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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206522

RESUMO

Nanotheranostics based on tumor-selective small molecular prodrugs could be more advantageous in clinical translation for cancer treatment, given its defined chemical structure, high drug loading efficiency, controlled drug release, and reduced side effects. To this end, we have designed and synthesized a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activatable heterodimeric prodrug, namely, HRC, and nanoformulated it for tumor-selective imaging and synergistic chemo- and photodynamic therapy. The prodrug consists of the chemodrug camptothecin (CPT), the photosensitizer 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH), and a thioketal linker. Compared to CPT- or HPPH-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), HRC-loaded NPs possess higher drug loading capacity, better colloidal stability, and less premature drug leakage. Interestingly, HRC NPs were almost nonfluorescent due to the strong π-π stacking and could be effectively activated by endogenous ROS once entering cells. Thanks to the higher ROS levels in cancer cells than normal cells, HRC NPs could selectively light up the cancer cells and exhibit much more potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Moreover, HRC NPs demonstrated highly effective tumor accumulation and synergistic tumor inhibition with reduced side effects on mice.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 404(Pt A): 124108, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032090

RESUMO

Ag-modified vanadium silicate (EVS-Ag) has been regarded as a superior sorbent for elemental mercury (Hg0) capture from coal-fired flue gas. However, the atomic-level reaction mechanism which determines Hg0 adsorption capacity of EVS-Ag sorbent remains elusive. Reaction mechanism and active sites of Hg0 adsorption over EVS-Ag sorbent were studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations systematically. DFT calculation results indicate that silver exchange shows little effects on the geometric structure of EVS-10 sorbent. Hg0 adsorption on EVS-10 and EVS-Ag surfaces is controlled by the physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms, respectively. Ag2 cluster is determined to be the most active site of Hg0 adsorption over Ag-modified EVS sorbent. The adsorption energy of Hg0 on Ag2 cluster is -51.93 kJ/mol. The orbital hybridization and electron sharing between Ag and Hg atoms are responsible for the strong interaction between EVS-Ag surface and Hg0. HgO prefers to adsorb on Ag2 cluster of EVS-Ag sorbent, and yields an energy release of 306.21 kJ/mol. HgO desorption from EVS-Ag sorbent surface needs a higher external energy, and occurs at the relatively higher temperatures. O2 molecule promotes Hg0 adsorption over EVS-Ag sorbent. HgO species can be easily formed during Hg0 adsorption over EVS-Ag sorbent in the presence of O2.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4909, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999291

RESUMO

Effectively activating macrophages against cancer is promising but challenging. In particular, cancer cells express CD47, a 'don't eat me' signal that interacts with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages to prevent phagocytosis. Also, cancer cells secrete stimulating factors, which polarize tumor-associated macrophages from an antitumor M1 phenotype to a tumorigenic M2 phenotype. Here, we report that hybrid cell membrane nanovesicles (known as hNVs) displaying SIRPα variants with significantly increased affinity to CD47 and containing M2-to-M1 repolarization signals can disable both mechanisms. The hNVs block CD47-SIRPα signaling axis while promoting M2-to-M1 repolarization within tumor microenvironment, significantly preventing both local recurrence and distant metastasis in malignant melanoma models. Furthermore, by loading a stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, hNVs lead to potent tumor inhibition in a poorly immunogenic triple negative breast cancer model. hNVs are safe, stable, drug loadable, and suitable for genetic editing. These properties, combined with the capabilities inherited from source cells, make hNVs an attractive immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Animais , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/secundário , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4951, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009382

