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1.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 199, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellulase synthesized by fungi can environment-friendly and sustainably degrades cellulose to fermentable sugars for producing cellulosic biofuels, biobased medicine and fine chemicals. Great efforts have been made to study the regulation mechanism of cellulase biosynthesis in fungi with the focus on the carbon sources, while little attention has been paid to the impact and regulation mechanism of nitrogen sources on cellulase production. RESULTS: Glutamine displayed the strongest inhibition effect on cellulase biosynthesis in Trichoderma reesei, followed by yeast extract, urea, tryptone, ammonium sulfate and L-glutamate. Cellulase production, cell growth and sporulation in T. reesei RUT-C30 grown on cellulose were all inhibited with the addition of glutamine (a preferred nitrogen source) with no change for mycelium morphology. This inhibition effect was attributed to both L-glutamine itself and the nitrogen excess induced by its presence. In agreement with the reduced cellulase production, the mRNA levels of 44 genes related to the cellulase production were decreased severely in the presence of glutamine. The transcriptional levels of genes involved in other nitrogen transport, ribosomal biogenesis and glutamine biosynthesis were decreased notably by glutamine, while the expression of genes relevant to glutamate biosynthesis, amino acid catabolism, and glutamine catabolism were increased noticeably. Moreover, the transcriptional level of cellulose signaling related proteins ooc1 and ooc2, and the cellular receptor of rapamycin trFKBP12 was increased remarkably, whose deletion exacerbated the cellulase depression influence of glutamine. CONCLUSION: Glutamine may well be the metabolite effector in nitrogen repression of cellulase synthesis, like the role of glucose plays in carbon catabolite repression. Glutamine under excess nitrogen condition repressed cellulase biosynthesis significantly as well as cell growth and sporulation in T. reesei RUT-C30. More importantly, the presence of glutamine notably impacted the transport and metabolism of nitrogen. Genes ooc1, ooc2, and trFKBP12 are associated with the cellulase repression impact of glutamine. These findings advance our understanding of nitrogen regulation of cellulase production in filamentous fungi, which would aid in the rational design of strains and fermentation strategies for cellulase production in industry.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(34): 18359-18368, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612377

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention in gas sensing due to their graphene-like properties. Although the gas sensing performances of 2D layered semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including MoS2, WS2, MoSe2 and WSe2, have been extensively studied, it has remained a grand challenge to develop a high-performance gas sensing material that can meet practical applications. Tantalum disulfide (TaS2), as a metallic TMD with low resistance and high current signal, has great promise in high-performance gas sensing. In stark contrast with Mo and W, Ta has a stronger positive charge, which contributes to a higher surface energy to capture gas molecules. Herein, through calculating the adsorption energy, charge transfer, electronic structure, and work function of the adsorption system with first-principles calculations, we first systematically studied the performance of noble metal atom substitution doping on a TaS2 monolayer for toxic nitrogen-containing gas (NH3, NO and NO2) sensing. We found that the TaS2 monolayer exhibits excellent NO sensing performance with an adsorption energy of 0.49 eV and a charge transfer of 0.17 e. However, it has a considerable adsorption energy (-0.22 and -0.39 eV) to NH3 and NO2 molecules, but a low charge transfer (-0.03 and 0.04 e) between the gas molecules and the TaS2 monolayer. To further enhance the gas-sensing performance of the TaS2 monolayer, noble metal atoms (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt) were substitutionally doped into the lattice of the TaS2 monolayer. The results showed that the values of adsorption energy and charge transfer can be significantly improved, and the electronic structure and work function of the doping system has also greatly changed, which makes it much easier to detect the changes in electrical signal due to gas adsorption. Our work indicates that the intrinsic as well as the noble metal doped TaS2 monolayers are promising candidates for high-performance gas sensors.

