired simple t-test was used for data analysis. Results:: One week after surgery, the visual acuity for all 56 eyes of the 32 patients reached their preoperative best-corrected vision. Visual acuity improved two lines or better for 31% of the patients. The residual refractive errors in 89% of the patients were within ±0.5 D. In the high myopic group, the foveal center retinal and parafoveal retinal thicknesses were thicker 1 day and 3 days after surgery than before surgery (t = 2.689, P = 0.012; t = 2.383, P = 0.018, respectively); no significant difference was found 1 week after surgery (P > 0.05). The foveal center retinal and parafoveal retinal thicknesses were greater 1 day after surgery than they were before surgery (P = 0.000 and P = 0.005, respectively) in the mild myopic and hyperopic groups. No significant difference was found 3 days or 1 week after surgery (P > 0.05). In all three groups, no significant difference was found in the macular inner retinal or peripapillary RNFL thickness 1 day, 3 days, or 1 week after surgery (P > 0.05). Conclusions:: The foveal center retinal edema after FS-LASIK is mild and reversible in children, that mostly occurred in the high myopic group with no effect on the visual acuity, and is always relieved within 1 week.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/cirurgia , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Macula Lutea/patologia , Macula Lutea/cirurgia , Masculino , Miopia/cirurgia , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Retina/patologia , Retina/cirurgia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual
4.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 10(9): 1407-1411, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944201

RESUMO

AIM: To study the relation between higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and contrast sensitivity (CS) in normal eyes among a population of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) candidates. METHODS: In 6629 eyes of 3315 LASIK candidates, CS were measured under dark environment at the spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree (c/d), respectively, using an Optec 6500 visual function tester. Meanwhile, ocular HOAs were measured for a 6.0 mm pupil with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront analyzer. RESULTS: In the study, the subjects with an average spherical equivalent of -4.86±2.07 D were included. HOAs decreased from the third to the sixth order aberrations with predominant aberrations of third-order coma, trefoil and fourth-order spherical aberration. At low and moderate spatial frequencies, CS was negatively correlated with the third-order coma and trefoil aberrations, and decreased with increasing Z31, but increased with increasing Z3-3 and Z5-1. At high spatial frequencies, CS decreased with increasing Z3-3 and increased with increasing Z5-1. CONCLUSION: At a large pupil size of 6.0 mm, the third-order aberrations, but not the total aberrations, are the main factors affecting CS. Vertical coma is negatively correlated with CS.

5.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 9(10): 1409-1414, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27803856

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the corneal biomechanical outcomes at one year after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the flaps created by Ziemer and Moria M2 microkeratome with 110 head and -20 blade. METHODS: Totally 100 eyes of 50 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study and divided into two groups for corneal flaps created by ZiemerFemto LDV and Moria M2 microkeratome with 110 head and -20 blade. Corneal biomechanical properties including cornea resistance factor (CRF) and cornea hysteresis (CH) were measured before and 1, 3, 6, 12mo after surgery by ocular response analyzer. Central cornea thickness and corneal flap thickness were measured by optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: The ablation depth (P=0.693), residual corneal thickness (P=0.453), and postoperative corneal curvature (P=0.264) were not significant different between Ziemer group and Moria 110-20 group after surgery. The residual stromal bed thickness, corneal flap thickness, CH and CRF at 12mo after surgery were significant different between Ziemer group and Moria 110-20 group (P<0.01);Ziemer group gained better corneal biomechanical results. The CRF and CH increased gradually from 1 to 12mo after surgery in Ziemer group, increased from 1 to 6mo but decreased from 6 to 12mo in Moria 110-20 group. Both CRF and CH at one year after surgery increased with the increasing of residual cornea thickness; pre-LASIK CRF, CRF also increased with residual stromal bed thickness, while CH decreased with the increasing of pre-LASIK intraocular pressure and cornea flap thickness (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: In one year follow-up, femtosecond laser can provide better cornea flaps with stable cornea biomechanics than mechanical microkeratome.