RESUMO

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) and tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes are severely weakened by elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tumour microenvironment. It is therefore of critical importance to modulate the level of extracellular ROS for the reversal of immunosuppressive environment. Here, we present a tumour extracellular matrix (ECM) targeting ROS nanoscavenger masked by pH sensitive covalently crosslinked polyethylene glycol. The nanoscavenger anchors on the ECM to sweep away the ROS from tumour microenvironment to relieve the immunosuppressive ICD elicited by specific chemotherapy and prolong the survival of T cells for personalized cancer immunotherapy. In a breast cancer model, elimination of the ROS in tumour microenvironment elicited antitumour immunity and increased infiltration of T lymphocytes, resulting in highly potent antitumour effect. The study highlights a strategy to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy by scavenging extracellular ROS using advanced nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Morte Celular Imunogênica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Morte Celular Imunogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5421, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110072

RESUMO

The clinical applications of magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) have been largely hindered by the poor magnetic-to-thermal conversion efficiency of MHT agents. Herein, we develop a facile and efficient strategy for engineering encapsulin-produced magnetic iron oxide nanocomposites (eMIONs) via a green biomineralization procedure. We demonstrate that eMIONs have excellent magnetic saturation and remnant magnetization properties, featuring superior magnetic-to-thermal conversion efficiency with an ultrahigh specific absorption rate of 2390 W/g to overcome the critical issues of MHT. We also show that eMIONs act as a nanozyme and have enhanced catalase-like activity in the presence of an alternative magnetic field, leading to tumor angiogenesis inhibition with a corresponding sharp decrease in the expression of HIF-1α. The inherent excellent magnetic-heat capability, coupled with catalysis-triggered tumor suppression, allows eMIONs to provide an MRI-guided magneto-catalytic combination therapy, which may open up a new avenue for bench-to-bed translational research of MHT.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Hipertermia Induzida , Nanocompostos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Catálise , Compostos Férricos/química , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/instrumentação , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Magnetismo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Myxococcus xanthus/genética , Myxococcus xanthus/metabolismo , Nanocompostos/química , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
6.
Radiother Oncol ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain metastases are manually contoured during stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning, which is time-consuming, potentially challenging, and laborious. The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate a 2-stage deep learning (DL) approach (MetNet) for brain metastasis segmentation in pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed postcontrast 3D T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo MRIs from 934 patients who underwent SRS between August 2009 and August 2018. Neuroradiologists manually identified brain metastases in the MRIs. The treating radiation oncologist or physicist contoured the brain metastases. We constructed a 2-stage DL ensemble consisting of detection and segmentation models to segment the brain metastases on the MRIs. We evaluated the performance of MetNet by computing sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) with respect to metastasis size, as well as free-response receiver operating characteristics. RESULTS: The 934 patients (mean [±standard deviation] age 59 ± 13 years, 474 women) were randomly split into 80% training and 20% testing groups (748:186). For patients with metastases 1-52 mm (n = 766), 648 (85%) were detected and segmented with a mean segmentation DSC of 81% ± 15%. Patient-averaged sensitivity was 88% ± 19%, PPV was 58% ± 25%, and DSC was 85% ± 13% with 3 ± 3 false positives (FPs) per patient. When considering only metastases ≥6 mm, patient-averaged sensitivity was 99% ± 5%, PPV was 67% ± 28%, and DSC was 87% ± 13% with 1 ± 2 FPs per patient. CONCLUSION: MetNet can segment brain metastases across a broad range of metastasis sizes with high sensitivity, low FPs, and high segmentation accuracy in postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, potentially aiding treatment planning for SRS.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(36): 15320-15330, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820914