3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112354, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474902

RESUMO

In this paper, silk fibroin (SF) porous microcarriers containing strontium were constructed as injectable bone tissue engineering vehicles. The effects of SF concentration and strontium content on micromorphology, element distribution, strontium ion release and cellular behavior of the constructed microcarriers were investigated. The microcarriers with an open interconnected pore can be fabricated by controlling the concentration of SF. The strontium functionalized SF microcarriers showed the sustained release of strontium ion and allowed bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to attach, proliferate and secrete extracellular matrix. Furthermore, the strontium functionalized SF microcarriers improved the osteogenic capability of BMSCs in vitro compared with those microcarriers without sustained release of strontium ion. This study presents a valuable approach to fabricate polymeric microcarriers with the capability of sustained release of strontium ion that show potential in bone tissue engineering applications.


Assuntos
Fibroínas , Diferenciação Celular , Osteogênese , Porosidade , Estrôncio , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
4.
Neural Comput ; 33(11): 2951-2970, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474485

RESUMO

Current neural networks are mostly built on the MP model, which usually formulates the neuron as executing an activation function on the real-valued weighted aggregation of signals received from other neurons. This letter proposes the flexible transmitter (FT) model, a novel bio-plausible neuron model with flexible synaptic plasticity. The FT model employs a pair of parameters to model the neurotransmitters between neurons and puts up a neuron-exclusive variable to record the regulated neurotrophin density. Thus, the FT model can be formulated as a two-variable, two-valued function, taking the commonly used MP neuron model as its particular case. This modeling manner makes the FT model biologically more realistic and capable of handling complicated data, even spatiotemporal data. To exhibit its power and potential, we present the flexible transmitter network (FTNet), which is built on the most common fully connected feedforward architecture taking the FT model as the basic building block. FTNet allows gradient calculation and can be implemented by an improved backpropagation algorithm in the complex-valued domain. Experiments on a broad range of tasks show that FTNet has power and potential in processing spatiotemporal data. This study provides an alternative basic building block in neural networks and exhibits the feasibility of developing artificial neural networks with neuronal plasticity.

5.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(8): 1525-1534, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544530

RESUMO

The development of science and technology has deepened people's understanding of cancer, changing the management of malignant tumors in the medical field. Given the common precancerous characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC), researchers studied early CRC screening. The complexity of traditional diagnostics forced medical staff to speed up CRC innovation early screening methods. Here, we prepared nano-colloidal gold raw materials with different particle sizes (15 and 30 nm) and observed the morphological characteristics and properties of the materials. Simultaneously, the nanocolloidal gold double antibody sandwich kit was designed through the optimum pH value and protein content screening experiment. The results of clinical enteroscopy confirmed the important guiding significance of the equipment in early CRC screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Sangue Oculto , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Coloide de Ouro , Humanos
6.
Diagn Pathol ; 16(1): 66, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain gastric cancers exhibit some primitive phenotypes, which may indicate a high malignancy. In histologically differentiated early gastric cancer (EGC), the presence and the clinicopathological significance of the primitive phenotype remain unclear. METHODS: Using immunohistochemical staining we detected the expression of three primitive phenotypic markers SALL4, Glypican-3(GPC3), and AFP in whole tissue sections of differentiated EGC (gastrectomy specimens, n = 302). For those cases with primitive phenotypes, we analyzed their clinicopathological features and evaluated whether the criteria for endoscopic resection were met. RESULTS: We found that 9.3% (28/302) of all differentiated EGC cases have primitive phenotypes, and most of these cases (25/28) exhibit a histomorphology similar to conventional differentiated EGC. Patients with primitive phenotypes had a deeper invasion, a higher rate of ulcer and lymphatic invasion than cases without primitive phenotype. Moreover, patients with primitive phenotypes displayed a significantly higher frequency of LNM than those without (57.1% vs 8.8%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that presence of primitive phenotypes was an independent risk factor for LNM (P = 0.001, HR 6.977, 95% CI: 2.199-22.138). Interestingly, we found 2 cases with primitive phenotypes developed LNM, and they both met the expanded indications of endoscopic resection for differentiated EGC. CONCLUSIONS: A small number of differentiated EGC have primitive phenotypes, which were closely related to LNM and were an independent risk factor for LNM. Given its highly aggressive behavior, differentiated EGC with primitive phenotypes should be evaluated with stricter criteria before endoscopic resection, or considered to give an additional surgical operation after endoscopic resection.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 32(44)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315147