6.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 9(7): 1006-10, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500109

RESUMO

AIM: To assess and compare the morphology of corneal flaps created by the Wavelight FS200 and Intralase FS60 femtosecond lasers in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS: Four hundred eyes of 200 patients were enrolled in this study and divided into Wavelight FS200 groups (200 eyes) and Intralase FS60 groups (200 eyes). Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue OCT) was used to measure the corneal flap thickness of 36 specified measurements on each flap one week after surgery. Results were used to analyze the regularity, uniformity and accuracy of the two types of LASIK flaps. RESULTS: The mean thickness of corneal flap and central flap was 105.71±4.72 µm and 105.39±4.50 µm in Wavelight FS200 group and 109.78±11.42 µm and 109.15 ±11.59 µm in Intralase FS60 group, respectively. The flaps made with the Wavelight FS200 femtosecond laser were thinner than those created by the Intralase FS60 femtosecond laser (P=0.000). Corneal flaps in the 2 groups were uniform and regular, showing an almost planar configuration. But the Wavelight FS200 group has more predictability and uniformity of flap creation. The mean deviation between achieved and attempted flap thickness was smaller in the Wavelight FS200 group than that in the Intralase FS60 group, which were 5.18±3.71 µm and 8.68±7.42 µm respectively. The deviation of more than 20 µm was 0.2% measurements in Wavelight FS200 group and 8.29% measurements in Intralase FS60 group. CONCLUSION: The morphologies of flaps created by Wavelight FS200 are more uniform and thinner than those created by Intralase FS60.

7.
Cornea ; 35(8): 1057-61, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the mesopic contrast sensitivity (CS) and higher order aberrations (HOAs) at 3 months after femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) (FS-LASIK), wave front-guided femtosecond LASIK (WF-LASIK), and femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: In this prospective nonrandomized study, 332 right eyes of 332 patients were treated with FS-LASIK, WF-LASIK, or FLEx. The HOAs and mesopic CS were evaluated preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: At 3 months of follow-up, 98 eyes (96.1%) of the FS-LASIK group, 92 eyes (98.9%) of the WF-LASIK group, and 133 eyes (96.4%) of the FLEx group had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better. The HOAs improved from 0.34 µm during preoperative examination to 0.56 µm of the end of the follow-up in the FS-LASIK group, from 0.31 to 0.41 µm in the WF-LASIK group, and from 0.32 to 0.54 µm in the FLEx group (all P < 0.01). At a spatial frequency of 12 cycles per degree, a better mesopic CS was observed in the WF-LASIK group (1.47) than in the FS-LASIK (1.36) and FLEx (1.33) groups (P < 0.01); a better mesopic CS with glare was also noted in the WF-LASIK group (1.37) than in the FS-LASIK (1.25) and FLEx (1.29) groups (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The FS-LASIK, WF-LASIK, and FLEx procedures result in comparable refractive results at 3 months postoperatively. However, there is improvement in the mesopic CS and HOAs after WF-LASIK.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Substância Própria/cirurgia , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Aberrometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 8(4): 777-83, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309879

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effect of suction on the macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) used Ziemer FEMTO LDV femtosecond laser (Ziemer group) and Moria M2 automated microkeratome (Moria group) for flap creation. METHODS: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) was used to measure macular thickness, ganglion cell complex thickness and (RNFL) thickness of 204 eyes of 102 patients with the Ziemer femtosecond laser (102 eyes) and the Moria M2 microkeratome (102 eyes) before surgery and 30min; 1, 3d; 1wk; 1, 3mo; 1y after surgery. RESULTS: The average foveal thickness and parafoveal retinal thickness 30min after the surgery were statistically more than that before surgery (Ziemer P<0.001, P=0.003 and Moria P=0.001, P=0.006) and the effect was less in the Ziemer group than that in the Moria group (P all<0.05). The ganglion cell complex thickness was not significantly changed in both groups (P all>0.05). The RNFL thickness was statistically less 30min after surgery in both groups (P=0.014, P<0.001), but the influence was less in Ziemer group than that in Moria group (P=0.038). However, the RNFL thickness had recovered to the preoperative level only 1d after surgery. CONCLUSION: The suction of femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome led to the increase in macular central fovea thickness and the decrease in RNFL thickness values at the early stage after LASIK. The effect of suction on macular and the RNFL thicknesses in Ziemer group is smaller than that in Moria group.

