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1.
J Insect Physiol ; 116: 41-48, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026441

RESUMO

To establish successful infections, endoparasitoid wasps must develop strategies to evade immune responses of the host. Here, we identified and characterized a teratocytes-expressed gene encoding a trypsin inhibitor-like protein containing a cysteine-rich domain from Cotesia vestalis, CvT-TIL. CvT-TIL had a high expression level during the later developmental stage of teratocytes and was secreted into host hemolymph. Further experiments showed CvT-TIL strongly suppressed the prophenoloxidase activation of host hemolymph in a dose-dependent manner by interacting with PxPAP3 of PO cascade. Our results not only provide evidence for an inhibition between CvT-TIL gene and the host's melanization activity, but also expand our knowledge about the mechanisms by which parasitoids regulate humoral immunity of the host.

2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2205, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880839

RESUMO

Parasitic wasps produce several factors including venom, polydnaviruses (PDVs) and specialized wasp cells named teratocytes that benefit the survival of offspring by altering the physiology of hosts. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for the alterations remain unclear. Here we find that the teratocytes of Cotesia vestalis, an endoparasitoid of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, and its associated bracovirus (CvBV) can produce miRNAs and deliver the products into the host via different ways. Certain miRNAs in the parasitized host are mainly produced by teratocytes, while the expression level of miRNAs encoded by CvBV can be 100-fold greater in parasitized hosts than non-parasitized ones. We further show that one teratocyte-produced miRNA (Cve-miR-281-3p) and one CvBV-produced miRNA (Cve-miR-novel22-5p-1) arrest host growth by modulating expression of the host ecdysone receptor (EcR). Altogether, our results show the first evidence of cross-species regulation by miRNAs in animal parasitism and their possible function in the alteration of host physiology during parasitism.

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