RESUMO

Tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets (NSs) have become a promising room-temperature gas sensor candidate due to their inherent high surface-to-volume ratio, tunable electrical properties, and high on-state current density. For further practical applications of WS2-based gas sensors, it is still necessary to overcome the insensitive response and incomplete recovery at room temperature. In this work, we controllably synthesized high-performance ammonia (NH3) gas sensor based on CuO decorated WS2NSs. The optimized p-p WS2/CuO heterojunctions improve the surface catalytic effect, thereby enhancing the gas-sensing performance. The pure WS2NSs-based gas sensors showed a low response and an incomplete recovery in the case of NH3sensing. After the functionalization of CuO nanoparticles, the WS2/CuO heterostructure-based gas sensor exhibits an improved response value of 40.5% to 5  ppm NH3and full recoverability without any external assistance. Density functional theory calculations illustrate that the adsorption of CuO for NH3is much superior to WS2. The p-p heterojunctions strategy demonstrated in this work has great potential in the design of sensitive materials for gas sensors, and provides useful guidance for enhancing the room-temperature sensitivity and recoverability.

8.
Adv Mater ; 33(29): e2008115, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085736

RESUMO

Lead chalcogenide colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs) have received considerable attention due to their broad and tunable absorption and high stability. Presently, lead chalcogenide CQDSC has achieved a power conversion efficiency of ≈14%. However, the state-of-the-art lead chalcogenide CQDSC still has an open-circuit voltage (Voc ) loss of ≈0.45 V, which is significantly higher than those of c-Si and perovskite solar cells. Such high Voc loss severely limits the performance improvement and commercialization of lead chalcogenide CQDSCs. In this review, the Voc loss is first analyzed via detailed balance theory and the origin of Voc loss from both solar absorber and interface is summarized. Subsequently, various strategies for improving the Voc from the solar absorber, including the passivation strategies during the synthesis and ligand exchange are overviewed. The great impact of the ligand exchange process on CQD passivation is highlighted and the corresponding strategies to further reduce the Voc loss are summarized. Finally, various strategies are discussed to reduce interface Voc loss from charge transport layers. More importantly, the great potential of achieving performance breakthroughs via various organic hole transport layers is highlighted and the existing challenges toward commercialization are discussed.

9.
Opt Express ; 29(12): 17890-17901, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154061

RESUMO

The physical layer security of radio-over-fiber (RoF) system is a very important problem for future communication. In this paper, a novel probabilistic shaping (PS) based constellation encryption scheme is proposed in which two bit-level encryption operations are firstly performed according to chaotic sequences and hash values. The chaotic sequences are generated by hyperchaotic system and hash values are obtained by SHA-512. Then PS is applied to enhance transmission performance. After PS-16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), constellation encryption is implemented aiming at maintaining overall shaping distribution unchanged and improving security. An encrypted PS-16-QAM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal is successfully transmitted over 50 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and 5 m wireless channel in our experiment. The results demonstrate that the key space of 10121 is achieved to defend malicious attacks. Moreover, the proposed PS-based encryption scheme can obtain approximately 2.4 dB gain at a BER of 10-3 compared with traditional OFDM signal. Thus, the proposed scheme has a good application prospect in the future OFDM-RoF system due to the dominant BER and security performance.