9.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 253(8): 1363-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26032395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prospectively observe the effects of undercorrection of myopia on myopia progression and axial elongation in a population of 12-year-old Chinese children. METHODS: A total of 2,267 children in the Anyang Childhood Eye Study were examined at baseline, and 1,769 were followed for 1 year. Ocular examinations included cycloplegic autorefraction, axial length, visual acuity, vertometry, and accommodative lag. Questionnaires were completed by children and parents. Undercorrection of myopia was determined at baseline if presenting visual acuity could be improved by at least 2 lines with subjective refraction. RESULTS: Of 253 myopic children with spectacles and available information, 120 (47.4 %) were undercorrected (-4.63D to -0.50D) and 133 (52.6 %) were fully corrected. In a multivariate model adjusting for age, gender, number of myopic parents, time spent on near work and outdoor activities per day, usage and time for wearing spectacles per day, children with undercorrection had significantly more baseline myopia (P < 0.01) and longer axial length (P = 0.03) than children with full correction. However, there were no significant differences in myopia progression (P = 0.46) and axial elongation (P = 0.96) at 1 year between the two groups of children. The regression analysis showed that myopia progression significantly decreased with increasing amount of undercorrection (r (2) = 0.02, P = 0.02) in all children. Accommodative lag significantly decreased with increasing amounts of undercorrection (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this 1-year study in Chinese children, undercorrection or full correction of myopia by wearing spectacles did not show any differences in myopia progression or axial elongation.


Assuntos
Óculos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/terapia , Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Comprimento Axial do Olho/patologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
10.
Optom Vis Sci ; 92(5): 566-72, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25875684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe distributions of ocular biometry and their associations with refraction in 7- and 14-year-old children in urban areas of Anyang, central China. METHODS: A total of 2271 grade 1 students aged 7.1 ± 0.4 years and 1786 grade 8 students aged 13.7 ± 0.5 years were measured with ocular biometry and cycloplegic refraction. A parental myopia questionnaire was administered to parents. RESULTS: Mean axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, central corneal thickness, corneal diameter, corneal radius of curvature, axial length/corneal radius of curvature ratio, and spherical equivalent refraction were 22.72 ± 0.76 mm, 2.89 ± 0.24 mm, 3.61 ± 0.19 mm, 540.5 ± 31 µm, 12.06 ± 0.44 mm, 7.80 ± 0.25 mm, 2.91 ± 0.08, and +0.95 ± 1.05 diopters (D), respectively, in 7-year-old children. They were 24.39 ± 1.13 mm, 3.42 ± 0.41 mm, 3.18 ± 0.24 mm, 548.9 ± 33 µm, 12.03 ± 0.43 mm, 7.80 ± 0.26 mm, 3.13 ± 0.14, and -2.06 ± 2.20 D, respectively, in 14-year-old children. Compared with 7-year-old children, the older group had significantly more myopia (-3.0 D), longer axial length (1.7 mm), deeper anterior chamber depth (0.3 mm), thinner lens thickness (-0.2 mm), thicker central corneal thickness (10 µm), and greater axial length/corneal radius of curvature ratio (0.22) (all p < 0.001), as well as smaller corneal diameter (-0.03 mm, p = 0.02) and similar corneal radius of curvature. Sex differences were similar in both age groups, with boys having longer axial length (0.5 mm), deeper anterior chamber depth (0.1 mm), shorter lens thickness (0.03 mm), greater central corneal thickness (5 µm), greater corneal diameter (0.15 mm), and greater corneal radius of curvature (0.14 mm) than girls (all p < 0.01). The most important variables related to spherical equivalent refraction were vitreous length, corneal radius of curvature, and lens thickness. CONCLUSIONS: The 14-year-old group had larger parameter dimensions than the 7-year-old group except for corneal radius of curvature (unchanged) and lens thickness and corneal diameter (both smaller). Boys had large parameter dimensions than girls except for lens thickness (smaller). Axial length, corneal radius of curvature, and lens thickness were the most important determinants of refraction.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Biometria/métodos , Hiperopia/etnologia , Miopia/etnologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Comprimento Axial do Olho/anatomia & histologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 99(5): 674-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25370082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the distribution of peripheral refraction, including astigmatism, in 7- and 14-year-old Chinese children. METHODS: 2134 7-year-old and 1780 14-year-old children were measured with cycloplegic central and horizontal peripheral refraction (15° and 30° at temporal and nasal visual fields). RESULTS: 7- and 14-year-old children included 9 and 594, respectively, with moderate and high myopia (≤-3.0 D), 259 and 831 with low myopia (-2.99 to -0.5 D), 1207 and 305 with emmetropia (-0.49 to +1.0 D), and 659 and 50 with hyperopia (>1.0 D), respectively. Myopic children had relative peripheral hyperopia while hyperopic and emmetropic children had relative peripheral myopia, with greater changes in relative peripheral refraction occurring in the nasal than the temporal visual field. The older group had the greater relative peripheral hyperopia and higher peripheral J180. Both age groups showed positive slopes of J45 across the visual field, with greater slopes in the older group. CONCLUSIONS: Myopic children in mainland China have relative peripheral hyperopia while hyperopic and emmetropic children have relative peripheral myopia. Significant differences exist between 7- and 14-year-old children, with the latter showing more relative peripheral hyperopia, greater rate of change in J45 across the visual field, and higher peripheral J180.