RESUMO

Current chemodynamic therapy (CDT) primarily relies on the delivery of transition metal ions with Fenton activity to trigger hydroxyl radical production from hydrogen peroxide. However, administration of an excess amount of exogenous Fenton-type heavy metals may cause potential adverse effects to human health, including acute and chronic damages. Here, we present a new CDT strategy that uses intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) as the endogenous source of Fenton-reactive metals for eliciting free radical generation, and the discovery of hydroperoxides (R'OOH) as an optimal LIP-mediated chemodynamic agent against cancer. By simulating the metabolic fates of peroxo compounds within cells, R'OOH was found to have excellent free radical-producing ability in the presence of labile iron(II) and to suffer only moderate elimination by glutathione/glutathione peroxidase, which contributes to its superior chemodynamic efficacy. The LIP-initiated nontoxic-to-toxic transition of R'OOH, together with increased LIP levels in tumor cells, enabled efficient and specific CDT of cancer. Moreover, pH/labile iron(II) cascade-responsive nanomedicines comprising encapsulated methyl linoleate hydroperoxide and LIP-increasing agent in pH-sensitive polymer particles were fabricated to realize enhanced CDT. This work not only paves the way to using endogenous Fenton-type metals for cancer therapy but also offers a paradigm for the exploration of high-performance chemodynamic agents activated by intracellular LIP.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(65): 9336-9339, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671356

RESUMO

Here we report on chelating ligands for Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) catalysts that permit hyperpolarisation on otherwise sterically hindered substrates. We demonstrate 1H enhancements of ∼100-fold over 8.5 T thermal for 2-substituted pyridines, and smaller, yet significant enhancements for provitamin B6 and caffeine. We also show 15N-enhancements of ∼1000-fold and 19F-enhancements of 30-fold.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656801

RESUMO

Improving tumor accumulation and delivery efficiency is an important goal of nanomedicine. Neutrophils play a vital role in both chemically mediating inflammatory response through myeloperoxidase (MPO) and biologically promoting metastasis during inflammation triggered by the primary tumor or environmental stimuli. Herein, a novel theranostic nanomedicine that targets both the chemical and biological functions of neutrophils in tumor is designed, facilitating the enhanced retention and sustained release of drug cargos for improved cancer theranostics. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is equipped onto nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with photosensitizers and Zileuton (a leukotriene inhibitor) to obtain MPO and neutrophil targeting NPs, denoted as HZ-5 NPs. The MPO targeting property of 5-HT modified NPs is confirmed by noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging studies. Furthermore, photodynamic therapy is used to initiate the inflammatory response which further mediated the accumulation and retention of neutrophil targeting NPs in a breast cancer model. This design renders a greatly improved theranostic nanomedicine for efficient tumor suppression, and more importantly, inhibition of neutrophil-mediated lung metastasis via the sustained release of Zileuton. This work presents a novel strategy of targeting neutrophils for improved tumor theranostics, which may open up new avenues in designing nanomedicine through exploiting the tumor microenvironment.

10.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526453

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in cell signaling and tissue homeostasis, in which the level of ROS is critical through the equilibrium between ROS generating and eliminating events. A disruption of the balance leads to disease development either by a surplus or a dearth of ROS, which requires ROS-modulating strategies to overturn the defect for disease treatment. Over the past decade, there have been tremendous advances in nanomedicine centering ROS generation and/or elimination as major mechanisms to treat a variety of diseases. In this review, we will discuss the research achievements on two opposite approaches of ROS-generating and ROS-eliminating strategies for treating cancer and other related diseases. Importantly, we will highlight the conceptual and strategic advances of ROS-mediated immunomodulation, including macrophage polarization, immunogenic cell death and T cell activation, which are currently rising as one of the mainstreams of cancer therapy. At the end, the future challenges and opportunities of mediating ROS-based mechanisms are envisioned. In light of the pleiotropic roles of ROS in different diseases, we hope this review is timely to deliver a clear logic of designing principles on ROS generation and elimination for different disease treatments.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3032, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541769

RESUMO

Tumor heterogeneity is one major reason for unpredictable therapeutic outcomes, while stratifying therapeutic responses at an early time may greatly benefit the better control of cancer. Here, we developed a hybrid nanovesicle to stratify radiotherapy response by activatable inflammation magnetic resonance imaging (aiMRI) approach. The high Pearson's correlation coefficient R values are obtained from the correlations between the T1 relaxation time changes at 24-48 h and the ensuing adaptive immunity (R = 0.9831) at day 5 and the tumor inhibition ratios (R = 0.9308) at day 18 after different treatments, respectively. These results underscore the role of acute inflammatory oxidative response in bridging the innate and adaptive immunity in tumor radiotherapy. Furthermore, the aiMRI approach provides a non-invasive imaging strategy for early prediction of the therapeutic outcomes in cancer radiotherapy, which may contribute to the future of precision medicine in terms of prognostic stratification and therapeutic planning.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia
12.
Neurosci Bull ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500377

