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1.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994052

RESUMO

The role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is unclear. We characterized the function of AMs in rats chronically exposed to biomass fuel smoke (BMF) and studied the signal pathways that regulate AMs polarization. One hundred and eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into BMF group and clean air control (CON) group. After BMF smoke exposure for 4 days, 1 month and 6 months, the cytokine secretion and function of AMs were determined by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured and exposed to particulate matter (PM) from the smoke. Exposure initially promoted pro-inflammatory factors, but pro-inflammatory macrophages shared features of anti-inflammatory macrophages. Consistent with IL-4 upregulated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, p-Stat6 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in AMs elevated at 4 days of exposure. After 6 months of exposure, CD206, TGF-ß1 and p-Smad3 were significantly higher than the control groups. PPARγ reversed the M1 phenotype induced by PM in vitro and drove the macrophages into the M2 phenotype. Altogether, the study demonstrates the dynamic phenotype and functional changes in AMs during exposure to BMF smoke.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118464, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763019

RESUMO

The use of biomass for cooking and heating is considered an important factor associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have previously addressed its underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the effects of biomass-related PM2.5 (BRPM2.5) exposure on 16HBE human airway epithelial cells and in mice with regard to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study indicated that BRPM2.5 exposure of 16HBE cells resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased expression of fission proteins-phospho-DRP1, increased mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), and decreased levels of ATP. BRPM2.5 altered the mitochondrial metabolism of 16HBE cells by decreasing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and glycolysis. However, Mitochondria targeted peptide SS-31 eliminated mitochondrial ROS and alleviated the ATP deficiency and proinflammatory cytokines release. BRPM2.5 exposure resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphological alterations both in 16HBE and in lung tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that BRPM2.5 has detrimental effects on human airway epithelial cells, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mitochondrial metabolism and altered mitochondrial dynamics. The present study provides the first evidence that disruption of mitochondrial structure and mitochondrial metabolism may be one of the mechanisms of BRPM2.5-induced respiratory dysfunction.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Pulmão , Animais , Biomassa , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Camundongos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 538-545, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520901

RESUMO

Binary transition metal oxides, especially vanadate metal oxides, are highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) anode materials due to their low-budget and high theoretical lithium storage capacity. However, low conductivity and poor cycle stability caused by volume changes during charge and discharge limit their grid-scale applications. Herein, a novel spinel MnV2O4 double-layer hollow sandwich nanosheets enclosed in N-doped porous carbon layer (MnV2O4/NC) was efficiently synthesized in 5 min by microwave-assisted and in-situ pyrolysis the coated polydopamine. MnV2O4/NC shows the superior performance as anode for LIBs with a specific capacities of 760 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 and outstanding of cycling stability with a specific capacities of 525.5 mA h g-1 after 1000 cycles even at 5000 mA g-1, respectively, which due to its unique double-layer hollow sandwich microstructure, mixed lithium storage mechanism and in-situ coating of nitrogen-doped carbon layer.

4.
Respir Med ; 190: 106681, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small airway dysfunction (SAD) is an early lesion of chronic respiratory disease that is best detected using impulse oscillometry (IOS). Few studies have investigated risk factors for IOS-defined SAD (IOS-SAD) in a large population. We aimed to explore the clinical features of and risk factors for IOS-SAD in a community-based population. METHODS: We divided subjects into IOS-SAD and non-SAD groups based on a cutoff of >0.07 kPa/L/s in the difference between the resistance at 5 Hz versus the resistance at 20 Hz (R5-R20). All participants underwent spirometry, IOS, and completed a questionnaire; some participants underwent computed tomography (CT). We analyzed the risk factors for SAD based on binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The total cohort comprised 1327 subjects. The prevalence of IOS-SAD was 32.9% (437/1327). Compared with the non-SAD group, the IOS-SAD group was older (64.0 ± 7.8 vs. 59.6 ± 7.8 years, p < 0.001), included less never-smokers (30.2% vs. 35.8%, p < 0.001), had greater airway resistance and worse lung function, indicated by a larger R5-R20 (0.15 ± 0.08 vs. 0.03 ± 0.02 kPa/L/s, p < 0.001) and smaller forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity after bronchodilation (60.2 ± 14.4% vs. 72.6 ± 10.0%, p < 0.001); on CT, the IOS-SAD group had higher prevalences of emphysema and gas trapping. Risk factors for SAD were older age, high BMI, smoking, childhood cough, and asthma. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IOS-SAD had increased airway resistance and visible CT changes. Individuals with smoking exposure, advanced age, high BMI, childhood cough, and asthma were more prone to SAD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900024643.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802771