Assuntos
Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 6(5): 611-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24195035

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the regularity and accuracy of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps created by the Ziemer FEMTO LDV "Classic" (Ziemer "Classic") and Ziemer FEMTO LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser (Ziemer Crystal Line). METHODS: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue OCT) was used to measure the morphology of 200 LASIK flaps of 100 consecutive patients created with the Ziemer Classic (100 flaps) or the Ziemer Crystal Line (100 flaps) at one week postoperatively. Flap thickness was evaluated at 36 specified measurement points on each flap. For all procedures with both lasers, the nominal flap thickness was 110µm. RESULTS: The mean flap thickness of the Ziemer Crystal Line group (102.49±2.68µm) was thinner than that of the Ziemer Classic group (107.65±5.09µm) (P<0.01). Average thickness of all flaps was uniform within 4µm at all measurement points. The flaps in the Ziemer Crystal Line group were more regular than those in the Ziemer Classic group when measured from the center to the periphery. The maximum deviation from the nominal 110µm of 36 measurements was 8µm in the Ziemer Classic group, while in the Ziemer Crystal Line group it was 9µm. Within the 3 600 measurements on the 100 eyes, differences greater than 20µm were observed 0.14% in the Ziemer Classic group, and 0.04% in the Ziemer Crystal Line group. CONCLUSION: The flaps created with the Ziemer FEMTO LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser are more uniform and thinner than those created by the Ziemer FEMTO LDV Classic femtosecond laser.

13.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 6(4): 498-504, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23991386

RESUMO

AIM: To compare visual performance of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with iris-registration (Wg-LASIK group) and conventional LASIK (LASIK group) one year after surgery and analyze the correlation between wavefront aberrations and visual performance. METHODS: Eight hundred and fifty-two myopic eyes of 430 patients were enrolled in this prospective study and divided into two groups: Wg-LASIK group (436 eyes) and LASIK group (416 eyes). A Wavescan Wavefront aberrometer was used to analyze Zernike coefficients and the root-mean-square (RMS) of higher order aberrations, and Optec 6500 visual function instrument was used to measure contrast sensitivity (CS) before and 3, 6, 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent (SE) in Wg-LASIK group was significantly better than those in LASIK group one year after surgery (P=0.024). Wg-LASIK eyes showed better CS values than LASIK eyes at all spatial frequencies with and without glare after surgery (P all<0.01). Moreover, the increase of higher RMS (RMSh), coma, RMS3, RMS4, RMS5 in Wg-LASIK group were significantly lower than those in LASIK group 1 year after surgery (P all<0.05). The increase of coma, spherical aberration (SA), RMS3 and RMS4 in Wg-LASIK and coma and RMS3 in LASIK group were negatively correlated with reduction of contrast sensitivity 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSION: A significant better visual performance is got in Wg-LASIK group compared with LASIK group 1 year after surgery, and the Wg-LASIK is particularly suitable for eyes with high-magnitude RMSh.