10.
mBio ; 12(3)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975944

RESUMO

Trichoderma reesei has 11 putative ß-glucosidases in its genome, playing key parts in the induction and production of cellulase. Nevertheless, the reason why the T. reesei genome encodes so many ß-glucosidases and the distinct role each ß-glucosidase plays in cellulase production remain unknown. In the present study, the cellular function and distribution of 10 known ß-glucosidases (CEL3B, CEL3E, CEL3F, CEL3H, CEL3J, CEL1A, CEL3C, CEL1B, CEL3G, and CEL3D) were explored in T. reesei, leaving out BGL1 (CEL3A), which has been well investigated. We found that the overexpression of cel3b or cel3g significantly enhanced extracellular ß-glucosidase production, whereas the overexpression of cel1b severely inhibited cellulase production by cellulose, resulting in nearly no growth of T. reesei Four types of cellular distribution patterns were observed for ß-glucosidases in T. reesei: (i) CEL3B, CEL3E, CEL3F, and CEL3G forming clearly separated protein secretion vesicles in the cytoplasm; (ii) CEL3H and CEL3J diffusing the whole endomembrane as well as the cell membrane with protein aggregation, like a reticular network; (iii) CEL1A and CEL3D in vacuoles; (iv) and CEL3C in the nucleus. ß-glucosidases CEL1A, CEL3B, CEL3E, CEL3F, CEL3G, CEL3H, and CEL3J were identified as extracellular, CEL3C and CEL3D as intracellular, and CEL1B as unknown. The extracellular ß-glucosidases CEL3B, CEL3E, CEL3F, CEL3H, and CEL3G were secreted through a tip-directed conventional secretion pathway, and CEL1A, via a vacuole-mediated pathway that was achieved without any signal peptide, while CEL3J was secreted via an unconventional protein pathway bypassing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi.IMPORTANCE Although ß-glucosidases play an important role in fungal cellulase induction and production, our current understanding does not provide a global perspective on ß-glucosidase function. This work comprehensively studies all the ß-glucosidases regarding their effect on cellulase production and their cellular distribution and secretion. Overexpression of cel3b or cel3g significantly enhanced ß-glucosidase production, whereas overexpression of cel1b severely inhibited cellulase production on cellulose. In addition, overexpression of cel3b, cel3e, cel3f, cel3h, cel3j, cel3c, or cel3g delayed endoglucanase (EG) production. We first identified four cellular distribution patterns of ß-glucosidases in Trichoderma reesei Specially, CEL3C was located in the nucleus. CEL3J was secreted through the nonclassical protein secretion pathway bypassing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. CEL1A was secreted via a vacuole-mediated conventional secretion route without a signal peptide. These findings advance our understanding of ß-glucosidase properties and secretory pathways in filamentous fungi, holding key clues for future study.

11.
Brain Behav ; 11(6): e02168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease (WD) is one of the few hereditary diseases that can be successfully treated with medicines. We conduct this survey research to assess treatment persistence among patients with WD and try to identify what factors affect the treatment persistence. METHODS: We employed WeChat which is the most popular social software in China to carry out this anonymous questionnaire research. The questionnaire included medication adherence scale. We also collected available medical records related to demographic and clinical characteristics. All the patients were divided into group of persistence with drug treatment (PDT) and nonpersistence with drug treatment (n-PDT). RESULTS: We collected 242 qualified questionnaires. Only 66.5% of patients were PDT during the mean 12.6 years of follow-up. In PDT group, better outcomes were observed: improvement (78.3%) and no change (16.1%) versus those in n-PDT (55.6%; and 28.4%, respectively). In PDT group, only nine patients deteriorated (6.8%) in comparison with 13 patients in n-PDT (16.0%). The adverse events (AEs) in PDT group were significantly less than those in n-PDT group. There were no significant differences in clinical type, gender, age, education level, and family knowledge about WD between the two groups. There were significant differences in AEs and family position toward treatment. CONCLUSION: Medication Adherence of Chinese WD patients was low. One third of the patients (33.5%) were unable to PDT, and it had an important negative effect on clinical outcome. AEs and family support had an important impact on treatment persistence.