RESUMO

Rechargeable aqueous zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) have attracted more and more attention due to the advantages of high safety, low cost, and environmental friendly in recent years. However, the lack of high-performance cathode materials and uncertain reaction mechanisms hinder the large-scale application of ZIBs. Herein, a 1D structure interlaced by ZnxMnO2 nanowires and carbon nanotubes is synthesized as cathode material for ZIB. The ZnxMnO2/CNTs cathode exhibits excellent specific capacity of 400 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and outstanding long-cycle stability (with a capacity retention of 93% after 100 cycles at 1000 mA g-1), which indicates the Zn2+ pre-intercalation and composite carbon nanotubes can effectively change the storage space of the tunnel structure and increase the electron transmission rate. In addition, the energy storage mechanism of the highly reversible co-insertion of H+ and Zn2+ is further elaborated. This work has enlightenment and promotion for the future research of ZIBs cathode materials. Moreover, the simple preparation method, low cost and excellent performance of ZnxMnO2/CNTs cathode material provide a new way for the practical application of ZIBs.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813411

RESUMO

RATIONALE: It remains unknown whether long-term ozone exposure can impair lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between long-term ozone exposure and adult lung function in China. METHODS: Lung function results and diagnosis of small airways dysfunction (SAD) were collected from a cross-sectional study, China Pulmonary Health Study (N=50,991). We used multivariate linear and logistic regression models to examine the associations of long-term ozone exposure with lung function parameters and SAD, respectively, adjusting for demographic characteristics, individual risk factors, and longitudinal trend. We then performed a stratification analysis by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We observed each 1-standard deviation (SD, 4.9 ppb) increase in warm-season ozone concentrations was associated with a 14.2 mL/s [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.8, 19.6] decrease in forced expiratory flow at 75th percentile of vital capacity and a 29.5 mL/s (95% CI: 19.6, 39.5) decrease in mean forced expiratory flow between the 25th and 75th percentile of vital capacity. The odds ratio of SAD was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.11) for a 1-SD increase in warm-season ozone concentrations. Meanwhile, we observed a significant association with a decreased ratio of expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) but not with FEV1 or FVC. The association estimates were greater in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group. CONCLUSION: We found independent associations of long-term ozone exposure with impaired small airways function and higher SAD risks, while the associations with airflow obstruction were weak. COPD patients appear to be more vulnerable.

7.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 274, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, but the contribution of gut microbes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still poorly understood. METHODS: We carried out 16S rRNA gene sequencing and short-chain fatty acid analyses in stool samples from a cohort of 73 healthy controls, 67 patients with COPD of GOLD stages I and II severity, and 32 patients with COPD of GOLD stages III and IV severity. Fecal microbiota from the three groups were then inoculated into recipient mice for a total of 14 times in 28 days to induce pulmonary changes. Furthermore, fecal microbiota from the three groups were inoculated into mice exposed to smoke from biomass fuel to induce COPD-like changes. RESULTS: We observed that the gut microbiome of COPD patients varied from that of healthy controls and was characterized by a distinct overall microbial diversity and composition, a Prevotella-dominated gut enterotype and lower levels of short-chain fatty acids. After 28 days of fecal transplantation from COPD patients, recipient mice exhibited elevated lung inflammation. Moreover, when mice were under both fecal transplantation and biomass fuel smoke exposure for a total of 20 weeks, accelerated declines in lung function, severe emphysematous changes, airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion were observed. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that altered gut microbiota in COPD patients is associated with disease progression in mice model.