14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 126(13): 2440-4, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23823815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thin-flap laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the new trend of refractive error correction surgery, the formation of corneal flap is crucial for a success of LASIK surgery. This study aimed to assess and compare the variations of LASIK flap created by the IntraLase femtosecond laser, Moria One Use-Plus SBK and Moria M2 Single-Use 90 µm-head microkeratome using Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (Visante OCT). METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one eyes of 81 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study and randomly divided into three groups depending on the flap creation method: flap creation with the the IntraLase femtosecond laser (IntraLase group, 59 eyes), flap creation with the Moria One Use-Plus SBK (SBK group, 44 eyes), and flap creation with the Moria M2 Single-Use 90 µm-head microkeratome (M2SU90 group, 58 eyes). The nominal flap thickness was 110 µm for all patients and for the three devices. One month after surgery, Visante OCT was used to measure the flap thickness at 20 locations on each cornea and the results were assessed for uniformity, regularity, and accuracy. RESULTS: At 1 month after surgery, the mean central flap thickness was (111 ± 3) µm in the IntraLase group, (114 ± 8) µm in the SBK group, and (118 ± 13) µm in the M2SU90 group respectively. The flaps in the IntraLase group and the SBK group were more regular, showing an almost planar configuration, than the meniscus-shaped flaps in the M2SU90 group. The maximum deviation from the intended flap thickness (110 µm) was 6 µm in the IntraLase group, 10 µm in the SBK group, and 20 µm in the M2SU90 group respectively. A difference greater than 20 µm was observed in 0.42% of measurements in the IntraLase group; 2.95% of the measurements in the SBK group and 21.12% of measurements in the M2SU90 group. CONCLUSIONS: The flaps created by the IntraLase femtosecond laser and Moria One Use-Plus SBK are more uniform; more regular, and more accurate than those created by the Moria M2 Single-Use 90 µm-head microkeratome. The first two methods can make precise flaps for Sub-Bowman Keratomileusis.