RESUMO

Expansions of trinucleotide or hexanucleotide repeats lead to several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease [caused by expanded CAG repeats (CAGr) in the HTT gene], and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS, possibly caused by expanded GGGGCC repeats (G4C2r) in the C9ORF72 gene], of which the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that lowering the Drosophila homologue of tau protein (dtau) significantly rescued in vivo neurodegeneration, motor performance impairments, and the shortened life-span in Drosophila expressing expanded CAGr or expanded G4C2r. Expression of human tau (htau4R) restored the disease-related phenotypes that had been mitigated by the loss of dtau, suggesting an evolutionarily-conserved role of tau in neurodegeneration. We further revealed that G4C2r expression increased tau accumulation by inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion, possibly due to lowering the level of BAG3, a regulator of autophagy and tau. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which expanded G4C2r causes neurodegeneration via an evolutionarily-conserved mechanism. Our findings provide novel autophagy-related mechanistic insights into C9ORF72-ALS and possible entry points to disease treatment.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531477

RESUMO

Fusarium ear rot (FER) caused by Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most common diseases affecting maize production worldwide. FER results in severe yield losses and grain contamination with health-threatening mycotoxins. Although most studies to date have focused on comprehensive analysis of gene regulation in maize during defense responses against F. verticillioides infection, less is known about the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process. We used deepsequencing to compare small RNA libraries from the maize kernels of susceptible (N6) or resistant (BT-1) inbred lines from uninfected plants and upon F. verticillioides infection. We found that pathogen exposure was accompanied by dynamic alterations in expression levels of multiple miRNAs, including new members of previously annotated miRNA families. A combination of transcriptomic, degradomic, and bioinformatics analyses revealed that F. verticillioides-responsive miRNAs and their potential target genes displayed opposite expression patterns in the susceptible and resistant genotypes. Functional category analysis uncovered preferential enrichment of the pathogen-responsive miRNAs and their targets in the phenylpropanoid metabolic processes, plant-pathogen interactions, and plant phytohormone signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, transgenic maize plants overexpressing miR408b exhibited reduced resistance to F. verticillioides infection in a susceptible maize line. These findings provide new insights into the regulatory roles of miRNAs in maize immunity against FER and new resources for breeding disease resistance into maize.

14.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 104, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513173

RESUMO

Since the breakthrough discoveries of DNA and histone modifications, the field of RNA modifications has gained increasing interest in the scientific community. The discovery of N6-methyladenosine (m6A), a predominantly internal epigenetic modification in eukaryotes mRNA, heralded the creation of the field of epi-transcriptomics. This post-transcriptional RNA modification is dynamic and reversible, and is regulated by methylases, demethylases and proteins that preferentially recognize m6A modifications. Altered m6A levels affect RNA processing, degradation and translation, thereby disrupting gene expression and key cellular processes, ultimately resulting in tumor initiation and progression. Furthermore, inhibitors and regulators of m6A-related factors have been explored as therapeutic approaches for treating cancer. In the present review, the mechanisms of m6A RNA modification, the clinicopathological relevance of m6A alterations, the type and frequency of alterations and the multiple functions it regulates in different types of cancer are discussed.