8.
Nanoscale ; 13(30): 13065-13071, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477790

RESUMO

High-capacity Co2VO4 has become a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), benefiting from its lower output voltage during cycling than other cobalt vanadates. However, the application of this new conversion-type electrode is still hampered by its inherent large volume variation and poor kinetics. Here, a 2D-2D heterostructure building strategy has been developed to enhance the electrode performance of Co2VO4 through construction of Co/Co2VO4 nanocomposites converted from the in situ phase separation of Co2V2O7·3.3H2O nanosheets. Co/Co2VO4 based on face-to-face contact exhibits the optimized stacking configuration, where Co nanocrystals give gaps of several nanometers between stacked Co2VO4 nanosheets, enabling full contact with the electrolyte, a shorter transport path of lithium ions and more reactive sites. With this design, Co/Co2VO4 anodes deliver outstanding reversible capacity (750 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1) with ultrahigh capacity retention rate, and excellent cycle stability at high rate (520 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1 retained after 400 cycles). An "active center's charge transfer-capacity compensation" model was proposed based on capacity analysis, XPS depth analysis and HRTEM observation to uncover the fundamental reason of the excellent cycle performance. This in situ 2D-2D heterostructure constructing strategy may open up the possibility for designing high-performance LIBs.

9.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2575-2584, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531653

RESUMO

Background and Objective: To determine the effects of BSE (biomass smoke exposure) on pulmonary and non-pulmonary changes in patients with COPD compared with normal individuals. Methods: Using a cohort, we recruited 16 healthy individuals with BSE (BSE normal), 19 patients with BSE+COPD, 13 healthy individuals with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE normal), 25 patients with CSE+COPD, and 25 healthy controls. Patients with GOLD stage I and II COPD were included. Baseline data (demographic data, BSE or CSE, lung function, and CT findings) and follow-up lung function data were collected. CT parameters of emphysema, pulmonary small vessels, airway remodeling, pectoralis muscles, and erector spinae muscle were measured. Results: Individuals with BSE were mainly women (32/35, 91.43%). Compared with the CSE+COPD group, the BSE+COPD group demonstrated slower lung function decline, increased lower lung emphysema, narrower airway lumen dimensions and increased airway wall thickening in the moderate and small airways (all P<0.05). Compared with healthy controls, the CSE normal and BSE normal groups exhibited significant reductions in pulmonary small vessel area and obvious airway remodeling in small airways (P<0.05). Compared with the BSE normal group, the BSE+COPD group showed significantly more severe emphysema and airway remodeling, as well as reduced left pectoralis major muscle area (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Healthy individuals with BSE had reduced pulmonary small vessel area and evidence of airway remodeling; patients with BSE and COPD showed more severe emphysema, airway remodeling, and reductions in pectoralis major muscle area. Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR-OO-14004264.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Biomassa , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Fumaça , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(7): 4043-4053, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422334

RESUMO

Background: To reappraise the prevalence and characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China with a criterion of FEV1/FVC < the lower limit of normal (LLN). Methods: We assessed the incidence and characteristics of airflow limitation using data from the Chinese Epidemiological Survey of COPD study-a multicenter, randomized trial, with an age-dependent LLN reference equation [established by the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health (GIRH)]. Questionnaire and spirometry data were collected for all eligible subjects. COPD prevalence, risk factors, severity distribution, as well as comparisons of characteristics between the LLN and 0.7 were analyzed. Results: COPD prevalence was 9.0% among participants aged 40-80 years in China with the criterion of LLN. Greater prevalence was observed in female sex, rural areas and never smokers than with the GOLD 0.7 fixed ratio. Age distribution showed a higher incidence of COPD in people under 60 years but lower in participants over 60 years of age. With the LLN FEV1 reference equation, patients in stage I were decreased (15.8% vs. 24.6%, P<0.001), while the proportion of patients in stage III and IV were increased when compared with the China 2002 revised equation (27.7% vs. 21.1%, for stage III, P<0.001; 8.7% vs. 5.6% for stage IV, P=0.001). Only 30.8% of patients with COPD had ever been "diagnosed" with COPD and 60.6% of the patients had respiratory symptoms, both lower than that under the GOLD 0.7 fixed-ratio criterion (35.5%, P=0.004; 64.8% for symptoms, P=0.014). Conclusions: With the GIRH-LLN criterion, COPD prevalence was slightly higher, and a large number of women, rural patients and nonsmokers with young age and little symptoms were diagnosed when compared with GOLD 0.7 fixed ratio. These subjects may, therefore, deserve further attention and may warrant regular follow-up. Trial Registration: Registration number: ChiCTR-ECS-13004110.