Assuntos
Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
15.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 47(10): 934-7, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22321505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of single mode's high-order aberration on visual acuity in real time dynamically corrected using adaptive optics technique. METHODS: Control study. In a dark room, twelve young healthy volunteers were administrated with 5 g/L phenylephrine to fully dilate the right eye's pupil to a diameter over 6 mm. The subjects' myopia and astigmatism were fully corrected using optical lenses. Coma, trefoil, spherical aberration and other forth-order aberrations except for spherical aberration were corrected using adaptive optics, and 100% contrast visual acuity was simultaneously measured. RESULTS: All single mode's high-order aberrations were fully corrected, whereas other aberrations remained unchanged. Mean visual acuity of subjects was improved by 0.021 LogMAR, 0.017 LogMAR, 0.022 LogMAR and 0.025 LogMAR after correction of coma, trefoil, spherical aberration and other forth-order aberrations except for spherical aberration, respectively. Ratio of change in visual acuity was (-0.40 ± 1.22) LogMAR/µm, (-0.20 ± 0.61) LogMAR/µm, (-0.80 ± 1.44) LogMAR/µm and (-0.30 ± 0.57) LogMAR/µm, respectively. There was a linear correlation between visual acuity after correction of single mode's different high-order aberrations and RMS of residual aberrations (R(2) = 0.13, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Among high-order aberrations in normal human eye, spherical aberration generates a most impact on visual acuity, followed by coma, other forth-order aberrations except for spherical aberration and trefoil. A linear correlation was found between change in visual acuity and RMS of residual aberrations.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Optometria , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 123(11): 1431-5, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20819602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amblyopia is a common ophthalmological condition and the wavefront aberrometer is a relatively new diagnostic tool used globally to measure optical characteristics of human eyes as well as to study refractive errors in amblyopic eyes. We studied the wavefront aberration of the amblyopic children's eyes and analyzed the mechanism of the wavefront aberration in the formation of the amblyopia, try to investigate the new evidence of the treatment of the amblyopia, especially in the refractory amblyopia. METHODS: The WaveScan Wavefront System (VISX, USA) aberrometer was used to investigate four groups of children under dark accommodation and cilliary muscle paralysis. There were 45 cases in the metropic group, 87 in the amblyopic group, 92 in the corrected-amblyopic group and 38 in the refractory amblyopic group. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze all the data. RESULTS: Third order to 6th order aberrations showed a decreasing trend whereas in the higher order aberrations the main ones were 3rd order coma (Z(3)(-1)-Z(3)(1)), trefoil (Z(3)(-3)-Z(3)(3)) and 4th order aberration (Z(4)(0)); and 3rd order coma represented the highest percentage of all three main aberrations. Within 3rd order coma, vertical coma (Z(3)(-1)) accounted for a greater percentage than horizontal coma (Z(3)(1)). Significant differences of vertical coma were found among all clinical groups of children: vertical coma in the amblyopic group (0.17 +/- 0.15) was significantly higher than in the metropic group (0.11 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05). In addition, the vertical coma in the refractory amblyopic group (0.19 +/- 0.15) was higher compared with the metropic group (P < 0.05), the 5th order aberration (0.11 +/- 0.08) was also significantly higher than in the metropic group (0.07 +/- 0.04, P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in vertical coma and 5th order aberration between the corrected-amblyopic group (0.13 +/- 0.11) and metropic group (0.07 +/- 0.04) (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although lower order aberrations such as defocus (myopia and hyperopia) and astigmatism are major factors determining the quality of the retinal image, higher order aberrations also need to be considered in amblyopic eyes as their effects are significant.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/patologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Aberrometria , Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Refração/patologia
17.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 46(12): 1104-9, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21211225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy, uniformity and relevant factors of LASIK flaps created with a mechanical microkeratome Moria II (90, 110 and 130 heads). METHODS: It was a case-control study. Eighty-seven patients underwent LASIK in both eyes using Moria II 90 head (52 eyes, 26 cases), 110 head (58 eyes, 29 cases), or 130 head (64 eyes, 32 cases). One week after surgery, anterior segment optical coherence tomography was performed four times on each eye to measure flap thickness at 20 points in four meridians. The results were assessed for accuracy, uniformity and relevant factors. RESULTS: The central thickness of corneal flaps was (119.23±15.65), (140.42±12.26), and (165.92±17.00) µm by Moria II 90, 110 and 130 heads, respectively. The shape of the corneal flaps in the three groups resembled a concave lens, the central zone was significantly thinner than the paracentral and peripheral zones. The central flap thicknesses were statistically significantly more accurate and regular than the flap in the peripheral zone (F=212.419, P<0.05). The mean difference of right eye (19.58±0.44) µm was higher than that of the left eye (16.55±0.44) µm. The mean difference of knife in-side (21.30±0.55) µm was higher than the knife out-side (14.36±0.64) µm (F=25.341, 44.461; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The central flap thicknesses were more accurate as compared with the expected value. The mean flap thickness in the three groups was not uniform. Variation of the thickness in corneal flaps was greater in thicker flaps. The flap thickness in right eye was greater than that in left eye, according to the surgical sequence between two eyes. The flap thickness of blade in-side was thicker than that of out-side.


Assuntos
Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Segmento Anterior do Olho , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córnea/cirurgia , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Radiografia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
18.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 45(10): 926-30, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20137455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of different wavefront-guided aberration ablation patterns on visual function using adaptive optics technique and explore the effective and feasible pattern of customized refractive surgery. METHODS: Control study. Under dark condition, six volunteers'right eyes were fully dilated with 5 g/L phenyl ephedrine. The myopia and astigmatism were first fully corrected with optical lens, and then 100% contrast visual acuity of different wavefront correction patterns was detected using adaptive optics system in through a 6.0 mm pupil optical path. RESULTS: All of the eight different aberration correction strategies obtained excellent correction effect. On the basis of this correction, visual acuity test was performed. The results showed that all aberration correction strategies improved the visual acuity compared with static correction. Correction of high order aberrations and full correction of aberrations could obtain better visual acuity than that of only correction of low order aberrations. Correction of aberrations from second to third order and fourth order spherical aberration second only to full correction of aberration. CONCLUSION: As for low myopia patients, eliminating ocular high order aberrations could improve visual acuity. Correction of aberration from second to third order and fourth spherical aberration might be an effective and feasible pattern of customized refractive surgery.