Assuntos
Degeneração Hepatolenticular , China , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
12.
Metab Eng ; 66: 87-97, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865981

RESUMO

The Chinese medicinal plant Panax notoginseng has been traditionally used to activate blood flow and circulation, and to prevent blood stasis. P. notoginseng contains protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins as its main active compounds, thus distinguishing it from the other two famous Panax species, P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), notoginsenoside R1 (NgR1), and notoginsenoside R2 (NgR2) are three major PPT-type saponins in P. notoginseng and possess potential cardiovascular protection activities. However, their use in medical applications has long been hampered by the lack of sustainable and low-cost industrial-scale preparation methods. In this study, a PPT-producing yeast chassis strain was designed and constructed based on a previously constructed and optimized protopanaxadiol (PPD)-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, and further optimized by systemically engineering and optimizing the expression level of its key P450 biopart. Rg1-producing yeast strains were constructed by introducing PgUGT71A53 and PgUGT71A54 into the PPT chassis strain. The fermentation titer of Rg1 reached 1.95 g/L. A group of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT) from P. notoginseng and P. ginseng were characterized, and were found to generate NgR1 and NgR2 by catalyzing the C6-O-Glc xylosylation of Rg1 and Rh1, respectively. Using one of these UGTs, PgUGT94Q13, and the previously identified PgUGT71A53 and PgUGT71A54, the biosynthetic pathway to produce saponins NgR1 and NgR2 from PPT could be available. The NgR1 cell factory was further developed by introducing PgUGT94Q13 and a heterologous UDP-xylose biosynthetic pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana into the highest Rg1-producing cell factory. The NgR2-producing cell factory was constructed by introducing PgUGT71A54, PgUGT94Q13, and the UDP-xylose biosynthetic pathway into the PPT chassis. De novo production of NgR1 and NgR2 reached 1.62 g/L and 1.25 g/L, respectively. Beyond the realization of artificial production of the three valuable saponins Rg1, NgR1, and NgR2 from glucose, our work provides a green and sustainable platform for the efficient production of other PPT-type saponins in engineered yeast strains, and promotes the industrial application of PPT-type saponins as medicine and functional foods.

13.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 6(2): 69-76, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869813

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Compound K (CK) has been recognized as a major functional component that is absorbed into the systemic circulation after oral administration of ginseng. CK demonstrates diverse bioactivities. A phase I clinical study indicated that CK was a potential candidate for arthritis therapy. However, a phase II clinical study was suspended because of the high cost associated with the present CK manufacturing approach, which is based on the traditional planting-extracting-biotransforming process. We previously elucidated the complete CK biosynthetic pathway and realized for the first time de novo biosynthesis of CK from glucose by engineered yeast. However, CK production was not sufficient for industrial application. Here, we systematically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve high titer production of CK from glucose using a previously constructed protopanaxadiol (PPD)-producing chassis, optimizing UGTPg1 expression, improving UDP-glucose biosynthesis, and tuning down UDP-glucose consumption. Our final engineered yeast strain produced CK with a titer of 5.74 g/L in fed-batch fermentation, which represents the highest CK production in microbes reported to date. Once scaled-up, this high titer de novo microbial biosynthesis platform will enable a robust and stable supply of CK, thus facilitating study and medical application of CK.

14.
Nanoscale ; 13(16): 7862, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881118

RESUMO

Retraction of 'Size-selected silver nanoparticles for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of amyloid-beta peptides' by Feng Ding et al., Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 22044-22054, DOI: 10.1039/C8NR07921H.