11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2049-2063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285479

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this paper was to analyse the influence of atmospheric fine particulate matter (AFPM) and atmospheric microorganisms on the pulmonary microecology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in northeast China. Methods: Collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COPD patients in the high-risk period (group A) and low-risk period (group B) of AFPM inhalation and samples of AFPM in the same time range (group C) were collected. DNA sample sequencing, the bacterial abundance, and diversity bioinformatics of BALFs were performed by methods of Illumina MiSeq™ platform and Mothur and Uclust. Results: A total of 58 samples were sequenced, including 22 samples from group A, 26 samples from group B and 10 samples from group C. A total of 2,005,790 bacterial sequences and 34,256 bacterial numbers were detected. Group B had the highest bacterial diversity of the three groups. Group B also had the highest bacterial abundance index value. There were differences in the classification of bacterial colonies for the three groups at the genus level. The types of bacteria in group C were more numerous than other groups, and group B was higher than group A, which indicates that there were more bacteria in BALF during the high-risk period of AFPM inhalation. The detection rates of Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, Roche, Pushia, Chlamydia trachomatis and Brucella for group C were significantly higher than group A. The COG and KEGG databases' difference analysis results for the bacterial gene function abundance of group A and group B were 40.7% in group A and 38.9% in group B (R=0.098, P=0.006). The human disease abundance in group A and group B was 1.16% and 1.12%, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion: The increase in the concentration of AFPM can increase the diversity and abundance of bacteria in the BALF of stable COPD patients. Clinical Trial Registration Number: 2020XS04-02.


Assuntos
Material Particulado , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Bactérias/genética , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Humanos , Pulmão , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
12.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(7): e479, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323408

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a complex condition with multiple etiologies, including inflammation. We identified a novel long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), interleukin 6 antisense RNA 1 (IL6-AS1), which is upregulated in this disease and is associated with airway inflammation. We found that IL6-AS1 promotes the expression of inflammatory factors, especially interleukin (IL) 6. Mechanistically, cytoplasmic IL6-AS1 acts as an endogenous sponge by competitively binding to the microRNA miR-149-5p to stabilize IL-6 mRNA. Nuclear IL6-AS1 promotes IL-6 transcription by recruiting early B-cell factor 1 to the IL-6 promoter, which increases the methylation of the H3K4 histone and acetylation of the H3K27 histone. We propose a model of lncRNA expression in both the nucleus and cytoplasm that exerts similar effects through differing mechanisms, and IL6-AS1 probably increases inflammation via multiple pathways.

13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2039-2047, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267511

RESUMO

Purpose: The use of simple and affordable screening tools for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. We aimed to assess the validity of a handheld expiratory flowmeter (Vitalograph Ltd., COPD-6®, Ireland) for COPD screening in Chinese primary care settings. Methods: In our cross-sectional study, subjects were randomly selected in eight primary care settings. Tests with the handheld expiratory flowmeter and the conventional spirometry were sequentially performed on all participants. The correlation between the handheld expiratory flowmeter and the conventional spirometry was determined. Validity was determined by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) that used to detect airway obstruction. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated according to different FEV1/FEV6 cut-off points. Results: A total of 229 subjects (15.4%) were diagnosed with airflow limitation by conventional spirometry. FEV1, FEV6, and FEV1/FEV6 measured by the handheld expiratory flowmeter were correlated with FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC measured by the conventional spirometry (r=0.889, 0.835 and 0.647, p<0.001), respectively. AUC of the FEV1/FEV6 to determine airflow obstruction was 0.857 (95% CI: 0.826 to 0.888). No significant difference of AUC was observed between the symptomatic group and the asymptomatic group (AUC=0.869 vs 0.843, P=0.425). A similar phenomenon was found in the AUC of smokers and never-smokers (AUC=0.862 vs 0.840; P=0.515). The cut-off point for FEV1/FEV6 was 0.77 and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 89.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The handheld expiratory flowmeter might be used as a screening device for COPD in Chinese primary care settings.