Assuntos
Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Erros de Refração/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/terapia , Acuidade Visual
19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 121(2): 137-42, 2008 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18272040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) has become an efficient and commonly performed procedure to reduce refractive errors. In order to further increase the postoperative visual quality, the wavefront-guided refractive surgery has been a research hotspot in customized surgery. This study was conducted to compare the visual acuity, higher-order aberration, and contrast sensitivity of wavefront-guided LASIK with iris-registration and conventional LASIK. METHODS: Two hundred and eleven myopic eyes of 109 patients were enrolled in this prospective study and randomly divided into two groups: the wavefront-guided LASIK (wg LASIK) group (94 eyes) and conventional LASIK group (117 eyes). A Wavescan Wavefront aberrometer was used to analyze Zernike coefficients and the root-mean-square (RMS) of higher order aberrations with 6.0 mm pupil size, and Optec 6500 visual function instrument was used to measure contrast sensitivity (CS) under 5 spatial frequencies before and after surgery in both groups. RESULTS: The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and the mean spherical equivalent (SE) in wg LASIK group were significantly better than those in conventional LASIK (UCVA, z = 2.339, P = 0.019; SE, t = 2.838, P = 0.005) at 3 months after surgery. Moreover, the increase in Z(3)(-3), Z(3)(1), Z(3)(3), Z(4)(0), Z(5)(-1), Z(5)(1), Z(5)(5) and Z(6)(-6) in wg LASIK group was statistically smaller than that in conventional LASIK group (P < 0.05). In wg LASIK group, eyes with a higher amount of the preoperative RMS of the higher order aberrations (RMSh = 0.30 microm) showed a statistically lower increase (13.5%) than those in conventional LASIK group at 3 months after surgery (33.3%) (P = 0.004). And the values of 4th order spherical aberration (4thSA) and the root mean square of 6th order aberration (RMS6) in wg LASIK group were significantly lower than those in conventional group in eyes which had higher preoperative astigmatism (= 1.0D) (4thSA, P = 0.03; RMS6, P = 0.02). Wg LASIK group showed better CS values than the correspondingly preoperative values at all spatial frequencies with and without glare at 3 months after the surgery while conventional LASIK group displayed reduced CS values except for 1.5 and 3 cycles per degree with glare. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Wavefront-guided LASIK with iris-registration is efficient to reduce higher order aberrations especially spherical and coma aberrations, and to improve postoperative visual acuity and contrast sensitivity compared with conventional LASIK. The application of wavefront-guided LASIK with iris-registration is particularly suitable for eyes with higher preoperative RMSh values and eyes with higher preoperative astigmatism.


Assuntos
Iris/citologia , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Humanos , Refração Ocular , Acuidade Visual
20.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 56(4): 258-66, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16938115

RESUMO

PROBLEM: To investigate the Th1/Th2 cytokine changes in abortion-prone recipient mice adoptively transferred by the paternal antigen-hyporesponsive T cells. METHOD OF STUDY: The paternal antigen-hyporesponsive T cells were generated by the anti-B7 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment and adoptively transferred into pregnant CBA/J mice of abortion-prone matings on day 4 of gestation. The intracellular expressions of Th1 cell-derived cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, gamma-interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Th2 cell-derived cytokine, IL-4 and IL-10 in the maternal spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry, and secretions of the Th1 and Th2 cytokines in supernatant of the feto-placental unit culture were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Our findings showed the increased secretion of Th1 cytokines and the decreased secretion of Th2 cytokines in abortion-prone matings. Treatment with anti-B7 mAbs on day 4 of gestation enhanced Th2 and reduced Th1 cytokine production in abortion-prone matings. Similarly, adoptive transfer of paternal antigen-hyporesponsive T cells induced maternal tolerance to the fetus and displayed a Th2 bias both in the peripheral lymphocytes and at the materno-fetal interface of the abortion-prone matings. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the Th2 cytokine bias and an increase in fetal viability induced by the anti-B7 mAb treatment can be transferred to other pregnant mice of the abortion-prone matings.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Placenta/imunologia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Células Th2/imunologia , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia
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