15.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 75, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929622

RESUMO

To achieve better antitumour efficacy, it is urgent to improve anticancer drug delivery efficiency in targeting cancer cells. In this work, chitosan-functionalized graphene oxide (ChrGO) nanosheets were fabricated via microwave-assisted reduction, which were employed to the intracellular delivery nanosystem for anticancer drug agent in breast cancer cells. Drug loading and release research indicated that adriamycin can be efficiently loaded on and released from the ChrGO nanosheets. Less drug release during delivery and better biocompatibility of ChrGO/adriamycin significantly improve its safety and therapeutic efficacy in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 cells. Furthermore, ChrGO/adriamycin in combination with trastuzumab exhibited synergistic antitumour activity in BT-474 cells, which demonstrated superior therapeutic efficacy compared with each drug alone. Cells treated with trastuzumab (5 µg/mL) or equivalent ChrGO/adriamycin (5 µg/mL) each elicited 54.5% and 59.5% cell death, respectively, while the combination treatment with trastuzumab and ChrGO/adriamycin resulted in a dramatic 88.5% cell death. The dual-targeted therapy displayed higher apoptosis, indicating superior therapeutic efficacy due to the presence of different mechanisms of action. The combined treatment of ChrGO/adriamycin and trastuzumab in BT-474 cells induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which ultimately led to the death of augmented cancer cells. This work has provided a facile microwave-assisted fabrication of ChrGO as a controlled and targeted intracellular drug delivery nanosystem, which is expected to be a novel promising therapy for treating HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861713

RESUMO

Learning with feature evolution studies the scenario where the features of the data streams can evolve, i.e., old features vanish and new features emerge. Its goal is to keep the model always performing well even when the features happen to evolve. To tackle this problem, canonical methods assume that the old features will vanish simultaneously and the new features themselves will emerge simultaneously as well. They also assume that there is an overlapping period where old and new features both exist when the feature space starts to change. However, in reality, the feature evolution could be unpredictable, which means that the features can vanish or emerge arbitrarily, causing the overlapping period incomplete. In this article, we propose a novel paradigm: prediction with unpredictable feature evolution (PUFE) where the feature evolution is unpredictable. To address this problem, we fill the incomplete overlapping period and formulate it as a new matrix completion problem. We give a theoretical bound on the least number of observed entries to make the overlapping period intact. With this intact overlapping period, we leverage an ensemble method to take the advantage of both the old and new feature spaces without manually deciding which base models should be incorporated. Theoretical and experimental results validate that our method can always follow the best base models and, thus, realize the goal of learning with feature evolution.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 625074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776766

RESUMO

Often associated with sexual dysfunction (SD), chronic stress is the main contributing risk factor for the pathogenesis of depression. Radix bupleuri had been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation for the regulation of emotion and sexual activity. As the main active component of Radix bupleuri, saikosaponin D (SSD) has a demonstrated antidepressant effect in preclinical studies. Herein, we sought to investigate the effect of SSD to restore sexual functions in chronically stressed mice and elucidate the potential brain mechanisms that might underly these effects. SSD was gavage administered for three weeks during the induction of chronic mild stress (CMS), and its effects on emotional and sexual behaviors in CMS mice were observed. The medial posterodorsal amygdala (MePD) was speculated to be involved in the manifestation of sexual dysfunctions in CMS mice. Our results revealed that SSD not only alleviated CMS-induced depressive-like behaviors but also rescued CMS-induced low sexual motivation and poor sexual performance. CMS destroyed astrocytes and activated microglia in the MePD. SSD treatment reversed the changes in glial pathology and inhibited neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress in the MePD of CMS mice. The neuronal morphological and functional deficits in the MePD were also alleviated by SSD administration. Our results provide insights into the central mechanisms involving the brain associated with sexual dysfunction. These findings deepen our understanding of SSD in light of the psychopharmacology of stress and sexual disorders, providing a theoretical basis for its potential clinical application.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(12): 14132-14140, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724770