Assuntos
Fluxômetros , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , China , Estudos Transversais , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
14.
Environ Int ; 156: 106707, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182192

RESUMO

The associations of long-term exposure to various constituents of fine particulate matter (≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) air pollution with lung function were not clearly elucidated in developing countries. The aim was to evaluate the associations of long-term exposure to main constituents of PM2.5 with lung function in China. This is a nationwide, cross-sectional analysis among 50,991 study participants from the China Pulmonary Health study. Multivariable linear regression models were used to obtain differences of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of exhaled FVC (FEF25-75%) associated with an interquartile range (IQR) change of PM2.5 or its constituents. Residential annual PM2.5 levels varied from 26 µg/m3 to 92 µg/m3 (average: 53 µg/m3). An IQR increase of PM2.5 concentrations was associated with lower FEV1 (19.82 mL, 95% CI: 11.30-28.33), FVC (17.45 mL, 95% CI: 7.16-27.74), PEF (86.64 mL/s, 95% CI: 59.77-113.52), and FEF25-75% (31.93 mL/s, 95% CI: 16.64-47.22). Black carbon, organic matter, ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate were negatively associated with most lung function indicators, with organic matter and nitrate showing consistently larger magnitude of associations than PM2.5 mass. This large-scale study provides first-hand epidemiological evidence that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and some constituents, especially organic matter and nitrate, were associated with lower large- and small- airway function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Environ Res ; 201: 111544, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While temperature changes have been confirmed as one of the contributory factors affecting human health, the association between high-frequency temperature variability (HFTV, i.e., temperature variation at short time scales such as 1, 2, and 5 days) and the hospitalization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was rarely reported. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between high-frequency temperature variabilities (i.e., at 1, 2, and 5-day scales) and daily COPD hospitalization. METHODS: We collected daily records of COPD hospitalization and meteorological variables from 2013 to 2017 in 21 cities of Guangdong Province, South China. A quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed lag nonlinear model was first employed to quantify the effects of two HFTV measures, i.e., the day-to-day (DTD) temperature change and the intraday-interday temperature variability (IITV), on COPD morbidity for each city. Second, we used multivariate meta-analysis to pool the city-specific estimates, and stratified analyses were performed by age and sex to identify vulnerable groups. Then, the meta-regression with city-level characteristics was employed to detect the potential sources of the differences among 21 cities. RESULTS: A monotonic increasing curve of the overall exposure-response association was observed, suggesting that positive HFTV (i.e., increased DTD and IITV) will significantly increase the risk of COPD admission. Negative DTD was associated with reduced COPD morbidity while positive DTD elevated the COPD risk. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in DTD was associated with a 24% (95% CI: 12-38%) increase in COPD admissions. An IQR increase in IITV0-1 was associated with 18% (95% CI: 7-27%) increase in COPD admissions. Males and people aged 0-64 years appeared to be more vulnerable to the DTD effect than others. Potential sources of the disparity among different cities include urbanization level, sex structure, industry structure, gross domestic product (GDP), health care services, and air quality. CONCLUSIONS: The increases of DTD and IITV have significant adverse impacts on COPD hospitalization. As climate change intensifies, precautions need to be taken to mitigate the impacts of high-frequency temperature changes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Temperatura
16.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 9953234, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012494

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a typical heterogeneous condition caused by environmental and genetic risk factors. Objectives: We investigated extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic (genetic) factors contributing to the development of COPD in a nonsmoker road-working population in Northeast China. Method: The target population was divided into a COPD group and an exposed control group. Another healthy nonroad working nonsmoker control group was also included for environmental factor comparison. Peripheral blood was collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for inorganic elements of PM2.5, and microarray, rt-PCR, and Multiplex ELISA for genetic factors. Results: Forty-three COPD road workers, thirty-nine non-COPD road workers, and 52 age and gender-matched healthy nonroad workers were enrolled. There were significantly higher levels in all 24 inorganic elements in the COPD group compared with the healthy control group except potassium and manganese, while the majority of inorganic elements were similar between the COPD group and the exposed control group except in aluminum and cobalt. There were 39 genes showing significant differences between the COPD group and the exposed control group. Collagen, type XV, alpha 1 (COL15A1), Meis homeobox 1 (MEIS1), carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3), and amine oxidase, copper containing 3 (AOC3) were confirmed by rt-PCR to be differentially expressed. Their correlations with blood cytokines were also evaluated. Conclusions: Aluminum might contribute to the development of COPD in the road-working population. CBR3 and AOC3 seem expressed in different patterns than previously reported, evidenced by their correlation with proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/genética , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Meis1/genética , Proteína Meis1/metabolismo , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(5): 390, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842611