15.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 357, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium ear rot (FER) caused by Fusarium verticillioides is a major disease of maize that reduces grain yield and quality globally. However, there have been few reports of major loci for FER were verified and cloned. RESULT: To gain a comprehensive understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation in FER resistance, a recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population and one panel of inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance. As a result, a total of 10 QTL were identified by linkage mapping under four environments, which were located on six chromosomes and explained 1.0-7.1% of the phenotypic variation. Epistatic mapping detected four pairs of QTL that showed significant epistasis effects, explaining 2.1-3.0% of the phenotypic variation. Additionally, 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified across the whole genome by genome-wide association study (GWAS) under five environments. Compared linkage and association mapping revealed five common intervals located on chromosomes 3, 4, and 5 associated with FER resistance, four of which were verified in different near-isogenic lines (NILs) populations. GWAS identified three candidate genes in these consistent intervals, which belonged to the Glutaredoxin protein family, actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs), and AMP-binding proteins. In addition, two verified FER QTL regions were found consistent with Fusarium cob rot (FCR) and Fusarium seed rot (FSR). CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that multi pathways were involved in FER resistance, which was a complex trait that was controlled by multiple genes with minor effects, and provided important QTL and genes, which could be used in molecular breeding for resistance.

16.
Radiology ; 295(2): 407-415, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181729

RESUMO

Background Brain metastases are manually identified during stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning, which is time consuming and potentially challenging. Purpose To develop and investigate deep learning (DL) methods for detecting brain metastasis with MRI to aid in treatment planning for SRS. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, contrast material-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient-echo MRI scans from patients who underwent gamma knife SRS from January 2011 to August 2018 were analyzed. Brain metastases were manually identified and contoured by neuroradiologists and treating radiation oncologists. DL single-shot detector (SSD) algorithms were constructed and trained to map axial MRI slices to a set of bounding box predictions encompassing metastases and associated detection confidences. Performances of different DL SSDs were compared for per-lesion metastasis-based detection sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) at a 50% confidence threshold. For the highest-performing model, detection performance was analyzed by using free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Two hundred sixty-six patients (mean age, 60 years ± 14 [standard deviation]; 148 women) were randomly split into 80% training and 20% testing groups (212 and 54 patients, respectively). For the testing group, sensitivity of the highest-performing (baseline) SSD was 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%, 82%; 190 of 234) and PPV was 36% (95% CI: 35%, 37%; 190 of 530). For metastases measuring at least 6 mm, sensitivity was 98% (95% CI: 97%, 99%; 130 of 132) and PPV was 36% (95% CI: 35%, 37%; 130 of 366). Other models (SSD with a ResNet50 backbone, SSD with focal loss, and RetinaNet) yielded lower sensitivities of 73% (95% CI: 72%, 74%; 171 of 234), 77% (95% CI: 76%, 78%; 180 of 234), and 79% (95% CI: 77%, 81%; 184 of 234), respectively, and lower PPVs of 29% (95% CI: 28%, 30%; 171 of 581), 26% (95% CI: 26%, 26%; 180 of 681), and 13% (95% CI: 12%, 14%; 184 of 1412). Conclusion Deep-learning single-shot detector models detected nearly all brain metastases that were 6 mm or larger with limited false-positive findings using postcontrast T1-weighted MRI. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Kikinis and Wells in this issue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Biomaterials ; 244: 119979, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200104

RESUMO

The effort of incorporating therapeutic drugs with imaging agents has been one of the mainstreams of nanomedicine, which holds great promise in cancer treatment in terms of monitoring therapeutic drug activity and evaluating prognostic index. However, it is still technically challenging to develop nanomedicine endowing a spatiotemporally controllable mechanism of drug release and activatable imaging capability. Here, we developed a yolk-shell type of GSH-responsive nanovesicles (NVs) in which therapeutic drug (Doxorubicin, DOX) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, USPIO NPs) formed complexes (denoted as USD) and were encapsulated inside the NVs. The formation of USD complexes is mediated by both the electrostatic adsorption between DOX and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymers and the DOX-iron coordination effect on USPIO NPs. The obtained USD NVs showed a unique yolk-shell structure with restrained drug activity and quenched T1 MRI contrast ability which, on the other hand, can respond to glutathione (GSH) and lead to drug release and T1 contrast activation in a spatiotemporally concurrent manner. Furthermore, the USD NVs exhibited great potential to kill HCT116 cancer cells in vitro and effectively inhibit the tumor growth in vivo. This study may shed light on the design of sophisticated nanotheranostics in precision nanomedicine.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073871