RESUMO

As a passive cooling strategy, radiative cooling is becoming an appealing approach to dissipate heat from terrestrial emitters to the outer space. However, the currently achieved cooling performance is still underperforming due to considerable solar radiation absorbed by the emitter and nonradiative heat transferred from the surroundings. Here, we proposed a mechanically robust and spectrally selective convection shield composed of nanoporous composite fabric (NCF) to achieve daytime subambient radiative cooling. By selectively reflecting ∼95% solar radiation, transmitting ∼84% thermal radiation, and suppressing the nonradiative heat transferred from warmer surroundings, the NCF-based radiative cooler demonstrated an average daytime temperature reduction of ∼4.9 °C below the ambient temperature, resulting in an average net radiative cooling power of ∼48 W/m2 over a 24 h measurement. In addition, we also modeled the potential cooling capacity of the NCF-based radiative cooler and demonstrated that it can cover the cooling demands of energy-efficient residential buildings in most regions of China. Excellent spectral selectivity, mechanical strength, and weatherability of the NCF cover enable a much broader selection for the emitters, which is promising in the real-world deployment of direct daytime subambient radiative cooling.

19.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 77, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge with respect to regulatory systems for cellulase production is prerequisite for exploitation of such regulatory networks to increase cellulase production, improve fermentation efficiency and reduce the relevant production cost. The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway is considered as a central signaling hub coordinating eukaryotic cell growth and metabolism with environmental inputs. However, how and to what extent the TOR signaling pathway and rapamycin are involved in cellulase production remain elusive. RESULT: At the early fermentation stage, high-dose rapamycin (100 µM) caused a temporary inhibition effect on cellulase production, cell growth and sporulation of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 independently of the carbon sources, and specifically caused a tentative morphology defect in RUT-C30 grown on cellulose. On the contrary, the lipid content of T. reesei RUT-C30 was not affected by rapamycin. Accordingly, the transcriptional levels of genes involved in the cellulase production were downregulated notably with the addition of rapamycin. Although the mRNA levels of the putative rapamycin receptor trFKBP12 was upregulated significantly by rapamycin, gene trTOR (the downstream effector of the rapamycin-FKBP12 complex) and genes associated with the TOR signaling pathways were not changed markedly. With the deletion of gene trFKBP12, there is no impact of rapamycin on cellulase production, indicating that trFKBP12 mediates the observed temporary inhibition effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSION: Our study shows for the first time that only high-concentration rapamycin induced a transient impact on T. reesei RUT-C30 at its early cultivation stage, demonstrating T. reesei RUT-C30 is highly resistant to rapamycin, probably due to that trTOR and its related signaling pathways were not that sensitive to rapamycin. This temporary influence of rapamycin was facilitated by gene trFKBP12. These findings add to our knowledge on the roles of rapamycin and the TOR signaling pathways play in T. reesei.

20.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(2): e310, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly a half million people around the world are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year, and an incomplete understanding of its pathogenicity and lack of efficient biomarkers having been discovered lead to poor clinical management of bladder cancer. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is a critical player in carcinogenesis. We, here, explored the role of FTO and unraveled the mechanism of its function in bladder cancer. METHODS: Identification of the correlation of FTO with bladder cancer was based on both bioinformatics and clinical analysis of tissue samples collected from a cohort of patients at a hospital and microarray data. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays were conducted in vivo and in vitro to assess the effect of FTO on bladder carcinoma tumor growth and its impact on the bladder carcinoma cell viability. Moreover, the interactions of intermediate products were also investigated to elucidate the mechanisms of FTO function. RESULTS: Bladder tumor tissues had increased FTO expression which correlated with clinical bladder cancer prognosis and outcomes. Both in vivo and in vitro, it played the function of an oncogene in stimulating the cell viability and tumorigenicity of bladder cancer. Furthermore, FTO catalyzed metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) demethylation, regulated microRNA miR-384 and mal T cell differentiation protein 2 (MAL2) expression, and modulated the interactions among these processes. CONCLUSIONS: The interplay of these four clinically relevant factors contributes to the oncogenesis of bladder cancer. FTO facilitates the tumorigenesis of bladder cancer through regulating the MALAT/miR-384/MAL2 axis in m6A RNA modification manner, which ensures the potential of FTO for serving as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker in bladder cancer.

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