RESUMO

Background: Prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can cause permanent changes in lung anatomy and is associated with lung function loss. However, it remains unclear whether pulmonary function impairment owing to TB is associated with airflow obstruction, the hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the association and quantify the magnitudes of association between pulmonary TB and COPD, and to evaluate the prevalence of COPD in patients with prior pulmonary TB. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies published from inception to January 1, 2020. Pooled effect sizes were calculated according to a random effects model or fixed effect model depending on heterogeneity. Specific subgroups (different diagnostic criteria, smoking status, income level) were examined. Results: A total of 23 articles were included in this study. Compared with controls, patients with pulmonary TB had an odds ratios (ORs) of 2.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-3.15; P<0.001] for developing COPD. In jackknife sensitivity analyses, the increased risk of prior pulmonary TB remained consistent for COPD; when the meta-analysis was repeated and one study was omitted each time, the ORs and corresponding 95% CIs were greater than 2. Funnel plots of ORs with Egger's linear regression (t=2.00, P=0.058) and Begg's rank correlation (Z=0.75, P=0.455) showing no significant publication bias. Subgroup analysis showed that the same conclusion was still present in never smokers (ORs 2.41; 95% CI: 1.74-3.32; P<0.001), patients with pulmonary TB diagnosed using chest X-ray (ORs 2.47; 95% CI: 1.23-4.97; P<0.001), and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings (ORs 2.70; 95% CI: 2.08-3.51; P<0.001). The pooled prevalence of COPD in patients with prior pulmonary TB was 21% (95% CI: 16-25%; P<0.001). Conclusions: Individuals with prior pulmonary TB have an increased risk and high prevalence of COPD. Future studies identifying the underlying mechanisms for TB-associated COPD and therapeutic strategies are required.

18.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829055

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 patient airways plugged by MUC5AC-containing mucus exhibit hyperplasia of goblet cells, and hypoplasia of multiciliated cells and club cells, as well as significantly reduced CC16 and MUC5B levels, and increased IL-13 levels https://bit.ly/2M2NcdO.

19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6668971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824697

RESUMO

Background: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling is a hallmark in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NADPH oxidase 4- (NOX4-) mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production plays a crucial role in cell differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in ASM remodeling. However, the precise mechanisms underpinning its pathogenic roles remain elusive. Methods: The expression of NOX4 and TGF-ß 1 in the airway of the lung was measured in COPD patients and the control group. Cigarette smoke- (CS-) induced emphysema mice were generated, and the alteration of α-SMA, NOX4, TGF-ß 1, and collagen I was accessed. The changes of the expression of ECM markers, NOX4, components of TGF-ß/Smad, and MAPK/Akt signaling in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) were ascertained for delineating mechanisms of NOX4-mediated ROS production on cell differentiation and remodeling in human ASM cells. Results: An increased abundance of NOX4 and TGF-ß 1 proteins in the epithelial cells and ASM of lung was observed in COPD patients compared with the control group. Additionally, an increased abundance expression of NOX4 and α-SMA was observed in the lungs of the CS-induced emphysema mouse model. TGF-ß 1 displayed abilities to increase the oxidative burden and collagen I production, along with enhanced phosphorylation of ERK, p38MAPK, and p-Akt473 in HBSMCs. These effects of TGF-ß 1 could be inhibited by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 and NOX4, and pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 (p38MAPK inhibitor) and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor). Conclusions: NOX4-mediated ROS production alters TGF-ß 1-induced cell differentiation and collagen I protein synthesis in HBSMCs in part through the p38MAPK/Akt signaling pathway in a Smad-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1724, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741972

RESUMO

T-cell immunity is important for recovery from COVID-19 and provides heightened immunity for re-infection. However, little is known about the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity in virus-exposed individuals. Here we report virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contacts. We also demonstrate the size and quality of the memory T-cell pool of COVID-19 patients are larger and better than those of close contacts. However, the proliferation capacity, size and quality of T-cell responses in close contacts are readily distinguishable from healthy donors, suggesting close contacts are able to gain T-cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 despite lacking a detectable infection. Additionally, asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients contain similar levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell memory. Overall, this study demonstrates the versatility and potential of memory T cells from COVID-19 patients and close contacts, which may be important for host protection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interferon gama/imunologia
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