RESUMO

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) elicited by photodynamic therapy (PDT) is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the half-life of ROS is very short and the intracellular diffusion depth is limited, which impairs ER localization and thus limits ER stress induction. To solve the problem, we synthesized reduction-sensitive Ds-sP NPs (PEG-s-s-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)-2000] nanoparticles) loaded with an efficient ER-targeting photosensitizer TCPP-TER (4,4',4″,4'″-(porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrakis(N-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)ethyl)benzamide). The resulting Ds-sP/TCPP-TER NPs could selectively accumulate in the ER and locally generate ROS under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, which induced ER stress, amplified ICD, and activated immune cells, leading to augmented immunotherapy effect. This study presents a novel ICD amplifying, ER-targeting PDT strategy that can effectively eradicate primary tumors under NIR exposure, as well as distant tumors through an abscopal effect.

19.
Biomaterials ; 235: 119783, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981762

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most malignant tumors with poor prognosis and outcomes. Although smaller particle size can lead to higher blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeability of the nanomaterials, most of the reported BBB-crossable nanomaterials for targeted GBM therapy are larger than 24 nm. To realize theranostics of GBM, co-loading of therapeutic and diagnostic agents on the same nanomaterials further results in larger particle size. In this study, we developed a kind of novel BBB-transportable nanomaterials smaller than 14 nm for high-efficiency theranostics of GBM (i.e., high contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiosensitization of GBM). Typically, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) stabilized extremely small gadolinium oxide nanoparticles with modification of reductive bovine serum albumin (ES-GON-rBSA) was synthesized in water phase, resulting in excellent water-dispersibility. RGD dimer (RGD2, Glu-{Cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-(D-Phe)-Lys]}2) and lactoferrin (LF) were then conjugated to the ES-GON-rBSA to obtain composite nanoparticle ES-GON-rBSA-LF-RGD2 with extraordinary relaxivities (r1 = 60.8 mM-1 s-1, r2/r1 = 1.1). The maximum signal enhancement (ΔSNR) for T1-weighted MRI of tumors reached up to 423 ± 42% at 12 h post-injection of ES-GON-rBSA-LF-RGD2, which is much higher than commercial Gd-chelates (<80%). ES-GON-rBSA-LF-RGD2 exhibited high biocompatibility and can transport across the in vitro BBB model and the in vivo BBB of mice due to its small particle size (dh = 13.4 nm) and LF receptor mediated transcytosis. Orthotopic GBM studies reinforce that ES-GON-rBSA3-LF-RGD2 can accumulate in the orthotopic GBM and enhance the radiation therapy of GBM as an effective radiosensitizing agent.

20.
Theranostics ; 10(3): 1296-1318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938066

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown great effectiveness in oncotherapy but has not been implemented in broad clinical applications because the limited penetration depth of the light used has been unable to reach deep-seated tumors. However, X-rays have been widely used in the clinical field for imaging and radiation therapy due to their excellent tissue penetration depth. Recently, X-rays have been established as an ideal excitation source for PDT, which holds great promise for breaking the depth limitation of traditional PDT for treatment of deep-seated tumors. This review aims to provide an overview of nanoscintillator-mediated X-ray induced PDT (X-PDT) including the concept, the design considerations of nanosensitizers for X-PDT, the modelling of nanosensitizer energy deposition, the putative mechanism by which X-PDT kills cells, and the prospects of future directions. We attempt to summarize the main developments that have occurred over the past decades. Possibilities and challenges for the clinical translation of X-PDT are also discussed.

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